You are on page 1of 21

# PETE 310

Lecture # 15
Properties of Black Oils
Definitions
(pages 224-240)

Phase Diagram of a
Black Oil Reservoir
Initial Reservoir
Conditions

P re s s u re

Path of Production

75%

CP

50%
25%

Separator Conditions

Temperature

## Properties of Black Oils Needed

Reservoir Engineering Calculations:
Formation Volume Factor of oil Bo
Total Formation Volume Factor of oil Bt
Solution Gas oil Ratio Rs
Coefficient of Isothermal Compressibility Co

for

## Properties of Black Oils Needed for

Reservoir Engineering Calculations:
Coefficient of isobaric thermal expansion o
Oil Viscosity o
Interfacial Tension

Learning Goals
Understand the behavior of those PVT
properties (Bo,Rs,) vs P and type of
fluid (now)
Evaluate PVT properties from (later)
Field data
Laboratory studies
Correlations

Definitions
Specific gravity of a liquid

o ( P1 , T1 )
o
w ( P1 , T1 )
API gravity
o

141.5
API
135
o

Definitions
Formation Volume Factor of Oil

Surface (Ps,Ts)

Gas out of
Solution

Reservoir (P,T)

Definitions
Volume of Oil + Dissolved gas
Bo = at Reservoir Pressure & Temp.
Volume of Oil entering Stock
tank at Tsc, Psc

## Units = Reservoir barrels (bbl) /Stock tank barrels (STB)

General Shape of Bo
Reservoir T = constant
Bo

Pb
Reservoir Pressure

## Solution Gas Oil Ratio (Rs)

How much gas is dissolved in the oil
volume per volume basis
Rs depends upon pressure
Units [= ] SCF gas /STB oil

## General Shape of Solution Gas

Oil Ratio (Rs)
Reservoir T = constant
Rs

Pb
Reservoir Pressure

## Total Formation Volume Factor Bt

Pb
Oil
Hg

Bob

Gas
Oil
Hg

Bg(Rsb-Rs)

Bo

Definition of Bt
Also called Two-phase formation
volume factor

Bt Bo Bg Rsb Rs
Units
bbl/STB + bbl/SCF * (SCF/STB)

General Shape of Bt
Reservoir T = constant

Bo, Bt

Bt
Bt=Bo
Bo

Pb
Reservoir Pressure

Standard
Conditions

Rv =
Separator gas

Separator gas

Separator gas

## Definition of Oil & Gas PVT Properties

Bg =

STB

gas

P4

P3

gas

gas

oil

oil

Reservoir
P2

P1

oil

oil

STB

Standard
Conditions

Separator gas

Separator gas

Decreasing Pressure

oil
Bo=

STB

Rs=

STB

## The Coefficient of Isothermal

Compressibility of Oil
Provides Instantaneous change of
volume with P at constant T

1
Co PA , TA
V

V
P

TA

## Also with molar volume

and specific volume

Coefficient of Thermal
Expansion

## (Use in Steam Injection Processes)

Oil Viscosity
Viscosity is a measure of the resistance
to flow exerted by a fluid
This is called dynamic viscosity and has
units of
centipoise = g mass / 100 sec cm

## Kinematic viscosity is viscosity / density,

units are in
centistokes = centipoise /g/cc

## Needs of Crude Oil Viscosity

Calculation of two-phase flow
Gas-lift and pipeline design
Calculate oil recovery either from
natural depletion or from recovery
techniques such as waterflooding
and gas-injection processes

Separation and
Storage Facilities
HC Gas
Injection
from Pipeline
or Recycle

Injection
Well

1 Oil Zone

Production Well

Oil Bank /

2 Miscible Front

Oil Viscosity

T = constant
Gas Out of
Solution

Pb