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5.3 & 5.

4 Group 2
What is the outcome from syllabus?
Candidates should be able to:
(a) describe the reactions of the elements with oxygen and water
(b) describe the behaviour of the oxides with water
(c) describe the thermal decomposition of the nitrates and carbonates
(d) interpret, and make predictions from, the trends in physical and
chemical properties of the elements and their compounds
(e) explain the use of magnesium oxide as a refractory lining material
and calcium carbonate as a building material
(f) describe the use of lime in agriculture

5.3 Group 2
Alkaline metal:
ns2
Be
Mg
Ca
Sr
Ba
Ra

12+

Mg

5.3 Group 2

BERYLLIUM

STRONTIUM

MAGNESIUM

BARIUM

CALCIUM

RADIUM

5.3 Group 2
The Flame Color:
Element

Color

Element

Color

Li

Scarlet

Be

Na

Yellow

Mg

Lilac

Ca

Brick-red

Rb

Red

Sr

Crimson

Cs

Blue

Ba

Apple-green

5.3 Group 2
Increasing electronegativity

Increasing
electronegativity

II

III

IV

Li

Be

Period 2

Na

Mg

Al

Si

Period 3

Diagonal relationships ( )
The untypically large electronegativities of Period 2 elements
(caused by their small size) mean that they are in some ways
more typical of elements one group to the right than to elements
of their own group.
For example: Be(OH)2 + 2H+ Be2+ + 2H2O
Be(OH)2 + 2OH [Be(OH)4]2

5.3 Group 2
The physical properties of Group 2:
Electron
Metallic
First +
Tm/K
arrangement radius/nm Second IE/
kJ mol-1

Tb/K

Density
/g cm-3

Mg
Magnisum

[Ne]3s2

0.160

2189

922

1380

1.74

Ca
Calcium

[Ar]4s2

0.197

1735

1112

1757

1.54

Sr
Strontium

[Kr]5s2

0.215

1614

1042

1657

2.60

Ba
Barium

[Xe]6s2

0.224

1468

998

1913

3.51

5.3 Group 2
Magnesium oxide
2Mg (s) + O2 (g)

2MgO (s)

burns very vigorously


bright white flame
white solid produced

a. in the air

b. in oxygen

5.3 Group 2
2
.
.
.O .

oxygen ion

2
.
..OO
.

peroxide ion

. ..
..OO


superoxide ion

The reason that there are different types of oxides is related to the
sizes of the ions:
O2 > O22 > O2
If the cation is too small, it is not easy for enough peroxide or
superoxide ions to cluster round it to form a stable crystal
lattice. For example, Lithium can only forms the normal oxide.

5.3 Group 2

The closer the anions with cations, the


more stable the ionic compounds crystal.
The normal oxide, MO(M2+ + O2), is formed when the metals
are heated in oxygen. Strontium and Barium also form
peroxides. As the M2+ ions are smaller than the M+ ions in
Group I, peroxides do not form until lower down the group
II than in Group I.

5.3 Group 2
Reaction with water
Mg (s) + 2H2O (l)

Mg(OH)2 (aq) + H2 (g)

slowly

Mg (s) + H2O (g)

MgO (s) + H2 (g)

steam
rapidly
Beryllium does not react directly with water all. The rest of the Group
II metals react with increasing rapidity on descending the group.

5.3 Group 2
Oxide reaction with water
MgO (s) + H2O (l)

Mg(OH)2 (aq)
Partially soluble

In the saturated solution, pH(Mg(OH)2) = 10


The rest of the Group II oxides react with increasing rapidity on
descending the group.

5.3 Group 2
Reaction with acids

Mg (s) + 2HCl (aq)

MgCl2 (aq) + H2 (g)

Mg (s) + H2SO4(aq)

MgSO4 (aq) + H2 (g)

The reaction is more vigorous as we go down the group.

5.3 Group 2
Thermal stability describes how easily or otherwise a compound will
decompose on heating. Increased thermal stability means a higher
temperature is needed to decompose the compound.
Group II

Carbonates,
CO32

Nitrates,
NO3

Mg
Ca
Sr
Ba
Mg
Ca
Sr
Ba

MgCO3 MgO + CO2


Same pattern but higher
temperatures needed for
decomposition
M(NO3)2 MO +
2NO2 + 1/2O2
Same pattern but higher
temperatures needed for
decomposition

The charge density (Z/r) of


the cations (polarization)
will affect the decomposition
temperature.
The larger value of Z/r,
The easier breaking up of
distorted anions:
CO32- CO2 + O2NO32-

NO2 + O2-

5.3 Group 2
Which one of the following equations represents the
reaction that occurs when calcium nitrate is heated
strongly?
A. Ca(NO3)2 Ca(NO2)2 + O2

B.

2Ca(NO3)2 2CaO + 4NO2 + O2

C. Ca(NO3)2 CaO + N2O + 2O2


D. 3Ca(NO3)2 Ca3N2 + 4NO2 + 5O2
E. Ca(NO3)2 CaO2 + 2NO2

5.3 Group 2
Which one of the following elements is likely to have
an electronegativity similar to that of aluminium?
A. Barium
B. Beryllium diagonal relationship

C. Calcium
D. Magnesium
E. Strontium

5.3 Group 2
Which one of the following statements is true?
A. All nitrates of Group II metals are decomposed by heat
to give the oxide NO2

B. Aqueous sodium nitrate in acidic to litmus.


C. Aqueous ammonium nitrate is alkaline to litmus.
D. The alkali metal nitrites are insoluble in water.
E.

Metals dissolve in concentrated nitric acid to give


hydrogen.

5.4 Compounds of Group II Elements

coins

Ship

cosmetics

pipe

5.4 Compounds of Group II Elements


Table 1: the melting points of the oxides of the Group II elements.
Oxide

Melting point/

MgO

2852

CaO

2614

SrO

2430

BaO

1918

refractory
material

As M2+ cationic size increases down the Group, the ionic bonds
become weaker, hence, less energy is needed to break the
bonds and a low melting point is expected.

5.4 Compounds of Group II Elements


Magnesium oxide is used to line industrial furnaces
because it has a very high melting point. Which type of
bond needs to be broken for magnesium oxide to melt?
A. co-ordinate
B. covalent

C. ionic
D. metallic

5.4 Compounds of Group II Elements

CaCO3(limestone)

+ CO2

Ca(OH)2(slaked lime)

+ H2O

CaO(lime)

5.4 Compounds of Group II Elements

Ca(OH)2 (s) + 2HNO3(aq) Ca(NO3)2(aq) + 2H2O(l)


Acid + Base Salt + Water
This is a base and is used in agriculture to treat acidic soil.

5.4 Compounds of Group II Elements


A farmer spreads lime on land which has already been
treated with a nitrogenous fertilizer. Which reactions will
occur over a period of time?
1. Ca(OH)2 + CO2 CaCO3 + H2O

+
2+
2.
Ca(OH)
+
2H
(aq)

Ca
(aq) + 2H2O
2

3. Ca(OH)

+ 2NH4+(aq) Ca2+(aq) + 2NH3 + 2H2O

5.4 Compounds of Group II Elements


When decomposing in water, organic refuse is oxidised to
form carboxylic acids. The water becomes acidic and
aquatic life is destroyed.
Which additives are suitable to remove this acid pollution?
1. calcium carbonate

2. calcium hydroxide
3. potassium nitrate

5.4 Compounds of Group II Elements

Soft water: Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO32-

temporary hardness

Ca2+ (aq) + 2HCO3(aq) CaCO3(s) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

Mg2+ (aq) + 2HCO3(aq) MgCO3(s) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)


Hard water: Ca2+, Mg2+, SO42-, ClCa2+(aq) + SO42-(aq) CaSO4(s)

permanent hardness

5.4 Compounds of Group II Elements

Ca2+ (aq) + 2C17H35COO(aq) Ca(C17H35COO)2 (s)


stearate

calcium stearate

Mg2+ (aq) + 2C17H35COO(aq) Mg(C17H35COO)2 (s)


stearate
magnesium stearate
scum

5.4 Compounds of Group II Elements


A number of methods can be used for softening water:
Boiling removes temporary hardness, but is expensive.
Calcium hydroxide is cheap and can be added to precipitate out
temporary hardness as calcium carbonate.
Ca(HCO3)2(aq) + Ca(OH)2(s) 2CaCO3(s) + 2H2O(l)
Sodium carbonate may be added to precipitate out calcium or
magnesium ions.
Mg2+ (aq) + Na2CO3(aq) MgCO3(s) + 2Na+(aq)
Use ion exchange resins: plastic beads which contain sodium ions.

5.4 Compounds of Group II Elements


River water in a chalky agricultural area may contain Ca2+, Mg2+,
CO32-, HCO3-, Cl- and NO3- ions. In a waterworks, such water is
treated by adding a calculated quantity of calcium hydroxide.
Which will be precipitated following the addition of calcium
hydroxide?
A. CaCl2

B. CaCO

C. MgCO3
D. Mg(NO3)2

5.4 Compounds of Group II Elements


Table 2: Active Ingredients in Commercial Antacid Tablets
Chemical Name
Magnesium
Hydroxide
Calcium Carbonate
Sodium Bicarbonate
Aluminum
Hydroxide
Dihydroxyaluminum
Sodium Carbonate

Chemical
Formula

Chemical Reaction

Mg(OH)2

Mg(OH)2 + 2H+
Mg2+ + 2H2O

CaCO3

CaCO3 + 2H+
Ca2+ + H2O + CO2 (g)

NaHCO3

NaHCO3 + H+
Na+ + H2O + CO2 (g)

Al(OH)3

Al(OH)3 + 3H+ Al3+


+ 3H2O

NaAl(OH)2CO3

NaAl(OH)2CO3 + 4H+
Na++ Al3++ 3H2O +
CO2(g)

5.4 Compounds of Group II Elements


The metals of Group II react readily with oxygen to from
compounds of general formula MO. When each of these
oxides is added to water, which forms the most alkaline
solution?
A. MgO
B. CaO
C. SrO
D. BaO

5.4 Compounds of Group II Elements


The solubility of some Group II metal
compounds in mmoldm-3
CO32-

SO42-

CrO42-

C2O42-

Mg2+

1.5

1830

8500

5.7

Ca2+

0.13

47

870

0.05

Sr2+

0.07

0.71

5.9

0.29

Ba2+

0.09

0.009

0.01

0.52

decreases
down the
group

5.4 Compounds of Group II Elements


: ,
1mol , Hlatt
The enthalpy change when 1 mole of an ionic compound is
formed from its gaseous ions under standard conditions
(298K 100 kPa)

Na+ (g) + Cl (g) NaCl(s)


H latt
781 kJmol-1

5.4 Compounds of Group II Elements

Hydration Enthalpy(Hhyd , ): The amount of


energy relaeased when one mole of aqueous ions is
formed from its gaseous ions.

Na+ (g) + aq Na+ (aq)


Hhyd = 406 kJmol-1

5.4 Compounds of Group II Elements


When an ionic solid is dissolved in water, two processes
are taking place. They are the breakdown of the ionic
solid, and subsequent stabilization of the ions by water
molecules (hydration).

NaCl (s)

Hsolu

Na+(aq) + Cl(aq)

Hlatt =

Hhyd =
772 kJmol-1

776 kJmol-1
Na+(g) + Cl(g)

Hsolu = Hhyd Hlatt

5.4 Compounds of Group II Elements


For MSO4, SO42- is quite large compared with M2+.Going down
the group II, the increase in size of the cations Hlatt does not
cause a significant change in the but the Hhyd become less
and less negative down the group. As a result, the dissolution
process becomes less and less exothermic and the solubility of
the sulphates(VI) of Group II metals decreases down the
group.
For M(OH)2, OH- and M2+ are of the same order of magnitude,
Going down the group II, the increase in size of the cations
Hhyd does not cause a significant change in the but the Hlatt
become less and less negative down the group. As a result, the
dissolution process becomes less and less exothermic and the
solubility of the hydroxides of Group II metals increases down
the group.