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1.

1
The Importance of Having a Transport System in Some
Multicellular Organisms

Total Surface
Area to Volume
Ratio

1.2
The Circulatory System

3 Major
Components

BLOOD CELLS
WHITE BLOOD CELLS
(Leucocytes)

Colourless, nuclei, mitochondria


Irregular in shape
Make up less than 1% of the volume of blood
Most of them larger than red blood cells
To fight infections in various ways
Most activities of leucocytes take place in
the interstitial fluid outside the blood vessels
Can squeeze through the pores in the blood
capillaries
Fight the phatogens present in the
interstitial fluid
Classified as either granular or agranular
PLATELETS

Cell fragments from the bone marrow.


No nucleus.
Involved in blood clotting

RED BLOOD CELLS (Erythrocytes)

Like biconcave disc


Does not have nucleus
Is small
Large surface area to volume ratio for the rapid
diffusion of oxygen across its plasma membrane
An elastic membrane
Enables to squeeze easily into the thiniest blood
capillaries
A erythrocytes contains about 250 million
molecules of haemoglobin
Contains haemoglobin
Haemoglobin is an oxygen carrying protein
pigment which gives the RBC the colourred
Hb contains haem groups which contains iron. It
is the site of oxygen binding.
Each haemoglobin molecules can bind up to four
oxygen molecules.
Lifespan of erythrocyte is 120 days.
Destroyed in the liver and spleen.
Manufactured in the bone marrow

HUMAN BLOOD VESSELS


Arteries
Blood vessels that carry
blood away from the heart
Transport blood quickly at
high pressure (due to
hearts pumping action).
To withstand such a high
pressure, the walls of the
aorta must be thick.
The muscle tissue enables
the artery to constrict and
dilate.
Aorta is the main artery.
The blood pressure in the
human aorta is about 120
mm Hg.
Arteries branch into smaller
vessels called arterioles

Capillaries

Veins

Thin walled vessels


Brings back
(one cell thick)
blood to the
Allow rapid gaseous
heart
exchange
Smooth muscle
between the blood
and cells via
layer in veins
diffusion.
are thinner than

that in arteries.
Large lumens
and valves that
maintain the
one-way flow of
blood.

CHARACTERISTIC

ARTERIES

CAPILLARIES

VEINS

WALL

THICK,MUSCULAR,E ONE-CELL
LASTIC
THICK,NO
MUSCLE/ELASTIC
TISSUE

THIN,LESS
MUSCULAR,LESS
ELASTIC

LUMEN

SMALL

VERY SMALL

LARGE

VALVE

NO VALVE

NO VALVE

HAVE VALVES
WHICH MAINTAIN
THE ONE WAY
FLOW OF BLOOD

BLOOD PRESSURE

HIGH

LOW

VERY LOW

DIRECTION OF
BLOOD FLOW

FROM THE HEART


TO THE ORGANS

FROM ARTERIES TO
VEINS

FROM ALL PARTS


OF THE BODY TO
THE HEART

BLOOD CONTENT

OXYGENATED
BLOOD EXCEPT
PULMONARY
ARTERY

OXYGENATED
BLOOD AT THE
ARTERIOLE ENDS
AND
DEOXYGENATED
BLOOD AT THE
VENULE ENDS

DEOXYGENATED
BLOOD EXCEPT
THE PULMONARY
VEIN

FUNCTION

TO TRANSPORT
BLOOD QUICKLY AT
HIGH PRESSURE

ALLOW RAPID
GASEOUS
EXCHANGE

ALLOW BLOOD
FROM THE TISSUES
TO RETURN TO THE

Heart
Heart is
is situated
situated between
between the
the two
two lungs
lungs in
in the
the thoracic
thoracic cavity
cavity

Valves
Four
Semi
Bicuspid
As
Oxygenated
When
Deoxygenated
The
blood
muscular
first
chambers
lunar
the
are
sound
and
fills
ventricles
present
valves
blood
the
tricuspid
wall
blood
two
lub
atria,
prevent
of
from
to
is
upper
begin
is
the
caused
allow
valve
the
pumped
the
left
chambers
blood
to
atria
blood
lungs
prevent
ventricle
by
contract,
contract
the
to
from
to
enters
the
closing
flow
(atria)
blood
flowing
is
lungs
the
thicker
and
in
the
bicuspid
from
only
ofthrough
left
push
back
the
than
one
flowing
atrium
bicuspid
the
into
and
direction
the
blood
the
via
tricuspid
back
right
pulmonary
and
the
ventricles
into
into
because
tricuspid
pulmonary
the
valves
thearterie
two
atria
when
the
are
va
ve

How blood pressure is regulated


1.

Blood pressure:
a) Pressure exerted on the wall of the blood vessel.
b) Force that drives blood through the arteries and capillaries.
c) Highest in aorta and large arteries during systole (the contraction of ventricles whenblood is pumped
out of the aorta and pulmonary artery).
d) 120 (systolic) /80 (diastolic)mmHge)
e)Regulated by negative feedback mechanisms.

BLOOD PRESSURE

INCREASE

DECREASE

SENT AT FASTER RATE

SENT AT A SLOWER RATE

WEAKER

STRONGER

SMOOTH MUSCLE OF ARTERY

RELAX

CONTRACT

RESISTANCE OF BLOOD FLOW

DECREASE

INCREASE

WIDEN (VASODILATION)

NARROW
(VASOCONSTRICTION)

IMPULSE
CARDIAC MUSCLE
CONTRACTION

BLOOD VESSELS
2.

3.

Baroreceptor (arch of aorta) and carotid arteries in the neck detect blood pressure and send impulses to
the medulla oblongata (cardiovascular centre).
This brings the bp to normal value

1.3 THE MECHANISM OF BLOOD


CLOTTING

ood clotting is very importan


Any interruption
to its blood supply is
dangerous.

Any break in the circulatory system


must be blocked quickly

Mechanism of blood clotting

Forms a temporary plug


in leaking
vessel

Wound in skin

Platelet gather Sticky

Produce
Trombokinase

Need
Vitamin D

Fibrinogen

Trombokinase

Thrombin

Prothrombin
Ion Calcium

Fibrin

Forms the threads


of the clot

Later

Harden (scab)

1.4 LYMPHATIC
SYSTEM

THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

FORMATION OF INTERSTITIAL FLUID

LYMPHATIC FLUID

Oxygenated blood @ arterial end of


the capillaries
Erythrocytes
& plasma protein are too large to

COMPOSITION
OF+ INTERSTITIAL
FLUID
Contains water + dissolved oxygen
amino acids + glucose + fatty acids
+ glycerol

THE FATE OF INTERSTITIAL FLUID

10% of interstitia

THE STRUCTURE OF THE LYMPHATIC


SYSTEM

THE STRUCTURE OF THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

Lymphocytes are found in the lymph nodes produce antibodies &

THE ROLE OF THE LYMPHATIC


SYSTEM IN TRANSPORT
Role of the lymphatic system in transport
- carry excessive interstitial fluid back to the
bloodstream
-helps to maintain the balance of fluid in body
-the process is crucial because water, nutrients
and other molecules continously leak out of blood
capillaries into the surrounding body tissues.
8) If interstitial fluid not return to the
circulatory system, will cause
-swollen of body tissues ( because too much fluid
is retained)
-Oedema ( condition of excessive accumulation of
interstitial fluid in the spaces between the cells,

1.5 - The Role of the Circulatory System


in the Body's Defence Mechanism

WHY DO WE NEED THE BODYS DEFEN

BODYS DEFENCE MECHANISM

NON-SPECIFIC

SPECIFIC

1ST LINE

2ND LINE

SKIN : sweat, sebum

Phagocytosis by
phagocytes

MUCOUS
MEMBRANES :
secretion of mucus

3RD LINE
Antibodies produced
by lymphocytes

FIRST LINE of DEFENCE

SECOND LINE of
DEFENCE
Engulf
The
May
Number
soluble
also
& of
digest
beleucocytes
products
destroyed
the pathogens
are
increases
byabsorbed
toxins to
produced
try
& assimilated
to destroy
by the the
by
pathogens
the
pathogen
phagocytes
& neutralise

THIRD LINE of
MECHANISM

MECHANISM TO DESTROY
ANTIGENS
AGGLUTINATION

MMUNITY, IMMUNISATION & VACCINE


IMMUNITY :

Defence system
Divided into

Non specific

specific
is

Divided into
1st line

2nd line

eg

are

Skin
mucous
membran
e

3rd line
through

Phagocyt
e
Carry
out
Phagocytosis

produce
lymphocyt
antibody
e
gives
immunity
Divided into
active
passive
Divided into

artificial

natural

immunisatio
n
Divided into

natural

artificial

1.6 - APPRECIATING A HEALTHY


CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

Suitable Ways to Maintain a


Healthy Cardiovascular
System

Vascular Tissue in
Stem, Root & Leaves
XYLEM transport water & mineral salts
PHLOEM transport organic substances
Vascular system is not involved in the
transport of oxygen & carbon dioxide.

STRUCTURE OF PHLOEM IN
RELATION TO TRANSPORT
Transports organic food substances
(sucrose & amino acids) from leaves
to various plant parts
Consists mainly of sieve tubes &
companion cells
A sieve tube is a cylindrical tube
made up of elongated living sieve
tube cells.

The cross-walls separating the sieve tube


cells are perforated by small pores. The
cross-walls with the pores look like a sieve
& are called sieve plates.
There are cytoplasmic connections
between the sieve tube cells through the
sieve pores. (allow the flow of dissolved
food materials from one sieve tube cell to
the next).

Mature sieve tubes many cell organelles


including nucleus degenerate.
A thin layer of cytoplasm & some
mitochondria are found lining the inside of
the thin cellulose cell wall less
resistance to the rapid flow of nutrient
solution through the sieve tube cells.
Companion cells are only found in
flowering plant, not in conifers or ferns. Its
adjacent & closely associated with the
sieve tube cells.

Each companion cells has a nucleus,


dense cytoplasm & many
mitochondria.
Help to transport manufactured food
from leaf cells into the sieve tubes.
Many mitochondria to generate ATP
needed for active transport of sucrose
from companion cells into the sieve
tubes.

When a stem of a woody plant is


ringed, the bark containing tissues
external to the xylem (including
phloem tissue) is removed
Nutrient solution containing organic
substances is prevented from being
transported to the roots.
Food materials would accumulate in
the outer stem, above the ringed
region of the plant.

In early stage, no wilting


because xylem vessels can still
transport water & minerals from
the roots to the upper parts of
the plant.
The plant eventually wilt & die
because food synthesised in the
leaves cannot be transported to
the root cells can no longer
absorb water & mineral salts

TRANSLOCATION
The transport of dissolved
organic food substances by the
phloem.
IMPORTANCE OF TRANSLOCATION
Ensures a plants survival
Organic food molecules can be
transported :
To the growing regions in the plant for growth &
development
To the plant cells for metabolism
Downwards from the leaves to the storage

TRANSPIRATION
The loss of water as water
vapour from a living plant to the
atmosphere due to evaporation.
Most of the water is lost through the
stomata of leaves.
A small amount is lost through the
cuticle or through the lenticels in
woody stem

Three main sites of transpiration are :


STOMATA 90% of transpiration takes
place through minute pores on leaves
called stomata
CUTICLE 10% of transpiration takes place
through the cuticle. The amount of water
loss varies with the thickness of the waxy
cuticle
LENTICELS small pores in the stem
which allow gaseous exchange. Only small
amounts of water are lost through the

Transpiration occurs mainly during


the day when the stomata are
opened.
Heat from the sun causes the water
to evaporate from the walls of the
spongy mesophyll cells.
The water vapour accumulates in the
substomatal air chambers before
diffusing from the plant through the
open stomata

Water move into the


mesophyll cells by osmosis
from the adjacent cell
Water flows from the xylem
vessels along a chain of cells
to the outermost mesophyll
cell.
Water is pulled through the

PATHWAY OF WATER FROM THE


SOIL TO THE LEAVES

GUTTATION
In small plants, root pressure can
push water all the way up the stem &
out of special pores called
hydathodes at the edges of leaves
Guttation
Occurs on cool humid morning when
the air is too saturated for the water
drops to evaporate from the leaves.

THE EXTERNAL CONDITIONS AFFECTING THE


RATE OF TRANSPIRATION

The external factors that affect the


rate of evaporation.
Air movement
Temperature
Light intensity
Relative humidity

TEMPERATURE

A rise in temperature increases the kinetic energy of water molecules & increase the

LIGHT INTENSITY

The light intensity increased, the rate of evaporation inc

RELATIVE HUMIDITY

ROOT PRESSURE

COHESION & ADHESION OF WATER

COHESION
ADHESION
Water
The
Cohesion
cohesive
adhesive
molecules
+=adhesion
the
forces
tend
force
between
can
=
to
ofcapillarity
support
adhere
attraction
water
to
a (the
considerable
the
between
molecules
walls
rise ofof
different
the
water
hold
the
mass
same
xylem
the
inof
molecules
amolecules
continuous
capillary
water.
vessels.tube).
columns

OPENING & CLOSING OF STOMATA

STOMATAL OPENING

STOMATAL CLOSING