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Safety & Health Management

System Training
Lesson 5 Safety & Health Training

Safety Health Management System


(SHMS) Webinar Series
In this series of webinars developed under the
Susan Harwood Grant, you will learn:
o Lesson 1 - OSHA and the Importance of Having a
Safety Health Management System (SHMS)
o Lesson 2 Management Commitment & Leadership
o Lesson 3 Worksite Analysis
o Lesson 4 Hazard Prevention & Control
o Lesson 5 Safety & Health Training

Lesson 5 Contents
1. Objectives
2. Identifying Training
Requirements
3. Is Training the
Solution?
4. Identifying Training
needs
5. Training Matrix
6. Records and
Documentation

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Employee Orientation
On-the-Job Training
Supervisory Training
Refresher Training
Training Transfer
Training Effectiveness
S & H Training
Resources

Objectives
Learn how to identify your company's
OSHA training requirements and general
training needs
Learn how to create and use a training
matrix

Objectives
Learn how to promote transfer of training
into the workplace
Learn how to recognize the characteristics
of effective training, as well as the
importance of maintaining training records
and documentation.

Identifying Training Requirements


Many OSHA standards have specific training
requirements.
Training requirements can vary depending on the
nature of the hazards addressed.
For example, a standard may specify the
following:
Trainer qualifications, topics to be covered, training
methods, frequency of refresher training, or
requirements for documentation and recordkeeping.

Identifying Training Requirements


Examples of S & H Standards with Training
requirements:

Hazard Communication
Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories
Noise
Bloodborne Pathogens
PPE
Confined Space
Lockout/Tagout
Powered Industrial Trucks
Fire Safety and Emergency
Action Plan.

Identifying Training Requirements


Some standards might require different levels of
training, depending on the worker's level of
exposure to the hazard.
Employees who actually perform the work would
need extensive training; other employees may
just need to know that the hazard exists
Multiple levels of training may be explicitly stated.

Identifying Training Requirements


The Lockout/Tagout standard distinguishes between
"authorized employee training", "affected employee
training" and "all other employee training".
Authorized employee training is for workers who
perform maintenance on equipment.
Affected employee training is for workers whose job
may require regular use of the equipment but not involve
maintenance or repair on it.
All other employee training is for workers whose work
operations are or may be in an area where lockout/tagout
is utilized

Poll Question #1

Identifying Training Requirements


Also, some OSHA standards are performancebased; while others have specific content
requirements.
Training standards that have performance-based
criteria define what training must achieve but do
not define how it is to be done.
These standards allow more flexibility in the
implementation of the criteria than do training
standards that specify the actual training
content. (See Examples next slides.)

Poll Question #2

Identifying Training Requirements


Performance-Based Training Standard vs.
Standard with Content Requirement
Performance-Based Standard.

The Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals


in the Laboratory (OSHA Standard 1919.1450) states
"The employer shall provide employees with
information and training to ensure that they are
apprised of the hazards of chemicals present in their
work area.." While there are a few other items in the
standard related to training, it is clear that the
approach is different than the one below.

Identifying Training Requirements


Standard with Content Requirements.

The Servicing of Multi-Piece Rim Wheels (OSHA


Standard 1910.177) states specifically that "The
employer shall assure that each employee
demonstrates and maintains the ability to service rim
wheels safely, including performance of the following
tasks:
Demounting of tires (including deflation); Inspection
and identification of the rim wheel components, "
Note the very specific fashion in which content is
described.

Identifying Training Requirements


If your state has a State Plan OSHA, there may
be specific requirements for those standards that
are different than the Federal Requirements.
Since OSHA training requirements vary with
different standards, you will need to identify the
specifications for the standards with which your
company must comply.

Is Training the Solution?


Employees should not perform any job unless
they know how to do it properly and safely.
Training, whether it is classroom-based, onthe-job or self-instructional, is often an
effective way to make employees aware of job
hazards and to teach them proper and safe
job performance.

Is Training the Solution?

Training is an appropriate solution to


performance problems when there is a deficiency
of knowledge or skills.
Suppose your company experiences safety
performance problems such as employees
working with guards removed from machinery or
not wearing the proper personal protective
equipment (PPE).
Company pressure to work too quickly or
improper sizing of PPE may be the underlying
causes of these behaviors, not lack of
knowledge.

Is Training the Solution?


Some experts believe that training should only be
provided after all other performance issues have
been addressed.
As you evaluate the potential hazards during your
worksite analysis, try to determine if any other
issues could be contributing to the performance
problem before choosing training as the solution.

Poll Question #3

Is Training the Solution?


Choose Training as a Solution to a Problem after:
Identifying the underlying cause of the problem.

Making your best efforts to control and/or eliminate the


circumstances and conditions leading to the problem.
Determining that a lack of knowledge and skill is
contributing to the problem.

Is Training the Solution? - Exercise


Employees in the receiving department at CHC
have complained about David Rebell (Mark's
brother) driving his forklift too fast and
occasionally bumping into shipments.
The Operations Foreman, Jack McDonald, has
had to complete a number of accident reports for
damaged goods due to David's behavior. Jack
asked Mary White to sign up David for training in
forklift operation and safety.

Is Training the Solution? - Exercise


Mary discovered that David has had forklift training twice
at CHC and drove a forklift at a previous job.
What might be an underlying cause for David's
improper forklift performance?
What is the likelihood that additional training will
improve David's performance?
What might be the outcome if Mary decides to send
David to more training without exploring the underlying
causes of his behavior?
This exercise shows the importance of investigating the
underlying causes of poor performance before applying
considerable resources to provide training.

Identifying Training Needs


A training need is a gap in a worker's
performance that results from lack of
knowledge or skill in a particular area.
Training is an instructional experience that
helps workers to fill that gap by providing
them with knowledge and opportunities to
practice new skills.

Identifying Training Needs


Even though there is no OSHA
ergonomic standard, ergonomic risk
factors are generally recognized as a
hazard for musculoskeletal disorders.
Therefore, an employer has a
responsibility to provide training in proper
lifting for employees who are exposed to
this hazard.

Identifying Training Needs

Your worksite analysis, may help you discover


additional areas where training will be beneficial.
Accident investigation of a hand injury may
show that the employee had not been properly
trained in lockout / tagout procedures.
Self-inspection may show that employees were
working in confined spaces without having
received any training in this area.
A JHA may show that employees are improperly
lifting boxes because they have not been trained
in proper lifting techniques.

Identifying Training Needs


When multiple worksite analysis methods point to
the same training need, it is a clear indication
that training should be provided.
Also, employees who are assigned
responsibilities in the SHMS such as conducting
accident investigations, workplace inspections
and Job Hazard Analyses may need training
before performing these tasks.

Poll Question #4

Identifying Training Needs


Prioritizing Needs

Employees should be properly trained before


performing any tasks that could pose a threat to their
safety and health.
Worksite analysis results will help you prioritize the
delivery of your training.
You may apply the same criteria to prioritize your
safety and health training goals as you did to prioritize
your company's hazards in Lesson 2.

Identifying Training Needs


Criteria for Prioritizing Training Needs

The likelihood or potential of the hazard occurring


(very likely, unlikely, etc.)
The severity of the hazard (death, serious physical
harm, etc.)
The frequency of the hazard (once per day, once per
shift, etc.)
The number of employees exposed to the hazard (1,
5, 10, etc.)

Poll Question #5

Training Matrix
A training matrix is a tool that helps you identify
and organize the S & H training requirements
and needs for each job at your company.
Although the format for a training matrix varies,
generally it is a grid that associates training
topics with trainees.
It is important that you select a method that is
most useful to your organization.

Training Matrix
Training matrices are useful for:

Distinguishing between training topics that apply to a


broad audience vs. those that apply to a narrower
audience (a prioritization criterion).
Tracking individual employees' progress toward
completing their training requirements.
Identifying the training needs of new company
employees and new transfers into a department.

Training Matrix
A training matrix is an evolving document that will
change as job positions are added and deleted
and as training needs shift.
For this reason, consider developing your matrix
in an electronic format that can be easily revised.

Poll Question #6

Training Matrix - Assignment


Create training Matrix for your organization
Start building a training matrix for your company
using the information you gathered from these
sources:

Your accident analysis


Self-inspection assignment
Comprehensive Survey
Your JHA OSHA Training Requirements

Records & Documentation


Documentation includes tracking the dates when
training events occurred, a content summary or
topics outline, the training methods used, and the
names and qualifications of trainers.
Training records include attendance records
(name, department, topic/course name, date of
training and employee signature), copies of
performance and written tests, and test scores
for all participants.

Records & Documentation


Keeping good documentation and records has
many benefits, including enabling you to:
(1) determine when annual or required refresher
training is needed,
(2) prove that training has been provided and
(3) determine whether lack of training is the cause of
safety performance issues.

Records & Documentation


Many OSHA standards that require safety and health
training have specific documentation and recordkeeping
requirements.
These requirements may vary with each standard so you
will need to consult each standard for details.
At the very least, obtain the participant's name and
signature, the training date, the contents or summary of
the training session, and the trainer's name and
qualifications.
As you learned earlier, some OSHA standards even
specify that certain topics be covered.
While the length of time that training records must be kept
varies, it is best to keep them for at least three years.

Poll Question #7

Employee Orientation
Employee orientation is a good way to provide
much of the initial safety and health training that
may be required, particularly if participation is
mandatory for all employees.
If your organization already has an orientation for
new employees that covers items such as
company benefits and work hours, consider
including a safety and health training component.
If your company's training matrix contains safety
topics that are required for everyone, then these
topics are good candidates for orientation.

Employee Orientation
New Employee Orientation is a good place to
discuss your company's S & H Policy,
management's commitment to safety and health,
and ways in which employees are encouraged to
participate in the SHMS.
This is the employee's first opportunity and
impression of your organization's safety and
health program.

On the Job Training

On-the-job training (OJT), as its name implies, occurs


within the context of the work environment.
A supervisor or other qualified personnel delivers it, often
providing opportunities for hands-on practice with close
supervision.
While the delivery format is generally informal, the
content and learning activities should be consistent for all
trainees.
Training checklists can help ensure this consistency.
Being contextual, OJT provides a high degree of training
transfer (discussed later), relevance and applicability.

On the Job Training


On-the-job training can be a good method to
deliver content that is specific for a particular
department and would not be covered during
general employee orientation. For example,
supervisors should develop a checklist for OJT
topics for their departments, which might include:
Hazards associated with specific chemicals used in
the department.
Safe usage, handling and maintenance of tools,
supplies and equipment (including PPE).
Proper procedures for safe performance of tasks and
jobs and handling emergencies.

On the Job Training


OJT offers opportunities to increase employee
participation in the SHMS.
Seasoned employees with expertise in certain
areas can help develop the departmental OJT
checklist and ones who perform their jobs in an
exemplary manner can help train others.

On the Job Training


When is OJT appropriate?

When new employees (or transfers) enter a


department where specific knowledge is required to
perform jobs safely.
When new work processes and equipment are
introduced.
When employees need hands-on practice with
supervision in the work environment.

Poll Question #8

Supervisory Training
Supervisors play a critical role in any safety
program through their daily contact with workers.
Top management shows its commitment to the
SHMS by training supervisors to understand their
responsibilities for ensuring workplace safety.

Supervisory Training
Understand S & H Standards

Supervisors need to understand the safety and health


regulations that apply to their workplace.
Consider having your supervisors attend an OSHA 10hour outreach program that covers many of the more
general standards.
These classes are often provided by: (1) your state
safety and health consultation services program, (2)
local community or technical colleges, (3) your state
OSHA (state plan states only) or (4) by contacting U.S.
OSHA.

Supervisory Training

Prevent or Control Hazards

Supervisors need training to recognize hazards in their


work area.
They should be trained in their role in conducting
accident investigations and Job Hazard Analyses as
well as identifying hazards during workplace
inspections.
Also, supervisors are the first line of communication
when employees have a safety issue that needs to be
resolved.
With proper training, supervisors can learn suitable
methods of hazard prevention and control, enabling
them to deal swiftly with hazards as they arise.

Supervisory Training
Provide Adequate Training

Organizations must inform supervisors of their


responsibility to provide each employee with proper
training in a timely manner.
Supervisors need to know which of the company's
safety and health policies apply to their employees.
Most OSHA standards require that employees be
trained prior to beginning the work involving the
hazard.

Supervisory Training
For example, they need to know how to protect
themselves from bloodborne pathogens by reading
the BBP Exposure Control Plan before they have this
potential exposure.
Depending on the organization, they may need to
know if training programs meet OSHA training
requirements and how to keep proper documentation
and records.

Supervisory Training
Provide Proper Equipment

Supervisors need training in their responsibility for


making sure that all employees within their work area
always have the proper equipment to perform their
jobs safely.
This would include proper tools, PPE, as well as
procedures for using the equipment.
Supervisors must ensure that PPE is sized properly
and that all equipment is well maintained.

Supervisory Training
Enforce Safe Work Practices

Supervisors need training on the company's safety


and health policies, guidelines and procedures
established for day-to-day operations.
Supervisors must be involved in addressing safety
performance issues and taking disciplinary action
when safety policy is not followed.

Supervisory Training
They need to learn their responsibilities in this area
and the company's policies and procedures for
disciplining employees (e.g., start with verbal
warnings; progress to written warnings; as a final
measure, apply severe disciplinary action).
Supervisors need to learn effective methods for
communicating safety and health expectations to their
workers and for gaining the support of seasoned
employees in setting high safety norms for the
department.

Poll Question #9

Supervisory Training
Investigate Accidents

Supervisors may be responsible for conducting most


of the initial investigation of accidents that occur within
their departments (see Lesson 3).
Therefore, they will need training in accident
investigation and root cause analysis.
In addition, they may need training in communication
skills so that interactions are cooperative rather than
confrontational.

Refresher Training
Some skills may be used infrequently or only on an "as
needed" basis [for example, cardiopulmonary
resuscitation (CPR)].
Other skills require refresher training if circumstances or
the work environment change.
For example, if a department begins using a new solvent,
employees will need hazard communication training on
that product.
Finally, some skills may need to be monitored to make
sure safe practices continue and that gaps in learning
have not occurred (for example, if employees are not
completing pre-shift forklift inspections).

Refresher Training
Some OSHA standards have specific requirements for
refresher training; while others do not.
The standards that require refresher training describe
what needs to be provided in the training. They also vary
with respect to frequency of the training.
Some standards require refresher training on a regular
basis (for example, every year for respirators). Others
require it only under certain circumstances (for example,
Hazard Communication requires it when a new chemical
is introduced).
Also, if you find there is a need for refresher training even
if OSHA doesn't require it, provide itthis is just good
practice.

Refresher Training
Examples of S & H Standards with Refresher
Training Requirements

Noise
Bloodborne Pathogens
Lockout/Tagout
Powered Industrial Trucks (Forklifts)

Refresher Training
As you determine your OSHA training
requirements, note whether or not each standard
has a requirement for refresher training.
This information is usually included in each
standard, generally with the information on
training.
You may also want to add a separate column for
refresher training in your training matrix.

Poll Question #10

Training Transfer
The ultimate goal of training is for learners to
meet a certain standard of performance on the
job.
This means that people, who receive training
away from their jobsite, will transfer their newly
acquired knowledge and skills to the workplace,
such as the shop floor, laboratory, or office.
This concept is called training transfer.

Training Transfer
You cannot expect training transfer to occur
unless training is really an appropriate solution to
the performance problem.
Overcoming the barriers to training transfer is
important so that trainees won't revert back to old
behavior patterns when they return to the
workplace after receiving training.

Training Transfer
Barriers and Promotional Strategies
Common barriers that inhibit training transfer:

Lack or Management Commitment


Conflicting Goals
Lack of Equipment
Peer Pressure

Poll Question #11

Training Effectiveness
Whether you are developing your training inhouse or contracting out, you will want assurance
that your company is providing effective training.
Effective training follows certain established
principles and guidelines, which can be adapted
to your company's needs.

Training Effectiveness
Identifying Objectives

Objectives are precise written statements of the


desired knowledge, skill or abilities that trainees will be
able to demonstrate as a result of the training.
They should be expressed in such a way that the
learned behavior can be observed and measured.
The characteristics of a useful objective are: a
description of the desired knowledge, skill and
ability (KS&A) to be learned;
The condition under which the learning will be
demonstrated; and
The criteria for determining that the KS&A have been
learned.

Training Effectiveness
Example Objective:

The forklift operator trainees will demonstrate the safe


way to operate a forklift in the warehouse by
successfully completing all of the items on the forklift
operation checklist.

Training Effectiveness
Designing the Training

Training is well-designed when it effectively and


efficiently addresses the needs of the defined target
audience.
Training can be proven effective if learners can
demonstrate mastery of the learning objectives,
through testing and/or on-the-job performance, at the
end of the training.

Training Effectiveness
Designing the Training

Target Audience: Consider the educational level of


the training; it should not exceed that of the learners.
Also, do you have a large population of non-English
speaking employees? If so, the training delivery must
meet their needs.
Or, do you have a large population of persons with
disabilities that may need various formats in order to
learn or demonstrate understanding?

Training Effectiveness
Designing the training

Training Design is a broad area, which includes:


determining the content (based on the learning
objectives);
Identifying the learning prerequisites;
Properly sequencing the material;
Selecting effective teaching methods and appropriate
media that support mastery of the objectives;
Providing opportunities for learning activities and for
practicing new skills and receiving feedback;
Testing learner performance at the end; and
Evaluating the training effectiveness and modifying the
training program accordingly.

Training Effectiveness
Designing the Training

Training methods refer to different options for delivery of content,


such as lecture, discussion, demonstrations, hands-on practice,
simulation, self-instruction and more.
Select training methods that support learning the desired
knowledge or skill.
Not all methods are advisable in all situations and some OSHA
standards specify the learning method.
For example, training for powered industrial trucks requires a
number of methods including hands-on practical training.
While lecture may be one component of the training, people learn
safe operating practices by actually getting behind the wheel and
driving.

Training Effectiveness
Designing the Training

Similar to training methods, training media need to be


selected based on the appropriateness for the
objectives and target audience.
Training media refer to paper-based instruction,
computer-based instruction, video, audio and more.
Stand-alone video is a good medium for showing
demonstrations or presenting lecture material but may
be a poor choice when spontaneous classroom
discussion is desired.

Training Effectiveness
Selecting the Trainer

Trainer qualifications are important. Trainers must


know the subject they are teaching and must be able
to deliver the training comfortably and completely.
Some OSHA standards address trainer qualifications
to make sure they are competent.
You may also consider an authorized OSHA trainer
who has the experience and training to teach 10-hour
or 30-hour courses in construction or general industry
safety and health standards (see the OSHA Outreach
Training Program).

Training Effectiveness

Conducting the Training

Training must be conducted in a way that is conducive


to learning. Things to consider include:
Physical Environment. Is the room large enough?
Room Layout. Does the room layout support the type
of training that will occur?
Equipment. Does the trainer need any special
presentation equipment or setup?
Handouts. Are they legible and are there enough
copies?
Accessibility. Will employees with special needs such
as hearing or visual impairment attend the training?

Training Effectiveness

Evaluating the effectiveness of training can occur in


a number of different ways (or on different levels).
Level 1 - perception survey
Level 2 - completion of a written quiz or
demonstration of newly learned skills.
Level 3 - how well are the behaviors taught in the
safety and health training being used in the
workplace.
Level 4 - how well overall performance has
improved.

Poll Question #12

Management Review Assignment


In Lesson 2 you were introduced to the concept
of management review. Now that you have
implemented a considerable portion of your
SHMS, consider conducting a management
review to determine if any changes are needed to
improve worker protection and if your safety and
health performance is continuously improving.
During your management review, ensure that
your SHMS is functioning as intended, is
adapting to changing circumstances and is
effective at reducing workplace accidents.

Management Review Assignment


For your management review, collect the
following documents to assist in the process:

written safety and health policy


written safety goals and objectives and progress
toward achieving them
statistics on injuries, illnesses, first-aid incidents and
near-misses
corrective actions implemented due to injuries,
illnesses, first-aid incidents and near-misses
worksite analysis results and implementation of hazard
controls.

Conclusion
This is the end of Lesson 5, please take the posttest and complete the lesson evaluation form.
In order to get your certificate of completion for
this series, you must complete all 5 lessons.

This course, funded by an OSHA-sponsored


Susan Harwood grant, is designed to assist small and
medium sized businesses in developing and
implementing an effective safety and health management
system.
This material was produced under grant SH-17814-0860-F-24 from the Occupational Safety Health
Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. It does not
necessarily reflect the views and policies of the U.S.
Department of Labor, nor does mention of trade names,
commercial products, or organizations imply
endorsement by the U.S. Government.