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Arc welding is a group of welding processes that produce
coalescence of work-pieces by heating them with an arc.
The processes are used with or without application of
pressure and with or without filler metal


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COMMON TYPES OF ARC WELDING Following types of arc welding are very common in industries like fertilizer. refineries.E . oil and gas purification plants. 4. etc. petrochemical..  Arc welding with consumable electrodes  Arc welding with non-consumable electrodes Contd.

clamps. thimbles  Ground cable  Electrodes  Electrode holder  Oven  Earth clamp  Welding gadgets Contd. 5. EQUIPMENT ACCESSORIES  Power source  Shielding Gases and regulators  Power cable  Hoses.E .EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES (ELECTRIC ARC WELDING) Following equipment and accessories are required for an electric arc welding.

6.EQUIPMENT (ELECTRIC ARC WELDING) TYPES OF POWER SOURCES (WELDING MACHINES) Following types of welding machines are commonly used to supply power for electric arc welding:  Welding Generators  Welding Rectifiers  Welding Transformers  Welding Invertors Contd.E .



Welding generator is a dynamo, which is driven by an
electric motor or an auto engine that produces electricity

Welding generator produces high current (Upto 400/500
Amps) at low potential (72 Volts)

Current produced by generator is steady and is used for
arc welding processes e.g. in SMAW or GTAW

Direct current straight polarity (DCSP) and direct current
reverse polarity (DCRP) are obtained from welding

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Rectifier type arc welding machine consists of a
transformer and a rectifier that converts alternating
current (AC) into direct current (DC)

Straight and reverse polarities can be obtained from

Very quiet in operation because of no moving parts
(except cooling fan)

It is used for various arc welding processes e.g. in


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 A transformer consists of primary and secondary coils  Primary terminals are connected to power source (Main supply)  Secondary terminals are connected to electrode holder and ground cable  Its use is limited to only SMAW Contd.E . It produces AC current with high amperage and low voltage.WELDING TRANSFORMER A welding transfer is a step down transformer which uses single phase 220 volts or 3 phase 440 volts supply. 12.


CABLES  Welding cables or leads carry welding current from welding machine to workpiece and back to welding machine  Lead from welding machine to work is called electrode lead or power lead  Lead from work to welding machine is called ground or work lead Contd.E . 14.

E .ELECTRODE HOLDERS AND EARTH CLAMPS  Electrode holder is part of arc welding equipment that holds electrode firmly when welding. Contd. Holders are specified according to:  • Types of insulation on the jaws • Current capacities Good ground connections are important when welding with AC or DC. Work lead is permanently fastened to work bench or table by earth clamp. 15. Different styles and models are available.


g. oxygen. CO2 and water vapors to come into contact with molten metal.E . the electrode or the arc Contd.ACCESSORIES SHIELDING GAS  The purpose of the shielding gas is to protect the arc area from atmosphere  Shielding gas displaces air and does not allow atmospheric gases e. nitrogen. 17.

18.TYPES OF SHIELDING GASES Shielding gases are classified as inert or active  Inert gases do not combine with other elements • Most commonly used gases are argon and helium • Inert gases are used in TIG and GMAW welding processes  Active shielding gases include CO2 and others Contd.E .

For shielding. 19.E .SHIELDING GAS REGULATORS  Shielding gas cylinders are filled at high pressure .  To let-down cylinder high pressure into workable pressure. gas regulator with flowmeter is used. Contd. inert gas is required at low pressure and controlled flow.

further. current losses are minimum Possibilities of short circuiting and sparking are minimum Contd. all parts in the circuit are of heavy duty construction and design Welding leads are fastened to various types of thimbles and lugs to make connections with the machine Thimbles provide firm jointing of lead to give smooth flow of current. 20.E .TERMINAL CONNECTIONS/THIMBLES     To carry consistently heavy currents of welding.

ELECTRODES Welding electrode is the terminal point to which electricity is brought in welding operation.CONSUMABLE ELECTRODES. • Covered electrodes • Bare electrodes b. Contd.NON-CONSUMABLE ELECTRODES.E . 21. from which arc is produced to perform welding. Electrodes are classified into consumable and non-consumable types : a. • Carbon electrodes • Tungsten electrodes It is evident that covered and bare electrodes are consumed during welding process as compared to non-consumable electrode.

Sometimes these coverings are added with Iron Powder to increase electrode efficiency.   ACID COVERINGS. • Mainly composed of oxides and silicates • Give good profile and are easy to detach • Weld strength is low • Not widely used CELLULOSIC COVERINGS.TYPES OF COVERINGS/FLUXES (COVERED ELECTRODES) There are four main groups of electrode coverings as given below.E . 22. • Large variety of organic material • Penetration is better • Surface profile is poor and slag layer is thin • Mechanical properties are good Contd.

RUTILE COVERINGS. • These are based on titanium oxide • Good slag forming properties • Widely used in fabrication industry • Profiles are acceptable and slag is easily removable BASIC COVERINGS. • Contain calcium compounds – calcium fluoride and calcium carbonate (Lime Coated) • Used for welding of high strength steels • Minimizes weld cracking and Slag is difficult to remove 23.E .

 Loose electrodes to be heated in oven prior to start welding  Paper packed electrodes shall be heated in oven before use  Do not use moist and damaged covering electrodes  Avoid usage of unidentified electrodes Contd.E . Electrodes should be protected from. 24.STORAGE OF COVERED ELECTRODES Care and storage of covered electrodes is of extreme importance.  Cracking and peeling off covering  Moisture – resulting bad quality weld  Aging – to be used within recommended period after opening of boxes Following cares shall be taken to have better welds.

BARE ELECTRODES Electrodes without coating are called bare electrodes  These are used when post cleaning of weld joint is difficult  Bare electrodes are used in Gas. welding processes. MIG etc. Contd.E .  Carbon and low alloy steel electrodes are supplied with thin layer of copper coating – Current pick-up and storage life are increased. TIG. 25.

NON-CONSUMABLE ELECTRODES CARBON ELECTRODE. Applications include carbon arc welding. twin carbon arc welding. Carbon electrode is a non filler metal electrode. used in arc welding or cutting. Applications are GTAW. plasma arc welding. used in arc welding or cutting. Contd. TUNGSTEN ELECTRODE. etc.E . carbon cutting. atomic hydrogen welding. gouging. etc. Tungsten is also a non filler metal electrode. 26.

rutile. pickup moisture quickly when exposed to humid atmosphere OVENS OR SPECIAL CONTAINERS ARE USED TO HEAT 27. EXX18 types.OVEN  Electrodes become unusable when exposed to moisture for an extended length of time.E OR KEEP DRY THE COVERED ELECTRODES Contd. Coating on some types of electrodes absorbs moisture when exposed to humid atmosphere  Cellulose. particularly EXX16. . and acid electrodes are fairly insensitive to moisture and can tolerate quite high moisture content  Coatings of low-hydrogen electrodes.

28.WELDING GADGETS  Welding Helmet  Leather gloves  Leather Jacket  Welding Shoes  Welding Apron  Sleeves for arms Contd.E .

E .5-4) 5-8 (4-6.4) More than 8 (6.FILTER SHADE NUMBER FOR EYE PROTECTION Welding or Cutting Operation Electrode Size (mm) or Metal Thickness Welding Current (A) Minimum protective Shade Suggested Shade numbera (Comfort) Shielded metal arc welding Less than 3 (2.5) 3-5 (2. start with a shade that is too dark toOver see 6the weld zone. it is desirable to use a filter lens that absorbs the yellow or sodium line in the visible light of the (spectrum) operation.7 4 or 5 5 or 6 6 or 8 Oxygen cutting Light Under 1 Under 25 3 or 4 Medium 1 to 6 25 to 150 4 or 5 As a rule of thumb. In oxy-fuel gas welding or cutting where the torch produces a high yellow light. b These values apply where the actual arc is clearly seen. 29.7 Over 12. Gas welding Light Medium Heavy a Under 1/8 1/8 to 1/2 Over 1/2 mm Under 3.2 3.2 to 12. Then to a lighter shade which gives sufficient 5view Heavy Overgo 150 or 6 of the weld zone without going below the minimum.4) Less than 60 60-160 160-250 250-550 7 8 10 11 -10 12 14 Gas metal arc welding and flux -cored arc welding Less than 60 60-160 160-250 250-500 7 10 10 10 -11 12 14 Gas tungsten arc welding Less than 50 50-150 150-500 8 8 10 10 12 14 Air carbon Arc cutting Plasma arc welding (Light) (Heavy) Less than 500 500-1000 Less than 20 20-100 100-400 400-800 10 11 6 8 10 11 12 14 6 to 8 10 12 14 Plasma arc cutting (Light)b (Medium)b (Heavy)b Less than 300 300-400 400-800 8 9 10 9 12 14 ---- ---- 3 or 4 2 14 Torch brazing Torch soldering Carbon arc welding Plate Thickness In. Experience has shown that lighter filters may be used when the arc is hidden by the workpiece.

A uniform arc length is maintained between electrode melting end and weld pool by feeding electrode into the arc as fast as it melts Contd. 30.ARC WELDING-CONSUMABLE ELECTRODES DEFINITION In this technique.E . electrode is melted and molten metal is carried across the arc gap.

 Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)  Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)  Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW)  Electro Gas Welding (EGW)  Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) Contd. 31.ARC WELDING-CONSUMABLE ELECTRODE TYPES Consumable electrodes are used in following welding processes.E .

Contd. 32.E .SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING (SMAW) DEFINITION Shielded Metal Arc Welding is an arc welding process where in coalescence is produced by heating with an arc between covered metal electrode and workpiece.


 Set-up welding system as per layout and switch-on machine  Select AC or DC type current and adjust current amperage  Select polarity .straight or reverse  Maintain correct arc length and weld the weldments as per joint details and design Contd.E . 34.OPERATION Following procedure is used to perform welding with SMAW.

electrode is not melted and filler metal is fed into the arc gap. 35. generated between base metal and non-consumable electrode. TYPES Following welding processes use non-consumable electrode.ARC WELDING-NONCONSUMABLE ELECTRODES DEFINITION In this technique.  Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW)  Plasma Arc Welding(PAW)  Carbon Arc Welding (CAW) Contd.E .

E . Contd. Shielding is obtained from an inert gas or inert gases mixture. 36.GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING (GTAW) PROCESS DEFINITION Gas Tungsten Arc Welding is a process where in coalescence is produced by heating with an arc between tungsten electrode (nonconsumable) electrode and the workpiece. The process may or may not require filler metal.


E .SMAW vs GTAW 38.

39. specially for TIG welding Contd.E .ADDITIONAL EQUIPMENT-GTAW PROCESS  TIG welding torch - Air or water cooled including torch accessories  Tungsten electrode  Shielding gas and gas control regulators  Soft leather gloves.

ADVANTAGES OF GTAW The outstanding features of arc welding process are:  It will make high quality welds in all metals and alloys  Very little post cleaning is required  Arc and weld pool are clearly visible to welder  No filler metal carried across the arc.E . so no spatter  Welding can be performed in all positions  There is no slag produced that might be trapped in the weld Very good cleaning of the joint is required for good welding by GTAW 40.

 Following are considered to select the right power source.E . Dc. etc.Required type of current i. 41.POWER SOURCE  The type of welding indicates type of welding machine to be used. This depends on thickness.e. Contd. application of technique to produce weldment.Welding process defined by the weldments to be produced • Welding current . Ac. • Process selection . material. steady state pulsed.SELECTION OF POWER SOURCE AND WELDING PROCESSES a. size.

Duty cycle is the ratio of arc time to total time. heavier jobs require heavy currents • Type of power .Job size governs machine rating.Electricity or engine driven • Oxiliary devices . 42. wire feeders.• Machine rating . heavy duty cycles.water and shielding gas control systems. etc. Categories are low duty. Contd.E . • Duty cycle .Measure of amount of work that the power source will do. current control systems.


E . some welding processes are developed to join specific metals.PROCESS SELECTION  All metals cannot be joined by each welding process. certain metals are known as “difficult to weld”. The given table shows general selection of various processes against base metals to be welded. which means that specific precautions and procedures are required. Contd.b. 44.

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WEAVING A BEAD Weaving is a technique of depositing weld metal in which the electrode is oscillated in a transverse motion along the weld direction Weaving provides following advantages  Improve penetration at both faces of weld joint  Allow slag to come on to surface of puddle  Avoid porosity  Allow gases to escape weld puddle  Keep metal in molten state for short time 46.E .

used for root weld.  Rotary weave – used for gas welding  Curved weave – good fusion.E . hot pass  Straight bead – to keep puddle hot and cold at the same time  Whip – to avoid undercut at overhead or vertical positions  Box weave – used for capping of weld  Figure 8 weave – used with tig welding 47.TYPES OF WEAVING Most commonly used weaving motions are as following.


POWER SOURCE Vs WELDING PROCESSES Welding Machine Output Characteristics Direct (Dc): Alternating (Ac): CC Drooping CV Flat CC Drooping Pulsed: CV or CC Flat or Drooping Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) Yes No Yes Yes Plasma arc welding (PAW) Yes No No Yes Carbon arc welding (CAW) Yes No Two carbons Not used Stud welding (SW) Yes Possible No Not used Yes No Yes Not used GMAW inert gas. nonferrous MIG Possible Yes No Yes GMAW spray arc transfer MIG Possible Yes No Yes GMAW globular transfer MIG Possible Yes No No No Yes No Yes Special Special Possible Yes Flux cored arc welding (FCAW) Yes Yes Experimental Yes Submerged arc welding (SAW) Yes Yes Yes Not used Electrogas welding (EGW) Possible Yes No Not used Electrogas welding (EW) Possible Yes Yes Not used Arc Welding Process Nonconsumable electrode process Consumable electrode processes Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) GMAW short circuiting transfer MIG GMAW pulsed arc transfer MIG.E . pulsed 49.

POLARITIES  Arc welding processes where direct current (DC) supply machines are employed. that work on only one polarity   Reverse Polarity – When electrode is connected to positive terminal of welding machine.  There are certain electrodes. it is called reverse polarity – There is high heat input into the electrode. reverse polarity is used for SMAW process Straight Polarity – When electrode is connected to negative terminal of welding machine.E Contd. have option of selecting polarities to connect workpiece or electrode. polarity is used for GTAW process . therefore straight 50.ARC WELDING . it is called straight polarity – There is less heat input in the electrode. therefore.

required to get appropriate penetration.E . These are: • Constant . – This is rarely used for automatic welding processes and small diameter electrodes. Power source should be able to supply current to have a stable arc during operation  Different current systems and combinations are obtained from various welding machines. 51. – It provides maximum flexibility in manual arc welding to lengthen or shorten the arc.Current (CC).WELDING CURRENTS  Welding currents play important role in the arc welding processes to get quality welds.

– Usage example is in GMAW process. 52. different root faces or different thicknesses. varies – Stable arc is obtained when welding with different electrode sizes and metals in varying welding atmospheres.• • Constant .E . Pulsed Current. – It is a change from higher to lower current on repetitive basis. – Voltage is maintained and current depending on resistance of weldments. – Usage example . – Used for materials having varied root opening.Voltage (CV).Semi automatic gas arc welding.


Fire hazard: 54.HAZARDS – TYPES a.E . Compressed gases hazard e. Air contamination hazard d. Arc radiation hazard c. Electric shock hazard b.

E . Electric shock hazard: • These hazards are associated with all electrical equipments involved in the arc welding. These are hazardous to the health of welder and other workers in the vicinity.HAZARDS   Electric arc welding has hazards like other operations involved in fabrication of metals. 55. • Electric shock occurs when a leaking current flows through human body. OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Act) and American National Standard “safety in welding and cutting” classify following hazards of arc welding. a. Contd.

• High concentrations of small solid particles of metal suspended in the air are extremely dangerous for human health. 56.b. Air contamination hazard: • Harmful gases are produced when metal and fluxes are heated in the arc welding. • Heat generated during welding operation depletes oxygen from atmosphere and produces carbon mono oxide. which is poisonous for human health. Ultraviolet radiations are damaging to both eyes and skin. Contd. Arc radiation hazard: • Bright light of arc emits high intensity ultraviolet and infrared radiations. • Lubricants and degreasing solvents produce toxic fumes when heated during arc welding operations.E . c.

Certain arc welding processes use compressed gases for shielding. Contd. These gases should be handled and stored carefully. Fire hazard: • In arc welding. hot metal pieces or spatters may produce fire when fall on any combustible material. Compressed gases hazard: • e.d. 57.E .

Recommended eye protection to be used for grinding. Keep the work area free from objects. cutting and welding etc. Check that insulation of electrode holder and cables are in healthy condition. flammable.E . 58. volatile or explosive materials. Always wear protective clothing suitable for type of welding to be done. Make sure that welding equipment is installed.SAFETY MEASURES        Always use recommended cables for arc welding. Contd. grounded and connected properly. and is in good working condition. Always use recommended filters for breathing in contaminated atmosphere.

or galvanized steel etc. brass. Always use rubber boots or wooden stand. chromium.E . when it is necessary to weld in a damp or wet area. cadmium. Always use mechanical exhaust while welding lead.        Handle all compressed gas cylinders with extreme care. When electrode holder is not in use. Do not weld on containers that have hold combustibles without special precautions. Do not weld in confined space without special precautions. Secure compressed gas cylinders with walls or supports. hang it on the stand and never let it touch a compressed gas cylinder. Dispose off electrode stubs in proper container. 59.

Table for welding cable size 3.A/B Welding procedure specification (WPS) 1. Shielding gases for welding processes 8.E . Current carrying capacities and voltage drops in welding cables 4. Power cable sizes for welding machines 5. 60. Inert gas properties 7. Procedure qualification for welding process (PQR) 10.APPENDICES: (1 ÷ 10A/B) Welding cables comparison table 2. Samples for welding operator qualification test (WPQ) 9. Electrode storage recommendations 6.

BASIC MATERIALS  Construction and maintenance Engineer is required to have basic knowledge about the material or metals that are going to be joined together. Contd.E .  American Welding Society (AWS) and American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) defines materials under different P-Numbers according to their metallurgical characteristics. 61.

E .9 to 11 Nickle Alloy Steels.Austenitic (300 series) . 62.3 to 7 Alloy Steels .having various combinations of chrome and other alloying elements in different %ages -8 High Alloy Steels .0. carbon .P-Numbers Materials -1 Carbon Steels -2 Wrought Irons .Having different %ages of Ni.35% max.