TSL3103 WEEK 2

TUTORIAL

his grammar and his vocabulary.LISTENING • Listening is the ability to identify and understand what others are saying. . and grasping his meaning (Howatt and Dakin). An able listener is capable of doing these four things simultaneously. This involves understanding a speaker's accent or pronunciation.

• Listening is a receptive skill. • Mass communication.WHY TEACH LISTENING? • Students hear different accents and varieties. . • Listening helps students to acquire language subconsciously. • Education.

• Sometimes students feel frustrated because they find listening difficult… Why? .‘WHAT A DIFFICULT TASK…’ • Teaching listening skills is one of the most difficult tasks for any ESL teacher.

• Students are distracted. • Students get tired. • Students go back trying to understand what a previous word meant. • Students don’t recognize the words they know. • Students just don’t know the most important words.DIFFICULTIES • Students are trying to understand every word. • Students have problems with different accents. • Students have mental block. • Students cannot cope without images. • Students have hearing problems. .

TOP TIPS • PRE.LISTENING: • Tell your students “ DON’T WORRY” • Make sure students know what they are listening for before you start listening • Give questions to check students comprehension .

• Check for any words that your students may not know • Short listening • Stop the recording .

• Take notes ( dates. people) • Repeat the recording especially in the difficult parts . places.• WHILE LISTENING: • Try to play the recording once for overall comprehension and then for specific details.

• Make a list of any new vocabulary. • Encourage debates and answer questions. • Write a summary of the main points and then compare.• POST-LISTENING: • Compare their notes in small groups. .

news programs. .REMEMBER!!! • Try to use as many different sources of listening material as you can: advertisements. poetry. songs. informal dialogues. telephone conversations. lectures. speeches. extracts from plays.

PRINCIPLES FOR DESIGNING SPEAKING TECHNIQUES 1. 2. Provide intrinsically motivating techniques. 3. . Use techniques that cover the spectrum of learner needs. Encourage the use of authentic language in meaningful contexts. from language usage to language use. Provide appropriate feedback and correction. 4.

7. Integrate speaking and listening. Give students opportunities to initiate oral communication.PRINCIPLES FOR DESIGNING SPEAKING TECHNIQUES 5. 6. . Encourage the development of speaking strategies.

I mean. Using mime and nonverbal expressions to clarify meaning . etc) in order to gain time to process 4. Using conversation maintenance cues (right. 6. Asking for clarification 2. Asking someone to repeat something 3. Using fillers (well.SPEAKING STRATEGIES 1. okay. Using paraphrases for structures one can’t produce. yeah. etc) 5. hm.

using language.COMMUNICATIVE ACTIVITIES 1. The outcome is not 100% predictable. There is no restriction on the language used. Achieving the outcome requires the participants to interact. . 3. i. The motivation of the activity is to achieve some outcome. 4.e. to listen as well as speak. 2.

Readings 5. Questions and answers (dialogues) 2. Small-group discussions 7. Improvisations 3. Group projects 10. Plays 4.TECHNIQUES FOR TEACHING SPEAKING 1. Debates 9. Field trips . Games 8. Speeches 6.

Five Components of Reading Instruction • Phonological Awareness • Phonics • Fluency • Vocabulary • Comprehension .

words.e. phonemes) .conscious awareness that spoken language is made up of individual sounds (i.manipulating and identifying parts of spoken language (i.Phonological Awareness Training • Phonological awareness. onsets and rimes.e. syllables. and phonemes) • Phonemic awareness.

• Scaffold. • Use of phonological properties and dimensions of words to enhance performance. natural segments of language to the more implicit and complex. .Enhancing effectiveness • Focus first on auditory features of words • Move from explicit. blending and segmenting through explicit modeling. • Integrate letter-sound correspondence once learners are proficient with auditory tasks.