Assignment

Assign by:
Sir Usman Saeed
Prepared by:
Rashid Saeed
Regd.#
2012-CH-425
MNS-UET Multan

FLOW MEASURING
INSTRUEMENTS

Contents:





Rotameter
Venturi meter
Orifice meter
Pitot tube
Positive displacement meters
Metering pumps

Rotameter .

When the fluid is poured into the tube. The rotameter is placed vertically in the fluid system with the diameter end of the tapered flow tube at the bottom. . the float is raised from its position at the inlet allowing the fluid to pass between it and the wall.working principle:  A rotameter is a type of flow meter based on the variable area principle and is used to indicate flow rates in fluid systems.

Advantages:     Easy to use Direct readings Low cost Easily maintenence .

. After the throat.Venturi meter:     The entry of the venture is cylindrical in shape to match the size of the pipe through which fluid flows. Following the converging section. there is a cylindrical section with minimum area called as the throat. there is a diverging conical section with an included angle of 5’ to 15’. After the entry. This enables the venture to be fitted to the pipe. there is a converging conical section with an included angle of 19º to 23º.

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Basic principle:  When a venturi meter is placed in a pipe carrying the fluid whose flow rate is to be measured. a pressure drop occurs between the entrance and throat of the venture meter. . This pressure drop is measured using a pressure sensor and when calibrated this pressure drop becomes a measure of flow rate.

Can be used to measure high flow rates. gases.Application:    It is used where high pressure recovery is required. and dirty liquids. Can be used for measuring flow rates of water. .

Can be installed vertically. horizontally or inclined. .Advantages:   Coefficient of discharge is high.

they cannot be used.Limitations:   They are large in size and hence where space is limited. . installation and maintenance. Expensive initial cost.

the point of maximum convergence actually occurs shortly downstream of the physical orifice. the fluid expands and the velocity and pressure change once again. An orifice plate is a thin plate with a hole in the middle. the velocity and the pressure change.Orifice meter:   An orifice plate is a device used for measuring flow rate. at the so-called vena contracta point . When the fluid reaches the orifice plate. the fluid is forced to converge to go through the small hole. Beyond the vena contracta. for reducing pressure or for restricting flow. . As it does so. It is usually placed in a pipe in which fluid flows.

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Advantages:    Orifice are small plates and easy to install/remove. . Easy maintenance. Offer very little pressure drop of which 60 to 65 % is recovered.

to 1/4 of max.limitations:   Orifice flow range is max. Only 60 to 65 % of pressure drop is recovered. .

The pitot tube is used to measure the local velocity at a given point in the flow stream and not the average velocity in the pipe or conduit.Pitot tube:   A pitot tube is a pressure measuring instrument used to measure fluid flow velocity. .

.Principle:  The measuring principle of the pitot tube utilizes the differences between the pressure ridge on the upstream side and the static pressure on its downstream side.

the moving fluid is brought to rest (stagnates) as there is no outlet to allow flow to continue.Working:  The basic pitot tube consists of a tube pointing directly into the fluid flow. also known as the total pressure or the pitot pressure. As this tube contains fluid. . a pressure can be measured. This pressure is the stagnation pressure of the fluid.

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POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT METERS: .

.PD METERS: A positive displacement meter is a type of flow meter that requires the fluid being measured to mechanically displace components in the meter in order for any fluid flow to occur.

having high turndown. . dirty and corrosive fluids essentially require no straight runs of pipe for fluid flow stream conditioning. They can be used in very viscous.Advantages & Applications:      Positive displacement flow meters are very accurate.

Drawbacks:    Relatively expensive Produce the highest differential pressure subsequently greatest pressure drop head loss of all the flow meter types .

Types:  Nutating disk  Rotating vane  Lobed impeller .

.Nutating Disk PD Meters:   Principle of Operation: Liquid enters a machined chamber containing a disc which nutates (wobbles). The movements of the disc are transmitted by a gear train to a register/totalizer or pulse transmitter. The position of the disc divides the chamber into compartments containing an exact volume. Liquid pressure drives the disc to wobble and a roller cam causes the nutating disc to make a complete cycle. The compartments are filled and emptied each cycle.

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Since the volume of fluid required to make the disc complete one revolution is known. the disk wobbles. . or executes a nutating motion. the total flow through a nutating disc can be calculated by multiplying the number of disc rotations by the known volume of fluid. A shaft is fastened to the ball and held in an inclined position by a cam or roller.Working :  The movable element is a circular disk which is attached to a central ball. As the fluid flows through the chamber. The fluid enters an opening in the spherical wall on one side of the partition and leaves through the other side. The disk is mounted in a chamber which has spherical side walls and conical top and bottom surfaces.

such as raw water supply and evaporator feed.Advantages and Applications:     Low cost Moderate pressure loss Available in several materials of construction This type of flow meter is normally used for water service. .

ROTATING VANE METERS: .

Rotating Vane meters:  There are two or three couples of positive displacement rotary vanes integrated with a rotor to form a rotating unit that is installed inside of the measuring chamber a meter. .The positive displacement rotary vanes are fitted in the grooves in the rotor with the quantities Accordance with the quantities of the positive displacement rotary vanes.

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Advantages:      Low pressure loss Applicable to wide variety of gas and liquid fluids including viscous materials High temperature and pressure rating Good accuracy Available in numerous construction materials .

Disadvantages:     High cost Sustainable to damage from entrained vapors and dirty fluids Low accuracy at low flow rates Bulky and heavy .

LOBED IMPELLER METER: .

a fixed volume of liquid is entrapped and then transported toward the outlet. Because the lobe gears remain in a fixed relative position. it is only necessary to measure the rotational velocity of one of them. two impellers rotate in opposite directions within the void housing. As they rotate. .Lobed Impeller Meter:  In the rotating lobe design.

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Advantages:    Increasingly accurate at higher flow rates where leakage and slip is decreased Good capacity range Can be used for corrosive services .

Thank You .