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TRN-98-006

Boundary Conditions

C1

TRN-98-006

Outline

Setting Boundary Conditions

Wall, Repeating, and Pole Boundaries

Internal Cell Zones

Internal Face Boundaries

C2

TRN-98-006

Boundary Conditions

out

Mass

Momentum

Energy

K.E. of turbulence

Dissipation rate of turbulence

Speciestomass

fractions

Boundary Conditions are assigned

Zones.

Boundary Conditions are a required component of mathematical model.

or cell faces (boundaries, interior surfaces).

Surfaces are used for post-processing.

Surfaces can correspond to Zones:

walls

in

C3

TRN-98-006

Define Boundary Conditions...

Click on selected zone type in Type list

Click Set.. button

window using right mouse button.

Useful if:

Two or more zones of same type in problem.

C4

TRN-98-006

solution domain.

Types of boundary conditions for specification of flow inlets and exits:

General

Incompressible

Velocity inlet

Outflow

Compressible flows

Pressure inlet

Pressure outlet

Pressure far-field

Special

C5

TRN-98-006

Inlet and Outlet boundary conditions are available to specify fluxes for:

External Flows: aircraft in flight, natural convection flows

General guidelines:

Select inlet and outlet boundary location and shape such that flow either

goes in or out.

Indicates incorrect set-up.

C6

TRN-98-006

of flow at inlet boundaries.

Useful when velocity or velocity

profile is known at inlet.

Intended for incompressible flows

only.

flow are not fixed.

accommodate prescribed velocity

distribution.

C7

TRN-98-006

User-defined functions (UDF) can be used to define spatial- and timevarying velocity profiles (magnitude and direction).

If upstream flow comes from region of constant total energy and there

are no losses (upstream), it may be easier to use the Pressure Inlet

condition.

Can force the solution to be non-physical, e.g., imposes velocity field, etc.,

at boundary that may not be intended.

C8

TRN-98-006

boundary, FLUENT 5 requires boundary values for:

Turbulent kinetic energy k

Turbulence dissipation rate

Four methods available for specifying turbulence parameters:

Set turbulence intensity and turbulence length scale

Set turbulence intensity and turbulent viscosity ratio

Set turbulence intensity and hydraulic diameter

Exhaust of a turbine

Intensity = 20 %

Length scale = 1 - 10 % of blade span

Downstream of perforated plate or screen

Intensity = 10 %

Length scale = screen/hole size

Fully-developed flow in a duct or pipe

Intensity = 5 %

Length scale = hydraulic diameter

C9

TRN-98-006

Pressure Preliminaries

gauge

pressure

operating pressure as the gauge

pressure:

pabsolute p gauge poperating

absolute

pressure

pressure (Stokes Hypothesis).

pressure

level

vacuum.

operating

pressure

operating

pressure

pressure

pressure inputs.

C10

vacuum

TRN-98-006

to rest (zero velocity) isentropically.

1/2 v2 is referred to as the dynamic pressure.

poperating

RT

pabsolute

RT

C11

TRN-98-006

Treat gauge pressures as absolute pressures

used.

For incompressible flows using ideal-gas law to determine density

Set operating pressure close to mean pressure in problem.

C12

TRN-98-006

other scalar quantities at flow inlets.

Also requires direction of velocity

vector to be defined.

dont specify reasonable direction for

velocity vector.

Useful when:

(e.g., buoyancy-driven flows).

free boundary in an external or

unconfined flow needs to be defined.

Suitable for compressible and

incompressible flows.

C13

TRN-98-006

computational domain.

Mass flux varies depending on interior solution and direction specified

for velocity vector.

Note:

outflow occurs.

Total temperature set to static temperature for incompressible flows.

C14

TRN-98-006

fixed static pressure.

Requires specification of static

(gauge) pressure at outlet boundary.

All other flow quantities at the

pressure outlet boundary are

extrapolated from the interior.

Value of specified static pressure:

subsonic.

ignored for supersonic flow

(pressure is extrapolated from flow

in interior).

C15

TRN-98-006

during solution process.

When backflow occurs, it is assumed to be normal to the boundary.

Cannot specify the direction of the flow entering the domain, in contrast to

pressure inlet boundary condition.

Value specified for static pressure used as total pressure wherever backflow

occurs.

Pressure Outlet must be used when problem is set up with Pressure Inlet.

C16

TRN-98-006

Outflow Boundary

gradients for all flow variables except pressure.

FLUENT extrapolates required information from interior.

Useful when:

flow problem.

Appropriate where exit flow is close to fully developed condition.

better rate of convergence when backflow occurs during

iteration.

C17

TRN-98-006

with the Pressure Inlet boundary condition (use Velocity Inlet instead):

Combination does not uniquely set a pressure gradient over the whole domain.

boundaries where:

Gradients in flow

direction are significant

Conditions downstream

of exit plane impact

flow in domain

outflow

condition

ill-posed

C18

outflow

condition

not obeyed

outflow

condition

obeyed

outflow

condition

closely

obeyed

TRN-98-006

Mass flow divided equally among all

outflow boundaries by default.

Flow Rate Weighting (FRW) set to 1 by

default.

For uneven flow distribution:

outflow boundary: mi=FRWi/FRWi.

static pressure varies among exits to

accommodate flow distribution.

velocity

inlet

FRW1

FRW2

to define exits.

velocity-inlet (v,T0)

or

pressure-inlet (p0,T0)

C19

pressure-outlet

(ps)1

pressure-outlet

(ps)2

Fluent Inc. 03/22/15

TRN-98-006

Used to model free-stream compressible flow at infinity, with free-stream

Mach number and static conditions specified.

Not required for incompressible flows.

coefficient and ambient (discharge) pressure and temperature.

Model inlet vent/external intake fan with specified loss coefficient/ pressure

jump, flow direction, and ambient (inlet) pressure and temperature.

C20

TRN-98-006

Setting Boundary Conditions

Wall, Repeating, and Pole Boundaries

Wall

Symmetry

Periodic

Axis

Internal Face Boundaries

C21

TRN-98-006

Wall Boundaries

In viscous flows, no-slip condition

enforced at walls

based on local flow field.

Assumed to be rigid and impermeable

specified in terms of translational or

rotational motion of wall boundary.

stress, be sure to resolve boundary

layers in viscous flows.

C22

TRN-98-006

Symmetry Boundaries

Flow field and geometry must be symmetric:

No inputs required.

Zero normal gradients of all variables at symmetry plane

symmetry

planes

C23

TRN-98-006

Periodic Boundaries

interest and expected pattern of

flow/thermal solution have

periodically repeating nature.

4 tangential

inlets

cyclic

boundaries

problem.

Rotationally periodic

drop across periodic planes.

Type 2: Periodic boundaries with

pressure drop.

Periodic at I=NI

I

J

Periodic at I=1

Translationally periodic

C24

TRN-98-006

Designed to model fully-developed conditions

Tube banks

computational

domain

Specify either:

per period

flow

direction

Streamlines in

a 2D tube heat

exchanger

C25

TRN-98-006

Axis Boundaries

Used:

At centerline (y=0) of an

axisymmetric grid

Where multiple grid lines meet

at a point in a 3D O-type grid

Specify:

No inputs required

AXIS

boundary

C26

TRN-98-006

Setting Boundary Conditions

Wall, Repeating, and Pole Boundaries

Internal Cell Zones

Fluid

Porous

Solid

C27

TRN-98-006

Fluid Conditions

equations are

Only required input is type of

material

solved.

fluid

So appropriate material

used

properties

source terms:

Heat

Mass

Momentum

of

Turbulence

Can define motion

fluid zone

for

Species

If rotationally periodic boundaries adjacent to fluid zone, use rotation axis.

Define fluid zone as laminar flow region if modeling transitional flow.

C28

TRN-98-006

Pressure loss in flow determined via user inputs.

resistances:

Packed beds

Filter papers

Perforated plates

Flow distributors

Tube banks

C29

TRN-98-006

Solid Conditions

conduction problem solved.

fluid, but it is assumed that no convection takes

place.

Only required input is material type

generation rate (heat source).

Can define motion for solid zone

Need to specify rotation axis if rotationally

periodic boundaries adjacent to solid zone.

C30

TRN-98-006

Provide means of introducing step change in flow properties.

Fans

Radiators

Porous jump

Interior wall

C31

TRN-98-006

Summary

Wide range of boundary conditions permit flow to enter and exit

solution domain.

Wall boundary conditions used to bound fluid and solid regions.

Repeating boundaries used to reduce computational effort.

Internal cell zones used to specify fluid, solid, and porous regions.

Internal face boundaries provide way to introduce step change in flow

properties.

C32

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