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Computer network

collection of computing devices that are


connected in various ways in order to
communicate and share resources

Usually,

the connections between computers in a


network are made using physical wires or cables

However,

some connections are wireless, using


radio waves or infrared signals

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Types of
Network
s
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Local-area
network
A network that connects a
relatively small number of
(LAN)

machines in a relatively
close geographical area

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The Local Network (LAN)

Client

Client

Client

Client

Client

Client
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Various
configurations,
called topologies, have
been used to administer
LANs
Ring topology
A configuration that
connects all nodes in a
closed loop on which
messages travel in one
direction

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Star

topology A
configuration that
centers around one
node to which all
others are
connected and
through which all
messages are sent.

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Bus

Topology

All nodes are


connected to a single
communication line
that carries messages
in both directions

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Advantages

Topology

and Disadvantages of Network


Topologies

Advantages

Disadvantages

Bus

Cheap. Easy to install.

Difficult to reconfigure.
Break in bus disables
entire network.

Star

Cheap. Easy to install.


Easy to reconfigure.
Fault tolerant.

More expensive than bus.

Ring

Efficient. Easy to install.

Reconfiguration difficult.
Very expensive.

Wide-area

network (WAN) A network that


connects two or more local-area networks over
a potentially large geographic distance
Often one particular node on a LAN is set up to serve
as a gateway to handle all communication going
between that LAN and other networks

Communication between networks is called


internetworking
The Internet, as we know it today, is essentially the
ultimate wide-area network, spanning the entire
globe
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Metropolitan-area

network (MAN) The


communication
infrastructures that have
been developed in and
around large cities

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Client and Server computer


role in networking

Server computer is a core component of


the network, providing a link to the
resources necessary to perform any task.
A server computer provides a link to the
resources necessary to perform any task.
Client computers normally request and
receive information over the network
client. Client computers also depends
primarily on the central server for
processing activities

Computer

networks have opened


up an entire frontier in the world
of
computing
called
the
client/server model

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File

server A computer that stores and


manages files for multiple users on a network

Web

server
A computer dedicated to
responding to requests (from the browser
client) for web pages

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Peer-to peer network

A peer-to-peer network is a network where the


computers act as both workstations and servers.
great for small, simple, and inexpensive networks.
In a strict peer-to-peer networking setup, every
computer is an equal, a peer in the network.
Each machine can have resources that are shared
with any other machine.
There is no assigned role for any particular
device, and each of the devices usually runs
similar software. Any device can and will send
requests to any other.

Peer-to peer network (cont..)

Client/Server Networking
In

this design, a small number


of computers are designated as
centralized servers and given
the task of providing services
to a larger number of user
machines called clients

Client/Server Networking
(cont..)

Hardware, Software and


Networks Peripherals
Network
Repeater
Hub
Bridge
Routers
Switch

Interface Card (NIC)