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# “If the brain were so simple that we could understand it then we’d be so simple that we couldn’t”

DEVELOPMENT OF FLANN BASED ADAPTIVE DIGITAL IMAGE FILTER

TOPICS TO BE DISCUSSED

1)IMAGE AND IMAGE PROCESSING 2)FILTERS AND TYPE OF FILTERS 3)DIFFERENT TECHNIQUES USED TO DESIGN A FILTER 4)BEST TECHNIQUE

What is Image?

The term image refer to a two dimensional light intensity function f(x,y), where x and y denote spatial coordinates and the value of f at any point (x,y) is proportional to the brightness (or gray level) of the image at that point.

**What is Image processing
**

Image processing is any form of information processing for which the input is an image, such as photographs or frames of video; the output is not necessarily an image, but can be for instance a set of features of the image.

**Image Processing Techniques
**

Image Acquisition Image Enhancement Image Restoration Image Compression Image Segmentation

**What is Image Restoration
**

It is an Image processing technique for getting an original image from a noisy image. It is of two 2 Types: 1.Image Denoising 2. Image Deblurring

Different filter used for Image Denoising 1.Linear Filters 2.Non-Linear filter

**Drawbacks of linear filter
**

Linear filters generally have Linear characteristics. But on online application the noise added to the system is adaptive in nature. On that case the linear filter won’t able to denoise.

**Non linear filter
**

In order to restore the image from adaptively degraded image, we are generally using non linear filter.

**Different Algorithms For Designing Non Linear Filters
**

• Neural Network • Fuzzy logic • Ant colony • Bacteria Technology • Genetic algorithm But we prefer Neural Network

**INTRODUCTION TO NEURAL NETWORK
**

It is an interconnected group of artificial neuron that use a mathematical model or computational model for information processing based on a connectionist approach to computation.

Its main aim is to mimic the human ability to adapt to changing circumstances and current environment.

Basic Concepts

• A Neural Network generally maps a set of inputs to a set of outputs • Number of inputs/outputs is variable • The Network itself is composed of an arbitrary number of nodes with an arbitrary topology

Input 0 Input 1

...

Input n

Neural Network

Output 0

Output 1

...

Output m

**What can Neural Network do?
**

• • • • Compute a known function Approximate an unknown function Pattern Recognition Signal Processing

NEURAL NETWORKS ARE CATEGORISED MAINLY INTO THREE PARTS

1)SINGLE LAYER PERCEPTRON

2)MULTI LAYER PERCEPTRON

3) FLANN - FUNCTIONAL LINK ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK

Single Layer Perceptron (9-1 network)

MULTI LAYER

9-4-1 Neural Network

FLANN

W X 1

d

X 2 X 9

y

e

LMS

**DIFFERENT FUNCTIONAL ENHANCING PATTERNS ARE :
**

Exponential expansion Trigonometric Functional expansion Power series expansion Chebyshev expansion

WORKING WITH SINGLE LAYER PERCEPTRON

WORKING WITH MULTI LAYER PERCEPTRON

WORKING WITH FLANN

ORIGINAL IMAGE

DISTORTED IMAGE Image corrupted with Gaussian Noise of mean 0 and variance 0.01

RESTORED IMAGE USING FLANN

COMPARISION OF MLP &FLANN

**Status of Neural Networks
**

• Most of the reported applications are still in research stage • No formal proofs, but they seem to have useful applications that work

Conclusion

It can concluded that the performance of FLANN is better than MLP for noise suppression from an image. The FLANN structure may be used for online image processing application due to its less computational requirement and satisfactory performance.

References [5.1] P.J.Antsaklis,"Neural network in control system."IEEE, Control.Syst.Mag.PP. 3-5. April.1990. [5.2] S. Haykin. Neural Networks. Ottawa.ON.Canda Maxwell Macmillan. 1994. [5.3] P.S.Sastry.G . Santharam and K.P. Unnikrishnan." Memoryneural networks for identification and control of dynamical systems." IEEE Trans.Neural Networks. vol. 5.pp. 306-319.Mar.1994. [5.4] A.G. Parlos.K.T.Chong and A.F .Atiya."application of recurrent multilayer perceptron in modeling of complex process dynamics." IEEE Trans. Neural Networks .vol.5,pp255-266,Mar.1994. [5.5] R Grino.G.Cembrano and C.Torres."Nonlinear system identification using additive dynamic neural networks two on line approaches."IEEE Trans Circuits SystemIvol47 150-165.Feb 2000. [5.6] T.Poggio and F.Girosi."Networks for approximation and learning."Proc. IEEE ,vol 78,pp.1481-1497,sep1990.

TUHIN GHOSE & KEERTI PRAKASH PARIJA TRIDENT ACADEMY OF TECHNOLOGY BHUBANESWAR