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Design building and testing of

calculating circuit for solar panels

Solar panel
internship report
Masroor khan
Fme batch 20
Dated august November 2014

Energy is ultimate form of currency no nation can
progress with
Out energy whether is electrical ,chemical , wind or solar.
Even living organism cant live without energy . ATP
(Adenosine Triphosphate) is form of chemical energy
require by living organism to do there regular activities.
Solar energy is cheapest and easiest form of energy
available in earth.
But unfortunately we are getting only 0.54% from solar in

Industrial problem at solar techintl Lahore

Problem I involved in internship
Comparison of power generation of 2
different type of solar panel
Under same environmental condition.

Problem definition

Comparisons of two different types of commercial

solar panels i.e.

Tesla solar panel

Using power calculating circuit design build and
tested by me.

To find out which solar panel is more
efficient in term of power generation.

To design electronic circuit for comparison
that can simultaneous read current and
voltage and calculate power for these two
solar panel individually.
Circuit can be used for all type of solar panel.
Crystalline ,mono or thin film solar panel

Activities undertaken
Study of Solar panel. Mono, Polycrystalline or Thin Film
Planning of experiments.
Design of electronic circuit.
Comparison / analyses.
Result /conclusion.

Polycrystalline Silicon Solar Cells

The first solar panels based on polycrystalline silicon,
which also is known as polysilicon (p-Si) and multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si). Unlike mono crystalline-based
solar panels, polycrystalline solar panels do not require
the Czochralski process. Raw silicon is melted and
poured into a square mold, which is cooled and cut into
perfectly square wafers.

Advantages Polycrystalline Silicon

Solar Cells
The process used to make polycrystalline silicon is
simpler and cost less
Polycrystalline solar panels tend to have slightly lower
heat tolerance than mono crystalline solar panels.

Disadvantages Polycrystalline
Silicon Solar Cells
The efficiency of polycrystalline-based solar panels is
typically 13-16%.
Lower space-efficiency.

Circuit design and key modules

Voltage measuring module one for each module
Current measuring module one for each module
External clock for synchronization time DS1302
Pic microcontroller e.g. pic18f452
C programing
Power calculation
Max current and time at which it generated
Max power and the time at which it generated

Circuit working principle

In below slid circuit diagram the solar panel are
simulated as solar 1 and solar 2 and battery as battery.
The microcontroller use in this circuit is 18f452 also this
circuit has DS1302 chip use for clock the three button
are used to edit the menu and set the limit for on grid
and off grid limit and see the power produce by the
panel later.

Circuit diagram

Tesla efficiency is 85% 250 watt panel.
Sharp efficiency is 78% average 250 watt panel.
Per day power generation by tesla is 250 * 4.4 =1100
Per day power generation by sharp is 250*4 =1000

Tesla is more efficient as compare sharp polycrystalline
solar panel

Pic microcontroller code in c

Code for pic microcontroller.docx

Solar panel type other than poly

In the following slides different type of solar panel and
their advantages and disadvantages are given

Mono crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

Solar cells made of mono crystalline silicon (mono-Si),
also called single-crystalline silicon (single-crystal-Si)
Mono crystalline solar cells are made out of silicon
ingots, which are cylindrical in shape. To optimize
performance and lower costs of a single mono
crystalline solar cell, four sides are cut out of the
cylindrical ingots to make silicon wafers

Advantages Mono crystalline Silicon

Mono crystalline solar panels have the highest efficiency
rates since they are made out of the highest-grade
Mono crystalline silicon solar panels are space-efficient
Monocrystalline solar panels live the longest

Disadvantages Mono crystalline

Mono crystalline solar panels are the most expensive
If the solar panel is partially covered with shade, dirt or
snow, the entire circuit can break down
The Czochralski process is used to produce mono
crystalline. A significant amount of the original silicon
ends up as waste.
Mono crystalline solar panels tend to be more efficient
in warm weather.
Performance suffers as temperature goes up, but less so
than polycrystalline solar panels

Thin-Film Solar Cells (TFSC)

Depositing one or several thin layers of photovoltaic
material onto a substrate is the basic gist of how thin-film
solar cells are manufactured. They are also known as thinfilm photovoltaic cells (TFPV). The different types of thinfilm solar cells can be categorized by which photovoltaic
material is deposited onto the substrate.

Amorphous silicon (a-Si)

Cadmium telluride (CdTe)

Copper indium gallium selenide (CIS/CIGS)

Organic photovoltaic cells (OPC)

Thin-Film Solar Cells (TFSC)

Depending on the technology, thin-film module
prototypes have reached efficiencies between 713%
and production modules operate at about 9%. Future
module efficiencies are expected to climb close to the
about 1016%

Advantages Thin-Film Solar Cells

Mass-production is simple. This makes them and
potentially cheaper to manufacture than crystallinebased solar cells.
Can be made flexible, which opens up many new
potential applications.
High temperatures and shading have less impact on
solar panel performance.
In situations where space is not an issue, thin-film solar
panels can make sense.

Disadvantages Thin-Film Solar Cells

Thin-film solar panels are in general not very useful for
in most residential situations. They are cheap, but they
also require a lot of space. SunPower`s mono crystalline
solar panels produce up to four times the amount of
electricity as thin-film solar panels for the same amount
of space.
Low space-efficiency also means that the costs of PVequipment (e.g. support structures and cables) will
Thin-film solar panels tend to degrade faster than
mono- and polycrystalline solar panels, which is why
they typically come with a shorter warranty