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About Indian Railways

Indian Railways has one of the largest & busiest rail networks in the

It comes under the Ministry of Railways.
It is the worlds largest commercial employer, with more than 105
million employees.
The fleet of includes over 200,000 wagons, 50,000 coaches, 8,000
It also owns locomotives & coaches production facilities.
Indian Railways transporting over 20 million passengers.
Indian Railways are divided into 16 zones. & each zones is made up
of a certain no. of divisions. There are 67 divisions.
The total length of the track used by Indian Railways is about
108,805 KM (67,608miles.)
About 50% of the total track KM is Diesel .
It also operates the Kolkata, Delhi metro.


Diesel locomotive shed is an industrial technical setup, where

repair & maintenance works of diesel of diesel locomotives is

carried out, so as keep loco working properly.
It contributes to increase the operational life of diesel locomotives
Minimize the line failure
The technical manpower of a shed also increases the efficiency of
the loco.
Diesel shed usually has -;
Berths & plate for loco maintenance
Pits for under frame maintenance.
Heavy cranes, lifting jacks.
Fuel storage & lube oil storage, water treatment plant & testing
labs etc.
Sub-assembly overhauling 7 repairing sections.
Machine shop & welding facilities.

SHED AREA ----------------------------------------------------------- 2261 sq.m .

M.G SETELITE SHED----------------------------------------------- 1965- 1997.

M.G HOME SHED---------------------------------------------------- FROM 1997
HOLDINGS ------------------------------------------------------------- 64.
SHEDULES------------------------------------------------------------FOUR(TI1,TI2,M3,M9 )

STAFF CADER----------------------------------------------------------- 100

BEARTHING SPACE---------------------------------------------- 9 LOCO SHEDULE PIT
MANUFACTURER----------------------------------------------------- ALCO/ DLW



Freight locomotive For designed with
slower speed, acceleration and have
capacity to pull heavier load as
compared to another.
Ex. (WDG2, WDM4)
Passenger locomotive-- For designed
with high speed, fast acceleration &
light loads. Ex. (WDP2, YDP4)

Shunting locomotive-- For designed

with slower speed, low HP and suitable
for shunting purpose only.
Ex. (WDS4, WDS6)

The first digit [gauge]
W= Broad Gauge
Y= Meter Gauge
Z= Narrow Gauge


The second digit [power]

D= Diesel
C= DC traction
A= AC traction
CA= Dual-power AC/DC traction
B= Battery electric (rare)
The third digit
M= Mixed Traffic
P= Passenger
G= Goods
U= Multiple Unit ( EMU/ DEMU)
R= Railcar



How to start LOCO

Compression ignition engine

Firing order - 1,4,2,6,3,5
Cycle of operations suction, compression, power,


Sections view of Diesel Engine

LOCO Specification YDM4

Engine Model:- YDM4

Engine Company:- ALCO

No. of Cylinder:- 6

Cylinder Arrangement:- Inline

Cylinder Shape:- I shape

Engine BHP:- 1200

Max. Weight:- 72 tone

Traction HP:- 1200HP

Gross HP:- 1280HP

Starting Speed: 100-150 r.p.m

Compression Ratio:- 12:1

Full Speed:- 400-1100 r.p.m

Max. Speed:- 1200 r.p.m

Fuel Tank Capacity:- 3000 lit.

Wheel Arrangement:- co-co

Radiator Fan:- 41HP

Firing order is:- 1-4-2-6-3-5

Dia. Of Wheel:- 965 mm

Compressor:- 1100 r.p.m

Battery:- Series Compound Shunt


NOSE It consists head light, sand box, resistance grid.

DRIVERs CAB It consists long hood, short hood, control stand, air brake control stand,
booster air pressure , indicating lube oil, pressure gauges, mechanical control &
electrical speedometer and load meter.
MAIN GENERATOR COMPARTMENT It consists traction motor, excitation
generator, auxiliary generator, front traction motor blower and housed in this
ENGINE ROOM - It consists after cooler, turbocharger governor, fuel injection pump,
fuel oil filters, lube oil filters, water pump, extension shaft, expressor spline
EXPRESSOR COMPARTMENT It produces a vacuum compressed air which is used
for braking purpose, pump for hydraulic governor fuel booster pump & fuel booster
pump motor are also kept.
RADIATOR - Radiator fan, radiator panel, lube oil, right angle gear box, driving
radiator fan, eddy current clutch which converts right angle gear box to diesel
engines extension shaft.

Parts of loco


Wheels are first arranged

into bogies.
It provides greater
They are represented in
two blocks separated by
(-) sign.
This type of bogies are
called CO-CO.

Function of components
Main Generator

The diesel engine drives the main generator which provides the
power to move the train. The alternator generates DC electricity
which is used to provide power for the traction motors mounted on
the trucks (bogies).
Auxiliary Generator
This provides DC power for lighting, heating, air conditioning,
dining facilities etc. on the train.
Motor Blower
Motor blower provides air which is blown over the
traction motors to keep them cool during periods of
heavy work.
Air Intakes
The air for cooling the locomotive's motors is drawn in
from outside the locomotive. It has to be filtered to
remove dust and other impurities


The diesel engine needs a battery to start it and to provide electrical power for lights.
Traction Motor
Traction motors are provided on the axles to give the final drive. These motors were
traditionally DC
Fuel Tank
The fuel tank is normally under the loco frame and will have a capacity of 3000 lts.
Air Reservoirs
Air reservoirs containing compressed air at high pressure are required for the train
braking and some other systems on the locomotive. These are often mounted next to
the fuel tank under the floor of the locomotive.
Drive Shaft

The main output from the diesel engine is transmitted by the drive shaft to the
generators at one end and the radiator fans and compressor at the other end.
Radiator and Radiator Fan
Water is distributes around the engine block to keep the temperature within the most
efficient range for the engine.

Air brake

Air Brake System (Loco Brake System)

SA-9 Valve : for loco brakes only
Release position :-running loco is in released position
Application position :- stopped pressure of 3.5kg/cm2
Vacuum Brake System: A-9 Valve : for loco & train brake system
1. Release position: - pressure to 5.0kg/cm2of MR. vacuum is about 55-60 cm.
2. Minimum position:- pressure in brake pipe= 4.5 kg/cm2, vacuum =50-55 cm
3. Service application:- Brake pipe pressure = 3.5 kg/cm2 , Vacuum =25-30 cm
4. Over reduction:- Brake pipe pressure = 2.5 kg/cm2, Vacuum =20 cm
5. Emergency:- Brake pipe pressure = 0.0kg/cm2, engine is in idle condition


Expresser is made with combination of EXhauter +

It is located at free end of the engine block and driven through
the extension shaft attached to the engine crank shaft.
Exhauster suck air from train pipe to create required amount
of vacuum to brake system.
There are 6 cylinder are arranged in a W type, 2 cylinder in
vertical, 4 in V shaped.

Turbo Supercharger

It is used increase the amount

of air pushed into cylinder.

Pressure of air is 3-6 kg/cm2
It gives a 50% increase in
engine power.
Advantage is that it gives more
power with no increase in fuel
cost because it uses exhaust
gas as driving power.
It also increase the air pressure,
better ignition & efficiency.
Intermediate casing, turbine
casing, nozzle failure.



Failure Analysis
Ultra sonic test
In ultrasonic testing very short ultrasonic pulse waves

with center frequencies ranging from 0.1 15 MHz.

US testing is performed on steel ,metals and alloy.
It is a form of non destructive testing.
Zyglo test
Zyglo test is a of non destructive testing
It is quick & accurate process for locating surface flaws

such as shrinkage cracks, fatigue cracks, grinding cracks

Zyglo test is performed on metals & non metals materials
like Al, Mg, Cu, brass, bronze, sintered carbide, non
magnetic alloys, ceramics, plastic & glass.

Schedule Examination

Minor Schedule

Trip -1 & Trip -1

Fuel oil, lube oil& filter are checked.

Expressor discharge valve.

Record oil level in the axle caps for suspension bearing.

Turbo super charger is checked.

Under frame are checked.

Major Schedule

Run engine; check operation of air system safety valves & expressor crank case lube
oil pressure.

Stop engine; carry out dry run operational test, check FIP timing & uniformity of
rack setting & correct if necessary.

Engine crankcase cover:- remove crankcase cover and check for any foreign
material, renew gasket.

Clean strainer & filters, replace paper elements.

Compressor air & vacuum system:- check, clean and recondition rings, intake
strainers, & inlet, exhaust valve, lube oil relief valve. Drain, clean & refill crankcase.

Roller bearing axle boxes. Check for loose bolts, lose of grease. sign of overheating.
Remove covers,. Carry out ultrasonic test of axles.

Renew airflow indicator valve.

To provide pollution free environment, an ETP is

Various effluents emitted from diesel shed are passed
through the plant.
Pollution free water is collected & Water is used for non
drinking purposes gardening & washing of the

Thanking you