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UGRC 143 : SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN OUR

LIVES
SECOND SEMESTER : 2014/2015 ACADEMIC YEAR
EARTH RESOURCES

We use things the Earth gives us to help us live


better lives
Our Earths Resources
Dr. Larry Pax Chegbeleh
Department of Earth Science
University of Ghana, Legon
1

OVERVIEW

Purpose and Objectives of lesson


Introduction
Resources
Earth resources
Resources management
The rock cycle, formation and
classification
2

Purpose and Objectives

This lesson is to enable you


understand what resources are and
how to manage them for
sustainable livelihood
It is expected that by the end of the
lesson you should be able to ..
3

Purpose and Objectives

Define resources in general and earth


resources in particular
Identify various categories of resources
Differentiate between resources and
reserves
Define the types of rocks
Explain the formation of the rock types
State the major classifications of rocks
4

Introduction
To

some extend you have


prior knowledge of what
resources are
More understanding is
required to know their
differences
5

What are Resources?


All those things that are necessary or
important to human life and civilization
A source or supply from which benefit is
derived or produced
Any material that can be transformed to
produce benefit

What are Resources?


Typical

examples include:

Materials
Knowledge
Staff (Human resources) skills, energy, talent
and knowledge used for the production of
goods or rendering of services
Services
Energy
Other things that are transformed to produce
benefit

What are Resources?


The benefit derived can be utilized/consumed
or made unavailable in the process
Some of the benefits of using resources
include:

Increase in wealth
Meeting our needs
Proper functioning of a system
Enhancing well being

How we use them

We use resources to make things and to


grow things we need

Examples of things we use include:


Water to drink and grow plants for food,
shelter, and clothing.
Soil to grow plants for food, shelter, and
clothing.
Rocks for building and jewelry.

How we use them


Metals to make cans, building parts, and
jewelry.
Sand to make glass.
Oil to make plastics and gasoline.

Earth or Natural
Resources
Resources that are involved in or formed by
geologic processes
From human point of view is anything
obtained from the environment to satisfy
human needs
From ecological or biological view point is
anything that satisfies the needs of living
organisms

Earth or Natural
Resources
Examples of earth resources include
Groundwater
Soil
Rocks
Minerals
Oil and gas

Classification of Earth or Natural


Resources

Earth resources are classified into various


categories based on:
Source of origin
Stage of development
Renewability or replenishment

Classification of Earth or Natural


Resources

Based on origin, resources may categorized


into:
Biotic: - these are obtained from the
biosphere (living and organic material)
Examples: forests and animals and
materials that can be obtained from
them
Coal and petroleum are formed from
decayed organic materials

Classification of Earth or Natural


Resources

Abiotic: - these are those that come from


non-living and non-organic materials
Examples include: air, fresh water, land,
minerals

Classification of Earth or Natural


Resources

Based on stage of development, resources may


categorized into:
Potential resources: - these are those that
exist in an area or region and are
recoverable in the future
Example: petroleum may occur in various
regions, until it is actually drilled out,
developed and put into use, it remains a
potential resource

Classification of Earth or Natural


Resources

Actual resources: - these are those that that


have been investigated and quantified and
being used in present times
Reserved resources: the part of an actual
resource that can be developed profitably
with available technology
Stock resources: those that have been
investigated but can not be put to use due
to lack of technology

Classification of Earth or Natural


Resources
Based

on the time required to replace the


quantity of resources used (renewability) or
consumed, resources can be
Renewable
Nonrenewable
Inexhaustible (Perpetual resources)

Renewable Resources
Resources that can be replenished over fairly
short spans of time, such as months, years, or
decades (e.g., trees)
Can be replenished naturally
From human perspective, rate of replenishment
or recovery exceeds that of consumption
Can be depleted by human consumption

Nonrenewable Resources
Rate of consumption exceeds rate of

replenishment or recovery (time needed to


create >>> time needed to consume).
Form slowly or do not naturally form in the

environment (may take millions of years to


form and accumulate)
E.g. fossil fuels (petroleum)

Inexhaustible Resources
These are available continuously
Their quantity is not affected by human

consumption
We shall never run out, like sunlight, air, and

wind
However it can be ruined by pollution.

Resources may also be categorized based on


distribution
Ubiquitous resources: these are found

everywhere in the world (e.g. air, light and


water)
Localized resources: these are found in

certain parts of the world or within certain


localities (e.g. Iron ore, copper ore and
geothermal power)

Exceptions
All earth resources, except
groundwater, are nonrenewable

Resources, People and


standards of living

The more people on earth


o The more water we consume

o The more food we grow/eat


o The more fuel we burn
o The more minerals we use

Resources, People and


standards of living

Rates of resources used even

increasing faster than rate of


population increase.

Why?

Resources, People and


standards of living

o Elevated standards of living.


o improvements in life-styles hence,
increasing quantities of
manufactured goods ( cars, clothes,
computers, etc.)

Resources management
In

order to make resources last,


we must take good care of them
Use resources sustainably

Earth System Science

Population
Population of the planet is growing
rapidly
Use of minerals/energy has climbed
more rapidly than the overall growth
of population

Growth of World
Population

3Rs of Resource Management


REDUCE: How much we use
REUSE: What we can
RECYCLE: Whatever we can
In order to help our Earth to keep
providing for our needs.

Use Resources Wisely to Protect our Environment

Environment (biophysical environment)


The biotic and abiotic surrounding
of an organism including factors that
have influence in the survival,
development and evolution of the
organisms

Use Resources Wisely to Protect our Environment

Environment (biophysical environment)


Implies surrounds and influences
organisms.
Physical environment encompasses
water, air, soil and rock.

Biophysical Environment Subdivision

Marine environment
(oceans, e.g. water bodies)

Atmospheric environment
(Layer of gases surrounding the earth, e.g. nitrogen and
oxygen)

Terrestrial environment
(Land, e.g. soil and rock)

Number of biophysical environment


is myriad if we consider that each
living organism has its own
environment

Environmental Problems
The harmful aspect of human
activities on the biophysical
environment.
The term anthropogenic is used to
designate an effect or object resulting
from human activity

Environmental Problems
Local, regional, and global
Caused by people and societies

Urban air pollution


Acid rain
Ozone depletion
Acid mine drainage
Global warming

Urban air pollution

Acid rain

Ozone depletion

Acid mine drainage

Effects of Global Warming

Resources Vs. Reserves


Resources are not the same as Reserves
Reserves are measured (proven)

economic resources (e.g. barrels of


crude oil or tons of chromium ore)
Look at this graphically:

Resources vs. Reserves

Examples of resources

Water

Soil

Copper and aluminum

Sand and Limestone

Salt and Silver

Clay and coal

REMEMBER TO:
Reduce
Reuse
Recycle
Save

our Natural Resources!

What is a rock?
A rock is any solid mass of
minerals or mineral-like matter
occurring naturally as part of
our planet
A rock is simply an aggregate of
minerals

What is a rock?

Types of Rocks
Igneous rock is formed by the
crystallization of molten magma.

What is a rock?
Types of Rocks
Metamorphic rock is formed by the
alteration of pre-existing rock deep
within Earth (but still in the solid state)
by heat, pressure, and/or chemically
active fluids.

What is a rock?
Types of Rocks
Sedimentary rock is formed from
the weathered products of pre-existing
rocks that have been transported,
deposited, compacted, and cemented.

What is a rock?
Important terms to note
Magma is molten material that is
formed deep beneath the Earths surface.
Lava is magma that reaches the surface.
Weathering is a process in which rocks
are broken down by water, air, and
living things.
Sediment is weathered pieces of Earth
elements.

The Rock
Cycle
Shows the
interrelationships among
the three rock types
(igneous, sedimentary,
and metamorphic)

Energy That Drives the Rock


Cycle

Processes driven by heat from the Earths


interior are responsible for forming both
igneous rock and metamorphic rock.

Energy That Drives the Rock


Cycle

Weathering and the movement of weathered


materials are external processes powered by
energy from the sun.
External processes produce sedimentary
rocks.

Formation of Igneous
Rocks
1. Intrusive igneous rocks are formed
when magma hardens beneath Earths
surface.
2. Extrusive igneous rocks are formed
when lava hardens.

Classification of
Igneous Rocks
Igneous rocks can be classified based on
their

Texture
Chemical composition

Classification of
Igneous Rocks
Texture
Coarse-grained texture: Caused by slow
cooling resulting in larger crystals.
Fine-grained texture: Caused by rapid cooling
resulting in smaller, interconnected mineral
grains.

Classification of
Igneous Rocks
Texture
Glassy texture: Caused by very rapid cooling.
Porphyritic: Caused by differential rates of
cooling resulting in varied sized mineral grains.

Course-Grained Igneous
Texture

Fine-Grained Igneous
Texture

Obsidian Exhibits a Glassy


Texture.

Porphyritic Igneous Texture

Classification of
Igneous Rocks
Chemical composition
Granitic: Made mostly of light-colored quartz and
feldspar.
Andesitic: Between granitic light-color minerals
and basaltic composition dark-colored minerals.

Classification of
Igneous Rocks
Chemical composition
Basaltic: Mostly of dark-colored silicate
minerals and plagioclase feldspar.
Ultramafic: Made mostly from iron and
magnesium-rich minerals.

Basalt

Classification of Igneous
Rocks

Formation of Sedimentary
Rocks
Weathering, Erosion, and Deposition
Erosion involves the weathering and the
removal of rock.
Deposition occurs when an agent of erosion
such as water, wind, ice, or gravity loses
energy and drops sediments.

Formation of Sedimentary
Rocks
Compaction and Cementation
Compactionisaprocessthatsqueezes,or
compactssediments.
Cementationtakesplacewhendissolved
mineralsaredepositedinthetinyspaces
amongthesediments.

Classification of
Sedimentary Rocks
Two Main Groups
1. Clastic sedimentary rocks are composed
of weathered bits of rocks and minerals.
Classified by particle size
Common rocks include
- Shale (most abundant)
- Sandstone
- Conglomerate

Shale with Plant Fossils

Conglomer
ate

Classification of
Sedimentary Rocks
Two Main Groups
2. Chemical sedimentary rocks form when dissolved
substances precipitate, or separate, from water.

Common rocks include


- limestonemost

abundant chemical rock


- microcrystalline quartz known as chert, flint,
jasper, or agate
- evaporites such as rock salt or gypsum
- coal

Fossiliferous Limestone

Classification of Sedimentary Rocks

Formation of Metamorphic
Rocks
Metamorphism means to change form
Most metamorphic changes occur at
elevated temperatures and pressures
Conditions for formation - a few
kilometers below the Earths surface and
extend into the upper mantle

Formation of Metamorphic
Rocks

Contact metamorphism
Regional metamorphism

Formation of Metamorphic
Rocks
Contact metamorphism
Occurs when magma moves into rock.
Occurs near a body of magma
Changes are driven by a rise in
temperature

Metamorphic Rocks
Regional metamorphism
Results in large-scale deformation and
high-grade metamorphism
Directed pressures and high temperatures
.
occur during mountain building
Produces the greatest volume of
metamorphic rock

Agents of Metamorphism

Heat
Pressure
Hydrothermal Solutions

Agents of Metamorphism

Heat
Provides the energy needed

to drive chemical reactions

Agents of Metamorphism

Pressure
Causes a more compact

rock with greater density

Origin of Pressure in
Metamorphism

Agents of Metamorphism
Hydrothermal Solutions
Hot water-based solutions escaping
from the mass of magma
Promote recrystallization by
dissolving original minerals and
then depositing new ones

Classification of
Metamorphic Rocks

Two main categories


1. Foliated Metamorphic Rock
o.Has a banded or layered
appearance
2. Nonfoliated Metamorphic Rock
o.Does not have a banded texture

Classification of Metamorphic
Rocks

Gneiss Typically Displays a


Banded Appearance

MarbleA Nonfoliated Metamorphic Rock

End of Lesson 2