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SPAN OF MANAGEMENT

Span of management refers to the number of subordinates who can be managed effectively by a superior . The number of subordinates who report to superior has two important implications : •First: It help in determining the complexity of individual manager job. •Second: It determines the shape or configuration of the organisation.

FACTORS DETERMINING SPAN OF MANAGEMENT
• • • • • • • Capacity of superior. Capacity of subordinates. Nature of work. Degree of decentralisation. Planning. Use of self assistant. Communication techniques.

DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY
It is a process through which a manager gives authority to others in order to accomplish certain assignments. Every manager in the organisation has some activities assigned by superior in order to perform these activities he needs authority to make decision about these and to enforce them.

FEATURES OF DELEGATION
• Delegation is the authority to a manager to act in certain way independently • Delegation has dual characteristics. • Authority once delegated can be enhanced, reduced or withdrawn depending upon requirement. • A manager cannot delegate authority which he himself does not possess. • It is an art

FACTORS IN INADEQUATE DELEGATION
It is the gap between the existing delegation and its felt need.
Degree of inadequate delegation=degree of felt need for authority -degree of delegation of authority

They are so many factors in it. These are: • Factors in delegator. • Factors in delegant. • Organisational factor

MAKING DELEGATION EFFECTIVE
Delegation is effective when adequate authority is delegated to subordinates and they make its proper use. Following are some important measures which may be helpful in this direction: • The authority and responsibility of managers should be clearly defined. • A manager may fail to delegate because of feeling of insecurity in his job.

• A work climate free from fear should be establish. • Authority of delegation should be tied with intelligent planning. • The delegants should be selected in the light of job to be done. • For making delegation effective there should be free and open line of communication.

CENTRALISATION AND DECENTRALISATION
Centralisation is the systematic and consistent reservation of authority at central points within an organisation. Decentralisation applies to the systematic delegation of authority in an organisation.

FACTORS DETERMINING DEGREE OF DECENTRALISATION
• • • • • • • • Size of organisation. History of organisation. Availability of managers. Pattern of planning. Control techniques. Decentralised activities. Rate of change in organisation. Environmental influence.