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RADAR UNWANTED

EMMISSIONS

ITU WP 8B Radar Seminar

A personal
view
J R Holloway

September 2005 GENEVA
All data in this presentation comes from
public domain sources

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Unwanted Emission Limits


Before 2003 no SE limit for radar
From 2003 new radars must meet Cat A or Cat B SE limits
 Cat A -60 dB
 Cat B -100 dB
Class B being proposed to be adopted in Europe.
OOB Definition of the extent by the emission masks
 Current Mask
 Design Aim
Status of Limits
 SE levels part of radio regulations
 Boundary part of regulation
 OOB mask is a recommendation
 Design aim for new OOB 2006/2012
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1 1 10 Cat B 100 x BW-40dB Bandwidth 8 .Current Unwanted Emission Limits Cat A&B Current Unwanted Emission Mask Cat A 0 Power dB -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 -120 0.

This proposed to increase the Roll off to 40 dB/dec If this is not agreed then the aim falls JRG is considering what should replace the design aim 9 .Design Aim     When the OOB Mask was introduced a design aim was also introduced.

1 1 10 Cat B 100 x Bw-40dB 10 .Design Aim Unwanted Emissions Cat A&B Power dB "Design Aim" Unwanted Emission Cat A Mask 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 -120 0.

Problems With Current Mask    Mask perceived to be too relaxed at estimating –40 dB Bandwidth Mask perceived to be too relaxed in terms of Roll-off for trapezoidal pulses Magnetron Radars find it difficult to meet current mask  Impossible to meet design aim 11 .

 Magnetron Radars find it difficult to meet current mask   Impossible to meet design aim 12 .Problems With Mask Mask perceived to be too relaxed at estimating –40 dB Bandwidth  Mask perceived to be too relaxed in terms of Roll-off for trapezoidal pulses.

Sensitivity of Equation for Bw-40 FM Pulsed  Bw-40dB gets large when   tr0 Bc gets large B 40   K A  2  Bc   tr  t  tr  14 .

FM Trapezoidal Pulses vs Mask Mask 15 MHz Value 10 MHz 15 .

8 25.6 10 2.5 3.7 16 .Practical Bandwidths   Measured  MHz     Calculated  16 MHz   3 dB BW 20 dB BW 40 dB BW 3 dB BW 20 dB BW 40 dB BW 2.5 7.

 Magnetron Radars find it difficult to meet current mask   Impossible to meet design aim 17 .Problems With Mask Mask perceived to be too relaxed at estimating –40 dB Bandwidth  Mask perceived to be too relaxed in terms of Roll-off for trapezoidal pulses.

Trapezoidal Pulse    Two roll-off rates 20 dB/dec 40 dB/dec 20 dB/dec 40 dB/dec 19 .

 Magnetron Radars find it difficult to meet current mask   Impossible to meet design aim 21 .Problems With Mask Mask perceived to be too relaxed at estimating –40 dB Bandwidth  Mask perceived to be too relaxed in terms of Roll-off for trapezoidal pulses.

00 10.25 8.50 10.75 10.50 9.00 9.00 8.50 8.Short Pulse Mode 0 -10 Failure Radar An tenna Fixed -20 Radar An tenna Rotating Mask -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 -90 -100 8.25 9.75 Frequency (GHz) 22 .Magnetron: Difficult to meet current OOB Limits Marine Navigation Radar X band Magnetron .25 10.75 9 .

7 5.8 5.7 5.0 Frequency (GHz) 23 .Ground Based C band Magnetron 0 N o r m a l i s e d P o w e rM e a s u r e d i n 5 1 1 K H z B w ( d B ) -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 -90 -100 -110 5.4 5.0 6.3 5.Coaxial Magnetron: Cat B Limits Failure Zones Meteorological Radar .3 5.4 5.9 5.5 5.5 5.9 6.6 5.8 5.6 5.

 Non linear chirps  Limit excessive bandwidths due to  Large Chirps  Fast Rise Times Looking into what roll-off can be practically achieved  How Roll-off Relates to RB Looking into the special problems associated with.  Magnetron based radars  FM CW radars 24 .JRG Work on New Mask    Looking into how a better estimate of the reference bandwidth.

Trade Off Reference Bandwidth vs Roll-off     If the Reference Bandwidth is accurately calculated 20 dB roll-off looks achievable 40 dB roll-off looks difficult These are theoretical however in practice distortions make things worse 26 .

Practical Issues To Reduce Unwanted Emissions     Use High Compression ratios Use slow rise and fall times Shape pulses to remove discontinuities Use Filters 27 .

Practical Issues cont  Magnetrons  Below rotation can use high Q filters  Multi pulse length systems have to use a filter wide enough to meet narrowest pulse  Above rotation systems have limited space  OOB match of filters could upset Magnetron and cause more emissions  Cost 28 .

Practical Issues Filters        Are Lossy can contribute twice TX & RX Can cause wild heat (active arrays) Can take up space Can cause oscillation out of band if not well matched Can distort want signal if too narrow Limit the peak power due to arcing Costly 29 .

Practical Issues  Linear Beam Tube Transmitters  Can use moderate compression ratios  Difficult to control rise and fall times  Single channel systems can use High Q channel Filters  Agile systems can only use band limiting filters  See Illustration 30 .

Practical Issues cont:  Solid State Lumped Transmitters  Can use higher compression ratios  Easier to control rise and fall times (slow down)  Single channel systems can use High Q channel Filters  Agile systems can only use band limiting filters of High Q 35 .

Practical Issues cont:  Solid State Distributed Transmitters  Can use higher compression ratios  Easier to control rise and fall times  Agile systems can only use band limiting filters with a moderate Q 36 .

Practical Issues  Active Array Systems  Can use very high compression ratios  Difficult to control rise and fall times  Agile systems can only use band limiting filters of very low Q  Or Low pass filters 37 .

Illustration: Solid State ATC  Can make use off Fixed Operating Frequencies  Long pulses  Slow rise & fall times   Many radar applications cannot make use of all these advantages 38 .

Solid State ATC radar Civil Air Traffic Control Radar .Ground Based S band Solid State Known interference signals removed 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 -90 -100 -110 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Frequency (GHz) 39 .

Conclusions to Date     Currently there is some scope for improving the mask Solid State systems are better than linear beam devices and cross field devices  Larger time bandwidth products There some scope for pulse shaping in Solid State transmitters OOB Filters are effective for fixed frequency systems  Agile systems are more problematic  Limited scope for OOB control  OOB control not realistic in active arrays 40 .

END Thank you John Holloway 41 .