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ANATOMY OF

EAR
dr. Ika Waraztuty
Departement of Anatomi-Histology
Faculty of Medicine
Syiah Kuala University

ORGANUM VESTIBULOCOCHLEARE

Auris externa

Auris media

Auris interna

AURIS EXTERNA

Auricula : Daun
Telinga

Meatus acusticus
externus: Liang
Telinga

AURICULA (PINNA)
Auricula
cartilago, except
lobe

Collects sound
Helps in sound
localization
Most efficient in
directing high
frequency sounds
to the eardrum

Outer Ear Hearing


Disorders

Down Syndrome
Ears small and low
set

Fetal Alcohol
Syndrome
Deformed ears

DiGeorge
syndrome
Low set ears

External Auditory Canal =


Meatus Acusticus Externus (MAE)

S shaped
Lined with cerumen
glands
Outer 1/3rd cartilage;
inner 2/3rds mastoid
bone
Increases sound pressure
at the tympanic
membrane by as much
as 5-6 dB (due to
acoustic resonance)

KELAINAN

AURIS MEDIA
Membran Tympani
Ruangan-ruangan:

Cavum tympani
Recessus tympanicus
Anthrum mastoideum

Ossicula auditiva:
Maleus
Incus
stapes

Tuba auditiva
Middle Ear Muscles

Tympanic Membrane
Thin membrane
Forms boundary
between outer and
middle ear
Vibrates in
response to sound
Changes
acoustical energy
into mechanical
energy

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KELAINAN

The Ossicular Chain


A: Malleus
B: Incus
C: Stapes

Ossicles are
smallest bones in
the body
Footplate of stapes
enters oval window
of the cochlea

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Middle Ear Muscles

Tensor tympani

Attached to malleus
Innervated by V, trigeminal nerve

Stapedius

Attached to stapes
Innervated by VII, facial nerve

Middle Ear Muscle Function:

Help maintain ossicles in proper


position
Protect inner ear from excessive
sound levels

When ear exposed to sound levels


above 70 dB, the muscles contract,
decreasing amount of energy
transferred to inner ear

This protective reflex termed


"acoustic reflex"

Eustachian Tube

Lined with mucous


membrane; connects
middle ear to back of
the throat
(nasopharynx)
Equalizes air pressure
Normally closed except
during yawning or
swallowing
Not a part of the
hearing process

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AURIS INTERNA

Inner Ear
Vestibular

semicircular canals
utricle and saccule

Auditory
Vestibular

Cochlear

AURIS INTERNA
1.

2.

3.

VESTIBULUM (bagian
tengah labirin osseus)
KOKLEA (RUMAH
SIPUT)
KANALIS
SEMISIRKULARIS.
Tda : KSS superior ,
inferior et posterior,
dan lateralis.

LABIRINTUS MEMBRANOSA

1.
2.
3.
4.

UTRIKULUS
SAKULUS
DUCTUS
SEMISIRKULARIS
DUCTUS KOKLEARIS

COCHLEA

Cochlea - Snail-shaped
organ with a series of
fluid-filled tunnels;
converts mechanical
energy into electrical
energy

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Cochlea

Within the cochlea


are three canals:
Scala Vestibuli
Scala Tympani
Scala Media

Struktur kokhlea

Ductus 2,5 lingkaran

Organ Korti

Membran basal terdapat sel rambut dengan


stereosilia

Membran tectorial diatas sel rambut

Getaran suara menyebabkan sel rambut bergerak


dan menyentuh membrana tectorial
menyebabkan transduksi

Organ of Corti

Kompleks vestibulum

Vestibulum
Sacculus
Utriculus
Static equilibrium

Tiga semicircular
canals dengan
ampullae (mutually
perpendicular)
Linear acceleration

Kompleks vestibulum

Canalis semisirkularis

Orientasi
perpendicular
Anterior
Posterior
Lateral

Masing2 punya
ampulla
Crista ampullaris
bends

PROSES PENDENGARAN
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

GETARAN SUARA GELOMBANG SUARA


TELINGA LUAR
MEMBRANA TIMPANI BERGETAR
INKUS, STAPEDIUS, MALEUS BERGETAR
(GELOMBANG SUARA DI AMPLIFIKASI (DIKUATKAN)
FENESTRA VESTIBULUM CAIRAN PERILIMFE
ENDOLIMFE - UJUNG2 SARAF DLM ORGAN KORTI
SSP INTERPRETASI BUNYI ATAU SUARA

JARAS PENDENGARAN

COCHLEA (CAB. N-VII)

N.COCHLEARIS
PADA BGN MEDULLA

COLLICULUS INFERIOR PD
ARAH YANG BERLAWANAN
KE THALAMUS
CORTEKS AUDITORY

Gln spirale N. cochlearis


Nuc. Cochlearis dorsalis

Nuc. Cochlearis ventralis


Nuc. Olivarius superior
Lemniscus lateralis
Coliculus inferior
Colliculus inferior
Corpus geniculatum mediale
Radiatio acustica
Cortex gyrus temporalis transversus

INERVASI
Pinna & MAE 1/3 luar: n.Mandibularis (N
V/3), n.Auricularis mayor, minor, cab.n.X,
cab.n.IX
MAE 2/3 dalam : n.Facial
Tuba Auditiva : plexus thympanicus dari
n.VII & IX
M.Stensor Tympani : n.Mandibularis (N V/3),
M.Stapedius :n. Facialis

VASKULARISASI
Telinga luar : cab.Auriculo temporal
a.temporalis
Telinga tengah dan dalam : a,Maxillaris ext,
a.labirinthys cab.a.cerebelaris