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PART 4- THE NEED TO MAINTAIN A

GOOD NATURAL ENVIRONMENT


Human needs
Some global scenario
Quality living
The world today sustainability of water

(31

March 2014 14 April 2014)

Global challenges..

Population pressure
Human

population has increased at an


almost exponential rate.
With this growth comes an increase in
demand for land, food, water, energy
and other resources.
As human numbers grow species and
their habitat diminish.

Technology: Help or helpless in


population grows?

Are we safe?
Earth provides enough to satisfy every
man's need, but not every man's greed.
Mahatma Ghandi

Unfortunately..
Technology

conceived under this worldview

has led to:


climate instability,
the destruction of vast quantities of ocean life,
toxic releases into our environment and
accompanying cancer epidemics,
persistent loss of soil fertility in industrial farming,
loss of the biodiversity that underlies the resilience
of natural systems.

Some global scenarios


Climate instability

The melting of blue polar ice that are millions of years old

Some global scenarios


Climate instability

Pasterze Glacier, Austria


(1875 vs 2004)

Portage Glacier, Alaska


(1950 vs 2002)

Some global scenarios


Climate instability

Some global scenarios


Destruction of marine life

Conoco China oil spill


resulting in marine
pollution legislation
attention, 2011
The discharge of sewage and contaminated
water in rivers and water bodies in Pakistan,
2011

Are we?

Some global scenarios


Toxic spills

Marine Life At Risk From Radiation In Japan

Quality of living- Group discussion &


presentation
Around

the world, a central question


bears on sustainability, the environment,
and social and financial well-being: How
much is enough? But there is an
important corollary to that question
perhaps even more directly important to
individuals. What does quality of life
mean? And how should we measure it?

Quality living
Quality

of life should not be confused


with the concept of standard of living,
which is based primarily on income.
Instead, standard indicators of the
quality of life include not only wealth and
employment, but also the built
environment, physical and mental
health, education, recreation and leisure
time, and social belonging.

Example of quality of living: Water scenario


Yet,

the irony is that while a large part of the


world with adequate water is abusing and
wasting water, another equally large section
of humanity lives under abject water stress.

Example of quality living


1. Water crisis issues

2
Q

Quantit
y
Qualit
y

Example of quality living


1. Water crisis issues

Quantity

2Q

Too Little

Water
Crisis

Rivers drying out

Parched
lands

Too Much

2
Q

Quality

TOO POLLUTED..

Malaysia water usage


Malaysia

ranks amongst the richest rainfall


countries in the world. Its equatorial climate
produces rainfall all year round with an
average annual rainfall of 3,000 mm.
Theoretically, Malaysians enjoy a per capita
renewable water of more than 20, 000 cubic
metres per year (this may be less due to
pollution), as compared to people in Africa with
per capita renewable water of less than 1,000
cubic metres per year.

Water problem in Malaysia

Still..
Malaysia

still suffer water problems (both


excesses and deficits) is thus a question of
ineffective management.
In a country with seemingly abundant water
resources, rapid development has threatened
our water resources, destroying and polluting
them.

The world today


If

these problems continue we will experience


global climate instability.
Coastal cities will become devastated by rising sea
levels and masses of people will be in displacement
and devastation.
Severe weather will grow in intensity and frequency,
creating areas of flooding and draught.
While dealing with disappearing farm land, mass
famine and disease; natural disasters will add to
economic collapse and perpetuate chaos.

We need a good nature environment


Our

societal structures are quite fragile, and


much of our systems for commerce,
transportation, energy production, and
government can be affected and even
abandoned in the event of global
devastation.

Back to Basics Approach


Recycle
Conserve energy
Dont waste wastes
Plant more trees
Research & Development
Be aware

Example of sustainability approach


in Western Australia
A fully

integrated water cycle system for


a public building in Perth, Western
Australia

Sustainability Objectives
Major focus has been to include a range of leadingedge features & technologies that will:

provide a concrete real-life example of sustainability in action

create an iconic lighthouse library & community centre that


makes the PG Councils sustainability pioneers on a national
scale

This goal has been consistently supported by local


residents as part of community consultations

Josh Byrne & Associates

Use of accredited rating system


Assessment & rating across the full suite of Green Star
categories

Proposed Features & Technologies

Water Efficiency
High

efficiency fixtures,
fittings & appliances
Waterless
Urine

pans

urinals

separating toilet

Project Innovation
The project :
have

its own rainwater supply for 100% of internal potable uses


incorporate onsite separation, treatment & reuse domestic
waste water.

Other key water-related elements include onsite


treatment of stormwater, waterless urinals, urine
diverting toilet pans & high water-efficiency
fixtures/fittings.

Urine Separating Toilet Pans

80% of nitrogen & 50% of


phosphorus in
wastewater come from
urine (~1% of
wastewater)

Generally sterile

Peak phosphorus ~ 50
years?

Rock phosphate
increased by 700% in
price to US$367/t over
2007/08

Wastewater
Source

separation with
treatment & reuse onsite to
irrigate landscape

Diversion

& overflow to
sewer allows safe onsite
reuse in urban areas

Maximise

nutrient capture
& reduce loads discharged
to sewer & ocean outfall

Community Education Opportunities


Create

support, pride &


enthusiasm

Reinforce

the value &


practical benefits of
integrating such options into
their homes & lifestyle

Provide

platform to
influence residents, schools,
educators & other key
groups

Separated Wastewater Collection System


Dr Mayas Supervisors!
Brownwater pumpout
Greywater sedimentation
Greywater pumpout

Biolytix Biogrinder
2 x Biolytix BF6 units

Urine sedimentation

3 x urine storage tanks

What else we can do to contribute a better


environment

Revenue from Carbon Credits enable development of costly environmental projects.

Balanced & sustainable economic development.

New impetus to drive private sector involvement in investing in projects that reduce GHGs emissions.
eg.
GHGs (eg. Methane Gas) avoidance projects (landfill gas projects)
Biofuels (eg. Biodiesel, bioethanol etc.)
Renewable energy projects (from Biomass, biogas, mini-hydro, solar, wind)

Contribution to the socio-economic development / well-being of the society especially in the rural area
eg.
Rural electrification projects (using mini-hydro)
New employment opportunities (plantation of feedstock for bio-ethanol / bio-diesel production)/ New
Industries

Direct impact on the environment of the local community (cleaner air, water and surrounding)

Potential opportunities

Waste to Wealth Projects (Immediate Opportunities)


- Biogas Plant (Methane Capture) from Palm Oil Mill Effluents (POME)
- Biogas Plant (Methane Capture) from wastewater of sago starch factories

Greenhouse Gas
Emission Avoidance

- Biomass Power Plant (Empty Fruit Bunch)


- Landfill Gas Project (Methane Gas Avoidance)
Renewable Energy Projects
- Renewable energy grid (Biogas Power Plant & Biomass Power Plant)
- Solar Power / Wind Farm

Grid Replacement

- Run-of-the-river Hydro Power Project


Biofuel Projects
- Biodiesel Plant (from Palm Oil)
- Biodiesel Plant (Jatropha Plants)
- Bio-ethanol Plant (sago starch, cassava, tapioca, palm trunks etc.)

Biofuels

Various types of Anaerobic Tank


Digestors
Selangor, Malaysia

Palm Oil Mill Effluent

Shandong,
China

Zrbig, Germany

Citrus Fruit Wastes


Food Wastes

Dresden, Germany

Animal & Food


Wastes

Magdeburg, Germany

Cattle Wastes

Magdeburg,
Germany

Cattle & Agriculture


Wastes

Landfill Gas Project

Digestion Leppe, Germany

Garraf, Spain

Zambiza, Equador

Methane Gas Avoidance Project Harnessing and flaring of methane gas gathered from municipal sanitary landfill

facts & figures

Minimum requirements : 3,000,000 ton/yr of MSW

Estimated CERs :50,000 CERs/yr

In partnership
with

Constructed wetland
at Dal primary school
Norway

Photos: P.D. Jenssen

Parameter InfluentEffluent

mg/lmg/l
TotalP
2,9 0,2
TotalN 29,0 12,0
COD
129 24
SS
<5
T.coli./100ml
<2
(Jenssen et al. 2005b)

Agricultural use of water and nutrients


from constructed wetlands

Photo: P.D. Jenssen

Greywater treatment student housing Norway


Effluent values
TotalP 0,04mg/l
TotalN 2,2mg/l
BOD
3,9mg/l
Termotolerantcoli<100

Foto:P.Jenssen

We are part of the solution


We

do not inherit the earth from our


ancestors, we owe it to our children.

What have we learned from Pt4.


Knew

human needs as against human

greed
Shared some global scenario about what
is happening to the world
Discussed & understood quality living as
against living standard (eg water)
Learned : manage water for sustainability
Concluded : need to maintain good
environment