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Lecture # 7 Viscoelastic Materials

spring
Youngs modulus
(stiffness)

reminder:
solids resist strain:
fluids resist rate of change of length:

F = k1 x
F = k2 d(x)/dt

dashpot
viscosity

most biomaterials (including bone) are viscoelastic

step
responses

fluid

solid

time

viscoelastic

viscoelastic materials may be modeled with springs and dashpots.


e.g.

in series

= Maxwell Model

in parallel

= Voigt Model

Maxwell Model

spring
expands

isotonic
response
(constant
stress)

Voigt Model

spring
contracts
dashpot
expands

dashpot
relaxes
dashpot acts
as strut

dashpot
acts as strut

dashpot
acts as strut

isometric
response
(constant
strain)
= stress
relaxation
curve

dashpot
relaxes

acts as
spring

dashpot
relaxes

zero
stress

acts as
spring

= damper
or low pass filter

I) Harmonic Analysis of Materials


force

input:
(t) = 0sin t
stuff

length

output:
(t) = 0sin t +

Case 1: input in phase with output:

stress and strain maximum


(and minimum) at same time.

input:
(t) = 0sin t

output:
(t) = 0sin t

material is acting as an elastic solid, described by single term:


E = 0/0
E = Youngs modulus

Case 2: output phase advanced by 90o

input:
(t) = 0sin t

stress is maximum
when d/dt is maximum

output:
(t) = 0sin t 90o
material is acting like Newtonian fluid, described by single term:
= 0/(0)
using
(t) = 0sin t
d(t)/dt = 0cos t

= dynamic viscosity

Case 3: -90o < output phase < 0o :

stress is maximum
at intermediate point

input:
(t) = 0sin (t)

output:

(t) = 0sin (t
0o < < 90o
Material is acting as a viscoelastic substance.
output waveform (t), can be described as the sum of two different waveforms:
in phase component = 0 sin (t)
out-of-phase component = 0 sin (t 90o)
= 0 cos (t)
out-of-phase
component:

in phase
component:

Input strain:(t) = 0sin t


Output stress:(t) = 0sin (t) + 0cos(t) Let0E and0E
= 0 (E sin t + E cos t)

Case 3, continued

E=complex modulus =

E = E* cos
E = E* sin

viscous,loss
out-of-phase axis

elastic
component

E
E*

viscous
component

elastic,storage
in-phase axis

E = E* cos = elastic, storage, in-phase, or real modulus


E = E* sin = viscous, loss, out-of-phase, or imaginary modulus
tan = E/E
Questions for reflection:
1) What similarities do springs and dashpots have with resistors and capacitors?
2) What would it mean to have a negative viscous modulus?
3) Could you repeat this analysis at different frequencies?

Creep
Harmonic Analysis is valid only for small stresses and strains.
What about large deformations and long time periods?

creep
yield

creep = slow decrease


in stiffness,
material starts to flow.

time

log time
necking
creep

creep

continuous
stress
material makes slow solid to fluid transition

Phylum Cnidaria

nematocyst

Metridium

Prey (Stomphia)

Predator (Dermasterias)

Collagen

Part III: Collagen


Most common protein in vertebrate body BY FAR!
20% of a mouse by weight.
33% glycine, 20% hydroxyproline

Each tropo-collagen fiber held together by hydrogen bonds


involving central glycines:

glycine

fiber
within fiber
construction:

Julian Voss-Andreae's sculpture Unraveling Collagen (2005)