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First Order Open-Loop

Systems

Control System
Classification
An open-loop control system utilizes an actuating device
to control the process directly without using feedback.
Desired
Output
Response

Actuatin
g Device

Process

Output

A closed-loop feedback control system uses a


measurement of the output and feedback of the output
signal to compare it with the desired output or reference.
Desired
Output
Respons
e

Comparis
on

Controlle
r

Process

Measuremen
t
Single Input Single Output (SISO) System

Outpu
t

Control System
Classification
Missile Launcher System

Open-Loop Control System

Control System
Classification
Missile Launcher System

Closed-Loop Feedback Control System

Turntable Speed Control


Application: CD player, computer disk drive
Requirement: Constant speed of rotation
Open loop control system:

Block diagram representation:

Turntable Speed Control


Closed-loop control system:

Block diagram representation:

Open Loop System


control system in which no measurement of
the system output is used to alter the control
operates without feedback and directly generates the
output in response to an input signal.
control actions taken are independent of
system output fluid characteristics
a true open-loop system can not engage in
machine learning and also cannot correct any
errors that it could make
may not compensate for disturbances in the
system
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First-order system
Control system which has a firstorder Laplace transform function
Order of function: highest
exponential power

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1 Order Systems
st

The 1st order system is represented


by the differential equation
Eq.1
where

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e(t) = output
r(t) = input
a0, a1, b0 = constants

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Dividing the equation by a0, then

where T = time constant


(dimension
of time)
K = static sensitivity

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Taking the Laplace transform for


the equation
Transform function of a 1st order
system:

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Example of 1st Order Open-Loop


System
1. In the case of open-loop control of the room
temperature according to the figure,the
outdoor temperature will be measured by a
temperature sensor and fed into a control
device.

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Comparison to Closed-Loop System


2. In the case of closed-loop control of the room
temperature as shown in the figure,the room
temperature is measured and compared with the
set-point value. If the room temperature deviates
from the given set-point value, a controller (C)
alters the heat flow. All changes of the room
temperature, e.g. caused by opening the window
or by solar radiation, are detected by the
controller and removed.

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Response of the first order


system

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Example

Open loop
vo
T
SKa

Ka v in
ka
T

Closed loop

T
1

R2

Rp

R1
Ka
1 Ka

R1 R2

SKa

1
1 Ka

If Ka is large, the sensitivity is low.


4

Ka 10

0.1

SKa

1 10

9.99 10

Control of the Transient Response of Control Systems

( s )

G( s )

Va( s )

K1
1 s 1

where,
K1

Km
Ra b Kb Km

Ra J
Ra b Kb Km

Control of the Transient Response of Control Systems

( s )

K a G( s )

K a K 1

R( s )

1 K a K t G( s )

1 s 1 K a K t K 1

K a
s

K1
1

1 K a K t K 1
1

Control of the Transient Response of


Control Systems

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