. and also have symbols for such things as punctuation and numerals. such as Braille and Moon.What is writing? Writing is a method of representing language in visual or tactile form. Writing systems use sets of symbols to represent the sounds of speech. All writing systems use visible signs with the exception of the raised notation systems used by blind and visually impaired people. Hence the need to include tactile signs in the above definition.

it must use marks that relate conventionally to articulate speech (the systematic arrangement of significant vocal sounds) or electronic programming in such a way that communication is achieved. it must consist of artificial graphic marks on a durable or electronic surface. .Criteria of writing system it must have as its purpose communication.

Types of writing system Abjads / Consonant Alphabets Alphabets Syllabic Alphabets / Abugidas Syllabaries Semanto-phonetic writing systems Undeciphered writing systems .

Abjads / Consonant Alphabets .

pressue.Here is an example of how the sh sound [ʃ] is represented in different languages and alphabets: IPA: /ʃ/ (unvoiced postalveolar fricative) Alphabets Afrikaans: sjampoe (shampoo) Czech: šplouchat (to splash) English: ship. French: chat (cat) German: schön (beautiful) Irish: mise (me) Lingala: cakú / shakú (African grey parrot) Welsh: siarad (to speak) . schedule. machine. election. mission.

Syllabic Alphabets / Abugidas .

Syllabaries .

Semanto-phonetic writing systems Pictograms and logograms Ideograms Compound characters .

alternative scripts for English and other languages Phonetic alphabets . Language-based communication systems Morse Code.writing systems used in books. etc. Theban. Fictional scripts . films and computer games .Braille.Other writing and communication systems Alternative scripts .writing systems that can be used to phonetically indicate the pronunciation of any language Other notation systems . Semaphore. etc.Enochian. Shorthand. etc. Magical alphabet .

. and speakers can correct themselves and change their utterances as they go along. unless recorded. Below are some of the ways in which these two forms of language differ: Writing is usually permanent and written texts cannot usually be changed once they have been printed/written out. However some forms of writing are closer to speech than others. Speech is usually transient.Differences between writing and speech Written and spoken language differ in many ways. and vice versa.

incomplete sentences. such as instant messages and email. However some forms of written language. Spoken language tends to be full of repetitions. with the exception of formal speeches and other scripted forms of speech. are closer to spoken language. Written language tends to be more complex and intricate than speech with longer sentences and many subordinate clauses. corrections and interruptions. Speech is usually used for immediate interactions. . The punctuation and layout of written texts also have no spoken equivalent.A written text can communicate across time and space for as long as the particular language and writing system is still understood. such as news reports and scripts for plays and films.

Such things are not available in speech . except in computer-based communication. Speech is usually a dynamic interaction between two or more people. so it is possible to leave much unsaid or indirectly implied. Context and shared knowledge play a major role. Writers can make use of punctuation. Therefore they cannot rely on context to clarify things and have to make sure that they explain things clearly and unambiguously.Writers receive no immediate feedback from their readers. layout. colours and other graphical effects in their written texts. headings.

Some types of vocabulary are used only or mainly in speech. such as some complex chemical and legal terms. Only recorded speech can be used in this way. like. as are some kinds of vocabulary. tone. These include slang expressions. Written material can be read repeatedly and closely analysed. etc. and notes can be made on the writing surface. and tags like y'know.Speech can use timing. and timber to add emotional context. volume. . Some grammatical constructions are only used in writing.