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Radial-Basis Function

By Mrs. Pritam S. Salankar

Introduction

What is RBF networks?


A kind

of supervised neural networks


Design of Neural Networks as curve fitting (approximation) problem
Learning
Find a surface that best fits to given training data
Generalization
use of this multidimensional surface to interpolate test data

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X X
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Structure of RBF Networks

Input layer
Hidden layer
Hidden

units provide a set of basis function


High dimension: more linearly separable [Covers Theorem]

Output layer
Linear

Xx1

combination of hidden functions

..
..

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IncreasNe->m
ddem1esion:

Outyput
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a
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Covers Theorem on Separability(1)

A pattern classification cast in high dimensional space


nonlinearly is more likely to be linearly separable than in a
low dimension space
X


separP(bNl,em)(12

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N
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Covers Theorem on Separability(2)

Covers theorem in case of polynomial functions


Let

1
1
N
1
0

:
Polynomial hidden function
r-th order rational varieties

Probability

that particular dichotomy picked at random is


N: # of data points
Separating surface:
degree of freedom
If
is increasing, the probability of separability is increasing

10 (

(12x)
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Example: XOR Problem

XOR data are not linearly separable


Nonlinear transformation

(0,1)

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Linearly separable in

(0,0)

(1,0)

space

Boundary
(01,10) (1,1)

m
1
m
11

Separability Capacity of Surface

Separating capacity of surface : N


Expected

maximum number of vectors linearly separable in a space


of dimensionality

Surface of high dimension has high separating capacity


[Corollary to Covers theorem]
E[N]=

2
Median[N]=2

R
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i

1
,
2

N
1

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i

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2

i
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1
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:R
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Interpolation Problem(1)

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Interpolation problem
given

a set of N different points


corresponding set of N real number
function
that satisfies this condition :

2
1
2
1
2
1
2
N
2
2
N
N
N
1
N
2
N
3
N

Radial-basis function
Function

Form:

and a
, find a

x2

x1


X
iN

1
exrp(c12fo)rfsrmsoemre0,0,rRR
(
r()r)
Interpolation Problem(2)

Micchellis Theorem
If

221/212/2

be a set of distinct points, then N-by-N interpolation matrix


is nonsingular

Types of RBF function


Multiquadrics
Inverse

multiquadrics
Gaussian functions

Fw(Xr1)w0(.x5X011.5)4.5w1(1Xx0).5w(Xx1)0.5
32 40 2

2
1
1
2
2
3
3
2
2
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Interpolation Problem(3)

Example
{(x,d)}

={ (-1,1),(0,2),(1,1) }

21
-1 0 1

(
X
,
d
)
i
i

1
N

1
F
(
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)

(
X

)
w

i
i

1
XiN1
Summary

RBF Networks
Three

layer : Input layer, hidden layer, output layer


Hidden units provide set of basis functions for input vectors
Dimension of hidden layer is much larger than that of input layer
Output is obtained from linear combination of hidden functions

Covers theorem
A pattern

classification cast in high dimensional space nonlinearly is


more likely to be linearly separable than in a low dimension space

Interpolation problem
Find

a function which satisfies


Use radial basis function :
,
If
be a set of distinct points, then solution exists
[Micchellis Theorem]