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PETE 310

Lecture # 15
Properties of Black Oils
Definitions
(pages 224-240)

Phase Diagram of a
Black Oil Reservoir
Initial Reservoir
Conditions

P re s s u re

Path of Production

75%

CP

50%
25%

Separator Conditions

Temperature

Properties of Black Oils Needed


Reservoir Engineering Calculations:
Formation Volume Factor of oil Bo
Total Formation Volume Factor of oil Bt
Solution Gas oil Ratio Rs
Coefficient of Isothermal Compressibility Co

for

Properties of Black Oils Needed for


Reservoir Engineering Calculations:
Coefficient of isobaric thermal expansion o
Oil Viscosity o
Interfacial Tension

Learning Goals
Understand the behavior of those PVT
properties (Bo,Rs,) vs P and type of
fluid (now)
Evaluate PVT properties from (later)
Field data
Laboratory studies
Correlations

Definitions
Specific gravity of a liquid

o ( P1 , T1 )
o
w ( P1 , T1 )
API gravity
o

141.5
API
135
o

Definitions
Formation Volume Factor of Oil

Surface (Ps,Ts)

Gas out of
Solution

Reservoir (P,T)

Definitions
Volume of Oil + Dissolved gas
Bo = at Reservoir Pressure & Temp.
Volume of Oil entering Stock
tank at Tsc, Psc

Units = Reservoir barrels (bbl) /Stock tank barrels (STB)

General Shape of Bo
Reservoir T = constant
Bo

Pb
Reservoir Pressure

Solution Gas Oil Ratio (Rs)


How much gas is dissolved in the oil
volume per volume basis
Rs depends upon pressure
Units [= ] SCF gas /STB oil

General Shape of Solution Gas


Oil Ratio (Rs)
Reservoir T = constant
Rs

Pb
Reservoir Pressure

Total Formation Volume Factor Bt


Pb
Oil
Hg

Bob

Gas
Oil
Hg

Bg(Rsb-Rs)

Bo

Definition of Bt
Also called Two-phase formation
volume factor

Bt Bo Bg Rsb Rs
Units
bbl/STB + bbl/SCF * (SCF/STB)

General Shape of Bt
Reservoir T = constant

Bo, Bt

Bt
Bt=Bo
Bo

Pb
Reservoir Pressure

Standard
Conditions

Rv =
Separator gas

Separator gas

Separator gas

Definition of Oil & Gas PVT Properties

Bg =

STB

gas

P4

P3

gas

gas

oil

oil

Reservoir
P2

P1

oil

oil

STB

Standard
Conditions

Separator gas

Separator gas

Decreasing Pressure

oil
Bo=

STB

Rs=

STB

The Coefficient of Isothermal


Compressibility of Oil
Provides Instantaneous change of
volume with P at constant T

1
Co PA , TA
V

V
P

TA

Also with molar volume


and specific volume

Coefficient of Thermal
Expansion

(Use in Steam Injection Processes)

Oil Viscosity
Viscosity is a measure of the resistance
to flow exerted by a fluid
This is called dynamic viscosity and has
units of
centipoise = g mass / 100 sec cm

Kinematic viscosity is viscosity / density,


units are in
centistokes = centipoise /g/cc

Needs of Crude Oil Viscosity


Calculation of two-phase flow
Gas-lift and pipeline design
Calculate oil recovery either from
natural depletion or from recovery
techniques such as waterflooding
and gas-injection processes

Separation and
Storage Facilities
HC Gas
Injection
from Pipeline
or Recycle

Injection
Well

1 Oil Zone

Production Well

Oil Bank /

2 Miscible Front

Variation of Oil Viscosity

Oil Viscosity

T = constant
Gas Out of
Solution

Two Phase Flow

Single Phase Flow


Pb