1st week

Networks
Understanding the network systems and networks:
Network concepts  Cable  Network devices  Network Topologies

What Is Networking?
 Involves

connecting computers for the purpose of sharing information and resources  Requires a great deal of technology  Offers many possible choices for physical connections and related software

Networking Fundamentals
 Consists

of two or more computers connected to each other by wire or cable to transmit data back and forth  Primary motivation arises from a need for individuals to share data quickly and efficiently

Primary Benefits of Networking

Permits groups of users to exchange information routinely and to route data from one individual to another

Single consistent master copy of data files

Improves human communication using network services

Electronic mail (e-mail)

  

Enables network device, database & source sharing Fund saving Group working

Network - Why?

Network - Why?
Headquarters at USA
Office at China

Office Representative at Vietnam

Local and Wide Area Networks

LAN

  

A collection of computers and other networked devices that fit within the scope of a single physical network Provides the building blocks for internetworks and WANs Distance: ~ km Speed: 100 Mbps An internetwork that spans distances measured in miles Links together two or more separate LANs

WAN
 

from simple LAN…
PC1 PC2 PC3

Computer

Computer

Computer

PC4
Laptop

Printer

Hub/Switch

Hub

Printer

Minicomputer

Workstation

PC5

Server

…to WAN,…

Workstation Workstation

Workstation Workstation

Workstation

Router

Saigon

Đồng Nai

Hà Nội

Workstation Workstation

…, and Internet !!!
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)

VN AU

Internet
Internet 64 Kbps

FR

A Networking Terminologies
 Clients,

peers, and servers  Network medium and network messages  Network protocols  Network software  Network services

Clients, Peers, and Servers
 Server
A

computer that shares its resources across the network  Responds to client requests for information by providing the requested information
 Client
A

computer that accesses shared resources  Requests information

The Client/Server Relationship

Clients, Peers, and Servers
 Client/server

network

Certain computers take specialized roles and function mostly as servers Ordinary users’ machines tend to function mostly as clients Web, Ftp, Mail servers …

 Peer-to-peer

network

Each computer can be a client to other computers and act as a server as well

The Network Medium Carries Network Messages

Network medium

Usually refers to the cable (metallic or fiber-optic) that links computers on a network Can also describe wireless networking

To access any network, computers must attach to the network medium with a physical interface
 

Network interface card (NIC) Network adapter

Network Protocols
 Sets

of rules for communicating across a network  Examples
 TCP/IP

(SMTP, POP3, HTTP …)  NetBEUI  IPX/SPX  NWLink

Network Software
 Issues

requests and responses that let computers take the roles of clients and servers  Network operating system (NOS)
 Specialized

collection of software that gives a computer the ability to communicate over a network and to take advantage of networking services

Network Services
 Reside

primarily on servers  Can include file and print services, filesharing, e-mail and other messaging services

Network Models

OSI vs TCP/IP

The Layered Nature of Networked Communications

Cable

Fiber Coaxial cable UTP và RJ-45 jack

Cables

Twisted pair
 

Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Shielded Twisted Pair (STP)
Type C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 Purpose Voice only (telephone wire) Data to 4 Mbps Data to 10 Mbps (Ethernet) Data to 20 Mbps (16 Mbps for Token ring) Data to 100 Mbps

Twisted pair Cable

Cables

Coaxial Cable
  

used normally in cable television or networks. has a better performance than the twisted pair. Bandwidth: ~ 10 Mbps
 

Thinnet (10Base2) Thicknet (10Base5)

  

Thinnet connects directly to the network card. Thicknet can be used to connect Thinnet networks. A transceiver is used to connect the 2 cable types.

Coaxial Cable

Cables

Fiber optic cable (10BaseF)

  

These utilized glass or plastic threads to and modulated light waves to carry the signal. Bandwidth: ~ 2Gbps Distance: ~ km Consumed signal on cable: low
Name 10BaseT 10Base2 10Base5 10BaseF Type of cable Unshielded Twisted pair Thin coaxial Thick coaxial Fiber Optic Maximum length (m) 100 185 500 2000

Fiber optic cable

Ethernet Cable Standards
 Ethernet
 10Base-T

 Fast

(100m, Unshielded Twisted Pair = UTP)  10Base-2 (~200m, Coax)  10Base-5 (500m, Coax)  10Base-FL (2000m=2km, Multimode Fiber)
 100Base-TX

 Gigabit

(100m over CAT5 UTP)  100Base-FX (2000m=2km over MM Fiber)
 1000Base-SX

Ethernet

(300m over MM Fiber)  1000Base-LX (550m over MM Fiber, 3000m over SM Fiber)

Ethernet

Types of network devices

NIC – Network Interface Card

Types of network devices
 Repeater:
  

Layer 1 – Physical ~ 100m 2 ports : 1 in, 1 out

 Hub

– Multi-port Repeater

Hubs

Active Hubs
 Regenerate

the signals as they receive them and send them along  Generally have many ports; sometimes called multiport repeaters  Require electrical power to run

Passive Hubs
 Simply

a central connection point  Signal passes through the hub without any amplification or regeneration  Require no power

Hybrid Hubs
 Interconnect

different types of cables  Maximize a network’s efficiency
 Intelligent

Hub, switch Hub

Types of network devices
 Bridge:

Forward or receive frame based on MAC address.  Used to connect 2 or more networks with the same protocol.  Learning bridge (auto update)

Switch
 Switch

(Layer 2 - Data Link) : multi-port

Bridge

Router
 Router

(Layer 3 – Network)

Router

   

Routers operate at the network layer, connecting two or more network segments that may different data link layer protocols, but the same network layer protocol. They can also connect different types of cable. Another important router feature is that they choose the “best” route for a packet to follow, hence the name ‘router’. This also means that routers need to perform more processing than bridges or layer 2 switches. Another important difference is that, unlike a bridge, a router only processes messages that are specifically addressed to it.

Example of Router

Gateway
 Like

routers, gateways also operate at the network layer, but they are more complex than routers because they provide an interface between more dissimilar networks.  Like routers, gateways only process messages that are specifically addressed to them.  Some gateways operate at the application layer as well.

Example of Gateway

Network Topologies
 Bus

Network Topologies
 Star

Network Topologies
 Ring

Network Architectures
 Peer-to-peer  Server-based  Storage-area  Hybrid

Peer-to-peer Networking
 Any

computer can function as either a client or a server  No one computer has any higher priority to access, or heightened responsibility to provide, shared resources on the network  Every user must act as a system administrator

Typical Peer-to-peer Network

Server-based Networks
 Users

act as clients of dedicated machines that take the server role

Typical Server-based Network

Storage-area Networks (SANs)
 Centralized

network storage  Data transfer occurs over high-speed links for faster access  Appropriate for largest-scale networks

Typical SAN

Hybrid Networks
 Incorporates

both peer-to-peer and serverbased features  Sometimes called combination networks

Specialized Servers
 Application

servers  Communication servers  Domain controllers/directory servers  Fax servers  File and print servers  Mail servers  Web servers

Application Servers
 Supply

the server side of client/server applications, and often the data that goes along with them, to network clients

Communication Servers
 Provide

access to network resources for users not directly attached to the network (inbound communications)  Permit network users to access external resources not directly attached to the network (outbound communications)

Domain Controllers/ Directory Servers
 Handle

the logon services and manage the collection of computers, users, and so on in a domain

Fax Servers
 Manage

fax traffic for a network

 Receive

incoming faxes from phone lines and direct them to users across the network  Collect outgoing faxes across the network before sending them over a phone line
 Typically

use one or more fax modem interfaces

File and Print Servers
 Most

common type of network servers  Provide basic networked file storage and retrieval services and access to networked printers  Let users run applications locally but keep their data files on the server

Mail Servers
 Manage

the flow of e-mail messages for network users  Commonly provide “store-and-forward” services

Web Servers
 The

combination of hardware and software that stores information that is accessible over the Internet via the World Wide Web (WWW)

Selecting the Right Type of Network
 Budget  Number

of users  Types of applications or network services  Requirements for centralized administration and control

Homework (Group 1)
1.
a) b) c)

Advantages & Disadvantages
Peer-to-peer Networking Server-based Networking Storage-area Networking

2.
a) b)

When do choose a
Peer-to-Peer Network Server-based Network

3.

Difference between Repeater, Hub, Bridge, Router and Gateway