Infiltration And

Percolation
Reporters:
Petalio, Paul B.
Regala, Mark Gerald P.
Salonga, Jason R

10th International Conference on Concrete Block
Paving Shanghai, Peoples Republic of China,
November 24-26, 2012

Potential Application of ASTM C 1701 for
Evaluating Surface Infiltration of Permeable
Interlocking Concrete Pavements
David R. Smith
Kevin Earley
Justin M. Lia

This test method was initially developed to measure surface infiltration of PICP and concrete grid pavements in 2004. . Among those test methods is the single ring infiltrometer described in ASTM C 1701 Standard Test Method for Infiltration Rate of In Place Pervious Concrete. and approved and published by American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) in 2009 as a test method only for pervious concrete.Introduction Permeable interlocking concrete pavement (PICP) has seen increased use for stormwater management and low impact development (LID).This paper provides background on the development of test methods for measuring surface infiltration of permeable pavements. Surface infiltration is a key performance indicator for surface cleaning using vacuum equipment.

e.. Virginia. i. sediment on the surface.4 x 10-6 m/sec on PICP.Review and Assessment of Existing Study  In 2004. Values between 1. He moved to a single ring infiltrometer due to high surface infiltration rates of the permeable pavements tested and the volume of water required for maintaining hydraulic heads within the rings. He measured values between 1. . concrete grid and pervious concrete pavement sites in North Carolina. again with the lowest values due to clogging from fines. The lowest values were due to clogging from fines. ASTM D 3385 was tried by Bean (Bean 2007) while evaluating surface infiltration of PICP. Maryland.9 x 10-2 and 3 x 10-5 m/sec were measured on pervious concrete.1 x 10-2 m/sec and 4. and Delaware. Bean reports test results from 14 PICP sites using a single ring device sealed with plumber’s putty to the pavement surface.

). She is also investigating water volume and pollutant removal from these pavements. non-oil base modeling clay works better than plumber’s putty as the latter material becomes viscous. a doctoral student with the University of Guelph is conducting a series of surface infiltration tests on PICP and pervious concrete sites in Ontario. stringy. and difficult to handle. Her observations regarding both pavement types are that they require regular vacuum sweeping in order to maintain surface infiltration rates. Canada using ASTM C 1701 as well double ring test methods. She noted at an October 2011 presentation in Ontario (Drake 2011) that for hot weather (over 30° C. The modeling clay molds quickly and creates a seal between the ring and pavers . Jennifer Drake.

Issues and Concern  Permeability of Conventional Concrete  Flooding of Impervious Characteristics of Conventional Concrete  Rainwater is Suspended on Surface of Concrete Instead of Penetrating to Ground Surface Good Practices Related to the Topic  Innovation of Pervious Concrete Design Mix .

Possible Solutions  Application of Pervious Concrete as a Pavement Structure  Development of the Design of Permeable Concrete Recommended Solutions  Conduct More Studies on Pervious Concrete Objectives  To Know What is Pervious Concrete its Properties  To Know its Effectiveness as Permeable Material .

In ascending cost order they include: (1) visual inspection during or immediately after a rainstorm for ponding.. .Detailed Description There are several ways to assess infiltration of rainfall and runoff into permeable pavements. (2) measuring surface infiltration on sampled small areas. The PICP and pervious concrete pavement industries elected to use method (2) i. (3) generating synthetic rainfall and runoff for a distinct rain event which often involves a rain simulator. sampling and testing the surface infiltration rate of small areas across a larger pavement for acceptance testing of newly constructed pavements as well as for assessing in-service surface infiltration. The test method was proposed by the pervious concrete industry. This test method is formalized in ASTM C 1701. The selection of this testing approach is likely due to the speed and economy of conducting tests in this manner . and (4) continuous monitoring of rainfall and surface runoff usually over a period years.e.

no fines concrete and porous pavement) is a special type of concrete with a highporosity used for concrete flatwork applications that allows water from precipitationand other sources to pass directly through.  PICP .   Infiltration . usually continuing downward to the groundwater. thereby reducing the runoff from a site and allowing groundwater recharge.is the process by which water on the ground surface enters the soil.  Percolation . permeable concrete.Terminologies  Pervious Concrete .the movement of water downward and radially through the subsurface soil layers.permeable interlocking concrete pavements .(also called porous concrete.

results from two sites from 4Site Engineering in 2010 and 2011 are provided (Lia 2011 and Lia 2011b). the first being an 880 m2 parking lot at a building materials supply store. Both sites are in Lindenhurst. 9 stone per ASTM D448 Standard Classification for Sizes of Aggregate for Road and Bridge Construction. 9 aggregate.Scope of the Study  Design Mix of the Pervious Concrete  Determination of the Properties of Pervoius Concrete as a Material Design Analysis PICP Infiltration Tests in New York To further demonstrate the utility of this test method for PICP. According to The Aggregate Handbook (NSA 1991).5 x 10-3 m/sec. stone sizes range from 4. The paving units were 120 x 225 x 80 mm thick with 13 mm joints filled with a stone gradation conforming to ASTM No. New York.30 mm. . this material has a hydraulic conductivity of at least 3. For ASTM No.75 to 0.

Besides characterizing the overall permeable jointing pattern. 3 stone. 8 bedding stone.5 mm. 57 base ranges in size from 25 to 2. the jointing stones are removed between the joints under the ring and filled with plumbers putty to further direct the water downward. A key consideration on locating the ring is to frame the paver joint pattern within the ring. This bedding stone was placed over a 100 mm thick ASTM No.36 mm and ASTM No. Both test locations in Lindenhurst used plumber’s putty to seal the metal ring against the pavers as shown in Figure 2. This aggregate is slightly larger in size than the ASTM No. ASTM No. On both sites. 3 is 50 down to 12. this location can reduce the time and effort required to remove jointing stones and filling the joints with plumber’s putty. . Removal of the jointing stones can be done with a putty knife and screwdriver. This framed area should represent the percentage of open area in the overall surface to best characterize surface infiltration. 9 stone in the paver joints.The paving units and jointing material were installed over 40 mm thick ASTM No. 57 base over a 675 mm thick subbase of ASTM No.

ASTM C1701 test apparatus at a building supply store parking lot .

Table 1. PICP test results for a building supply parking lot in Lindenhurst. in m/sec Table 1./hr. PICP test results for a building supply parking lot in Lindenhurst.Technical Specifications After pre-wetting. New York. ASTM C 1701 test method was conducted three times over the first 11 months of service that resulted in an average infiltration rate of 2. in m/sec . New York. Table 1 provides the test data for three test locations.025 x 10-3 m/sec or 287 in.

3 stone over a highly permeable soil subgrade.Another test using ASTM C1701 was conducted at a 600 m2 PICP parking lot at a public library in Lindenhurst. 8 stone. The paving units were 200 x 200 x 80 mm thick with 13 mm wide joints filled with ASTM No. . This was placed over a 100 mm thick ASTM No. 57 base and a 150 mm thick subbase of ASTM No. 8 bedding stone. New York. The paving units and jointing material were installed over 40 mm thick ASTM No.

ASTM C1701 test apparatus at a public library parking lot .

applying water without measurements) the ASTM C 1701 test method was conducted in April. PICP test results for a public library parking lot in Lindenhurst.. in m/sec .After pre-wetting (i.8 x 10-3 m/sec. 2011 during the first months of service that resulted in an average infiltration rate of 3. New York.e.

Borst reports using a modified version of C 1701 to test PICP. ASTM C 1701 is an inexpensive and rapid test method for measuring surface infiltration by simulating a small hydraulic head on the surface test area like those generated by intense rain storms and contributing runoff. Lia. PICP and porous asphalt. and Drake confirm that C1701 is suitable for testing the surface infiltration of PICP and Bean extends its use to successfully testing concrete grid pavements.Conclusions And Recommendations The most common permeable pavement surfaces are pervious concrete. Data and experience from Bean. . pervious concrete. and porous asphalt as part of a nationally visible evaluation of these pavements. There are millions of square meters of each in service.

In order for contractors. Broadening the application of ASTM C 1701 to characterize the surface infiltration of more than just pervious concrete enables an objective comparison of the performance other pavement systems designed to reduce stormwater runoff. concrete grid pavements. ASTM C 1701 should be revised to address PICP. Chopra 2010 and Vancura 2010 demonstrate that permeable pavements can experience a reduction in their surface infiltration rates especially if not maintained with vacuum sweeping. and porous asphalt testing. stormwater agencies and project owners to better understand performance of maintenance needs of all permeable pavements. .

This committee has jurisdiction over concrete and clay paving units as both materials are used to build permeable segmental pavements.ASTM C 1701 test method is within the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C09 on Concrete and Concrete Aggregates. . there is logic in revising ASTM C 1701 to reference the new test method for PICP and concrete grid pavements. When ASTM Committee C15 approves the test method. The development of a separate test method with results comparable to ASTM C 1701 is proceeding in ASTM Committee C15 on Manufactured Masonry Units.

• Precision and bias statements for the above. .Along these lines. • Inclusion of test procedures for PICP and concrete grid pavements including a description centering the ring over concrete paver/grid patterns and joints. This could eliminate the use of a scale on the test site. • As a substitute for plumber’s putty. • Optional use of graduated containers to determine water volume and mass for dispensing water. proposed changes include the following: • Addition of a note that references in ASTM C 1701 to a new test method (when approved by ASTM Committee C 15) that yields comparable test results. optional use (non-oil base) modeling clay while testing in hot temperatures with material specifications.

M.B.  Chopra 2010. Chopra.References  Bean 2007. Stuart. Water Supply and Water Resources Division.. Rowe. American Society of Civil Engineers. National Risk Management Research Laboratory. U. Reston. A. “Field Survey of Permeable Pavement Surface Infiltration Rates. Hunt. “Pervious Pavement Systems in Florida – Research Results. M.” Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering. Bean. May/June 2007. pages 249-255. Virginia. . Environmental Protection Agency.” in Proceedings of Low Impact Development 2010: Redefining Water in the City. Reston. Surface Infiltration Rates of Permeable Surfaces: Six Month Update (November 2009 through April 2010)...F.P. E. Virginia.S.. and Bidelspach.. K. Stander. A. Edison. and O’Connor.. W. pages 193 – 206. M. Wanielista.. E.  Borst 2010. August 2010. D.Z. T. American Society of Civil Engineers. E. P..A. Borst. New Jersey.

J. Toronto. October 22. Lia.. “Post Construction Surface Testing of the Nicolock SF-Rima Permeable Interlocking Concrete Paver Installation (PICP) at the Lindenhurst Public Library. 2011. New York. New York. New York. Port Jefferson Station.  Lia 2011b. Town of Babylon Suffolk County. 2010. J. Drake. April 4 and November 2. Lia. M.” report form 4Site Engineering. M.. J. “Permeable Pavement Monitoring at the Kortright Centre for Conservation & Maintenance Testing on Established Permeable Pavements.” presentation given at the Kortright Centre.  Lia 2011. October 4. 2011. April 4. Toronto and Region Conservation Authority. . Port Jefferson Station.” report form 4Site Engineering. “Post Construction Surface Testing of the Nicolock Eco-Ridge Permeable Interlocking Concrete Paver Installation (PICP) at the Century Building Materials Facility Hamlet of Lindenhurst.. Ontario. 2011. Drake 2011.