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Lecture 2:

Database Development Process

ISOM3260, Spring 2014

Where we are now

Database environment
introduction to database

Database development process


steps to develop a database

Conceptual data modeling


entity-relationship (ER) diagram; enhanced ER

Logical database design


transforming ER diagram into relations; normalization

Physical database design


technical specifications of the database

Database implementation
Structured Query Language (SQL), Advanced SQL

Advanced topics

data and database administration


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Database Development Process

Information Systems Architecture


Information Systems Planning
Systems Development Life Cycle
Prototyping
People involved in database development
Three-schema database architecture
Three-tiered database location architecture
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Information Systems Architecture

Information Systems Architecture

overall blueprint or plan for an organizations


information systems
developed during IS planning
consists of

Data (Enterprise Data Model)


Processes (that manipulate data, e.g. data flow diagrams)
Network (data communication topology diagram)
People (perform processes or are source or receiver of data)
Events and points in time (when processes are performed)
Reasons for events and rules (e.g. decision tables)

Fig. 1-3: Segment from Enterprise Data Model


(shows the high-level entities and their relationships)

Data Flow Diagram


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Network
Diagram

Decision Table

Note: for salaried employees the action stub chosen will always
be the sametherefore hours worked is an indifferent condition
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Decision Tree
representation of salary decision

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Information Systems Planning

Align IT with the business strategies of the organization


Three steps:
1. Identify strategic planning factors

Organization goals (what we hope to achieve)


Critical success factors (what must work in order to meet the goals)
Problem areas (what are the current weaknesses)

2. Identify corporate planning objects

Organizational units (departments of the organization)


Organizational locations (places of operation)
Business functions (processes that support the organizations mission)
Entity types (data on people, places, and things managed by the
organization
Information systems
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Strategic Planning Factors

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Example: Planning Objects

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Example: Planning Objects (cont.)

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Information Systems Planning (cont.)


3. Develop an enterprise model

Functional decomposition of business functions


Enterprise data model
Entity-relationship diagram
Descriptions of entity types
Relationships between entities
Business rules

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Process decomposition of an order fulfillment


function (Pine Valley Furniture)
Decomposition -- breaking
business functions into
smaller tasks in a
hierarchical structure chart

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Figure 1-3: Segment from enterprise data model

Enterprise data model describes


the entities in an organization
and the relationship between
these entities

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Approaches to Database
Development

System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)


Detailed, well-planned development process
Time-consuming, but comprehensive
Long development cycle

Prototyping
Rapid application development (RAD) method
Cursory attempt at conceptual data modeling
Define database during development of initial prototype.
Repeat implementation and maintenance activities with new

prototype versions
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Database development activities during SDLC

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Figure 1-8: Prototyping methodology and


database development process

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People Involved in
Database Development

Business analysts/Systems analysts


work with management and users to analyze information

requirements

Database analysts
concentrate on requirements and design for database

Users
provide assessment of their information needs

Programmers
Database/Data administrators
Other technical experts
systems programmers, network administrators, testers, technical

writers

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Three Schema Architecture for


Database Development

All views of the same database


Conceptual schema
technology independent
analysis phase

External schema
one or more user views
each user view is a subset of conceptual schema
logical design phase

Internal schema
physical design phase
how data are stored in a computers secondary memory
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Three-schema database architecture

External schema

Different people have


different views of the
databasethese are the
external schema

Internal schema
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Process of developing three-schema architecture for a


database project

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Three-Tiered Database
Location Architecture

Where to store the data during physical database design


Client tier
presentation tier
desktop or notebook computer manages user interface and

localized data

Application/Web tier
process services tier
provides access from client tier to data in enterprise tier

Enterprise tier
data services tier
minicomputer or mainframe manages organization data
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Figure 1-12: Three-tiered client/server database architecture

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Review Questions

What is an information systems architecture?


What are the 3 steps in information systems planning?
What are the 3 planning factors?
What are the 5 planning objects?
What are the two approaches to database development?
Who are the people involved in database development?
What is the 3-schema database architecture?
What is the 3-tiered database location architecture?

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