# CEE 320

Spring 2008

Geometric Design

CEE 320
Anne Goodchild

Outline
1. Concepts
2. Vertical Alignment
a.
b.
c.
d.

Fundamentals
Crest Vertical Curves
Sag Vertical Curves
Examples

3. Horizontal Alignment
a. Fundamentals
b. Superelevation
CEE 320
Spring 2008

4. Other Non-Testable Stuff

Concepts
• Alignment is a 3D problem broken
down into two 2D problems
– Horizontal Alignment (plan view)
– Vertical Alignment (profile view)

• Stationing

CEE 320
Spring 2008

– Along horizontal alignment
– 12+00 = 1,200 ft.

Piilani Highway on Maui

Stationing
Horizontal Alignment

CEE 320
Spring 2008

Vertical Alignment

From Perteet Engineering

CEE 320 Spring 2008 Vertical Alignment .

Vertical Alignment • Objective: – Determine elevation to ensure • Proper drainage • Acceptable level of safety • Primary challenge – Transition between two grades – Vertical curves Sag Vertical Curve CEE 320 Spring 2008 G1 G2 Crest Vertical Curve G1 G2 .

Vertical Curve Fundamentals • Parabolic function – Constant rate of change of slope – Implies equal curve tangents y  ax  bx  c 2 CEE 320 Spring 2008 • y is the roadway elevation x stations (or feet) from the beginning of the curve .

L in stations . L in feet • G1. G2 in decimal form.Vertical Curve Fundamentals PVI G1 PVC δ G2 PVT L/2 L x y  ax  bx  c CEE 320 Spring 2008 2 Choose Either: • G1. G2 in percent.

G2 in percent. L in feet • G1.Choose Either: • G1. G2 in decimal form. L in stations Relationships At the PVC : x  0 and Y  c dY  b  G1 dx At the PVC : x  0 and d 2Y G2  G1 G2  G1 Anywhere :  2a  a 2 dx L 2L G1 PVC PVI CEE 320 Spring 2008 L/2 L x δ G2 PVT .

PVI . Determine the elevation and stationing of PVI. equal tangent crest vertical curve has a PVC station of 100+00 at 59 ft. elevation. PVT. and the high point of the curve. . 5% .5 percent. The initial grade is 2.4.Example A 400 ft.0 percent and the final grade is -4.0 G 1=2 % PVT G= 2 CEE 320 Spring 2008 PVC: STA 100+00 EL 59 ft.

5 % .0 G 1=2 % PVC: STA 100+00 EL 59 ft. PVT G= 2 -4.PVI .

•G1. G2 in percent •L in feet Other Properties G1 x PVT PVC Y CEE 320 Spring 2008 A  G1  G2 A 2 Y x 200 L Ym G2 PVI AL Ym  800 Yf AL Yf  200 .

 x  K G1 .Other Properties • K-Value (defines vertical curvature) – The number of horizontal feet needed for a 1% change in slope L K A CEE 320 Spring 2008 high / low pt.

Crest Vertical Curves SSD PVI Line of Sight PVC G1 PVT G2 h2 h1 L CEE 320 Spring 2008 For SSD < L L  A SSD  For SSD > L 2 100 2h1  2h2  2  200 h1  h2 L  2 SSD   A  2 .

5 ft.0 ft. • Simplified Equations CEE 320 Spring 2008 For SSD < L A SSD  L 2158 2 For SSD > L 2158 L  2 SSD   A .Crest Vertical Curves • Assumptions for design – h1 = driver’s eye height = 3. – h2 = tail light height = 2.

Crest Vertical Curves • Assuming L > SSD… 2 CEE 320 Spring 2008 SSD K 2158 .

CEE 320 Spring 2008 Design Controls for Crest Vertical Curves from AASHTO’s A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 2004 .

from AASHTO’s A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 2004 CEE 320 Spring 2008 Design Controls for Crest Vertical Curves .

Sag Vertical Curves Light Beam Distance (SSD) G1 headlight beam (diverging from LOS by β degrees) PVT PVC h1 CEE 320 Spring 2008 For SSD < L 2   A SSD L 200 h1  S tan   G2 PVI L h2=0 For SSD > L 200 h1   SSD  tan   L  2 SSD   A .

5 SSD   L  2 SSD     A   CEE 320 Spring 2008 2 .5 SSD   400  3.0 ft.Sag Vertical Curves • Assumptions for design – h1 = headlight height = 2. – β = 1 degree • Simplified Equations For SSD < L For SSD > L A SSD  L 400  3.

5SSD .Sag Vertical Curves • Assuming L > SSD… 2 CEE 320 Spring 2008 SSD K 400  3.

CEE 320 Spring 2008 Design Controls for Sag Vertical Curves from AASHTO’s A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 2004 .

from AASHTO’s A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 2004 CEE 320 Spring 2008 Design Controls for Sag Vertical Curves .

The entering grade is -2.Example 1 CEE 320 Spring 2008 A car is traveling at 30 mph in the country at night on a wet road through a 150 ft.4 percent and the exiting grade is 4. A tree has fallen across the road at approximately the PVT. long sag vertical curve. Assuming the driver cannot see the tree until it is lit by her headlights.0 percent. is it reasonable to expect the driver to be able to stop before hitting the tree? .

but this is most often the case • Equation specific to sag curve which accommodates headlight beam • L and S in horizontal plane and comparable (150 and 146 ft) • Required SSD = 196. A SSD  L 400  3.5 SSD  2 SSD  2 g    V12  V1t r  a  G  g  .Sag Vertical Curve • Assume S<L. try both.53 ft assumes 0 grade CEE 320 Spring 2008 • Text problem versus design problem.

Sag Vertical Curves Light Beam Distance (S) G1 diverging from horizontal plane of vehicle by β degrees PVT PVC h1 PVI CEE 320 Spring 2008 L Daytime sight distance unrestricted G2 h2=0 .

CEE 320 Spring 2008 A car is traveling at 30 mph in the country at night on a wet road through a 150 ft.4 percent. The entering grade is 3. A tree has fallen across the road at approximately the PVT.Example 2 Similar to Example 1 but for a crest curve. long crest vertical curve.0 percent and the exiting grade is -3. Is it reasonable to expect the driver to be able to stop before hitting the tree? .

but this is most often the case • Equation specific to crest curve which accommodates sight over hill • L and S in horizontal plane and comparable (150 and 243 ft) • Required SSD = 196.53 ft assumes 0 grade CEE 320 Spring 2008 • Text problem versus design problem. try both. A SSD  L 2158 2 2158 L  2 SSD   A .Crest Vertical Curve • Assume S<L.

Crest Vertical Curves SSD PVI Line of Sight PVC G1 PVT h2 h1 CEE 320 Spring 2008 L G2 .

One section of the roadway must go up and over a small hill with an entering grade of 3. How long must the vertical curve be? .0 percent.2 percent and an exiting grade of -2.Example 3 CEE 320 Spring 2008 A roadway is being designed using a 45 mph design speed.

CEE 320 Spring 2008 Horizontal Alignment .

Horizontal Alignment • Objective: – Geometry of directional transition to ensure: • Safety • Comfort • Primary challenge – Transition between two directions – Horizontal curves • Fundamentals CEE 320 Spring 2008 – Circular curves – Superelevation Δ .

Horizontal Curve Fundamentals D = degree of curvature (angle subtended by a 100’ arc)  T  R tan 2 T Δ E M PC  100 L R  180 D CEE 320 Spring 2008 PI  180  100    18.000  D  R  R L Δ/2 R PT R Δ/2 Δ/2 .

Horizontal Curve Fundamentals PI T Δ E M PC  1 E  R  1  cos  2  L Δ/2 PT   M  R 1  cos  2  CEE 320 Spring 2008  R R Δ/2 Δ/2 .

The tangent length is 400 ft. and the PT station is 20+00. What are the PI and PT stations? .Example 4 CEE 320 Spring 2008 A horizontal curve is designed with a 1500 ft. radius.

W p  F f  Fcp Superelevation ≈ Rv Fc α F cn F cp α W Ff e Wn Ff 1 ft Wp CEE 320 Spring 2008 α   WV 2 WV 2 W sin   f s  W cos   sin    cos  gRv gRv   .

e = number of vertical feet of rise per 100 ft of horizontal distance = 100tan Superelevation   WV 2 WV 2 W sin   f s  W cos   sin    cos  gRv gRv   V2 1  f s tan   tan   f s  gRv CEE 320 Spring 2008 V2 1  f s e  e  fs  gRv This is the minimum radius that provides for safe vehicle operation Rv because it is to the vehicle’s path V2 Rv  g  f s  e .

Selection of e and fs • Practical limits on superelevation (e) – Climate – Constructability – Adjacent land use • Side friction factor (fs) variations CEE 320 Spring 2008 – Vehicle speed – Pavement texture – Tire condition Design values of fs are chosen somewhat below this maximum value so there is a margin of safety .

CEE 320 Spring 2008 Minimum Radius Tables .

M 22-01 CEE 320 Spring 2008 For Open Highways and Ramps .WSDOT Design Side Friction Factors from the 2005 WSDOT Design Manual.

M 22-01 CEE 320 Spring 2008 For Low-Speed Urban Managed Access Highways .WSDOT Design Side Friction Factors from the 2005 WSDOT Design Manual.

CEE 320 Spring 2008 Design Superelevation Rates AASHTO from AASHTO’s A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 2004 .

M 22-01 .Design Superelevation Rates .WSDOT CEE 320 Spring 2008 emax = 8% from the 2005 WSDOT Design Manual.

what is the minimum curve radius (as measured to the traveled vehicle path) for safe vehicle operation? .Example 5 CEE 320 Spring 2008 A section of SR 522 is being designed as a high-speed divided highway. The design speed is 70 mph. Using WSDOT standards.

10 .Example 5 A section of SR 522 is being designed as a high-speed divided highway. Using WSDOT standards. The design speed is 70 mph.10 For 70 mph. what is the minimum curve radius (as measured to the traveled vehicle path) for safe vehicle operation? 2 CEE 320 Spring 2008 V Rv  g  f s  e For the minimum curve radius we want the maximum superelevation. WSDOT f = 0. WSDOT max e = 0.

Stopping Sight Distance •Looking around a curve •Measured along horizontal curve from the center of the traveled lane •Need to clear back to Ms (the middle of a line that has same arc length as SSD) CEE 320 Spring 2008 100 s  SSD  Rv  s  180 D Assumes curve exceeds required SSD SSD (not L) Ms Obstruction Rv Δs .

Stopping Sight Distance SSD (not L) 180 SSD  s  Rv Ms  90 SSD     M s  Rv  1  cos  Rv    CEE 320 Spring 2008  Rv SSD  90   Rv  M s      cos  Rv     1 Obstruction Rv Δs .

SSD   2 g   CEE 320 Spring 2008  V12  V1t r  a  G  g   90 SSD     M s  Rv  1  cos  Rv    .Example 6 A horizontal curve with a radius to the vehicle’s path of 2000 ft and a 60 mph design speed. Determine the distance that must be cleared from the inside edge of the inside lane to provide sufficient stopping sight distance.

FYI – NOT TESTABLE CEE 320 Spring 2008 Superelevation Transition from the 2001 Caltrans Highway Design Manual .

FYI – NOT TESTABLE Spiral Curves No Spiral CEE 320 Spring 2008 Spiral from AASHTO’s A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 2004 .

FYI – NOT TESTABLE CEE 320 Spring 2008 No Spiral .

FYI – NOT TESTABLE Spiral Curves CEE 320 Spring 2008 • • • • • WSDOT no longer uses spiral curves Involve complex geometry Require more surveying Are somewhat empirical If used. superelevation transition should occur entirely within spiral .

Inferred Design Speed for 138 Rural Two-Lane Highway Horizontal Curves 85th Percentile Speed vs. Design Speed CEE 320 Spring 2008 85th Percentile Speed vs. Inferred Design Speed for Rural Two-Lane Highway Limited Sight Distance Crest Vertical Curves .FYI – NOT TESTABLE Operating vs.