PROPOSAL WRITING

DEFINE PROPOSAL

Any properly conceived idea, service, project or plan, whether theoretical or practical in nature, put forward for approval of action or implementation is a proposal. It could be for carrying out research on a specified topic, manufacturing of a product, setting up a plant, etc. Thus, PROPOSAL can be defined as

‘A written offer to undertake a project for designing, creating, something new or for changing or modifying an existing procedure, method, system or structure within a specified period of time.’

HOW MANY TYPES OF PROPOSALS ARE THERE?

Types of Proposals are based on three different criteria and they have been specified by various labels.

Criteria: Content and Format
TYPES

NON-FORMAL

FORMAL

BUSINESS PROPOSAL

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

TECHNICAL PROPOSAL

NON-FORMAL: They are meant for departmental use. FORMAL: They are meant for intra official purposes or such proposals can be sent to other organizations as well.

Business Proposal: Proposal which deals with business, commerce or industry. Research Proposal: Proposal which requires scientific enquiry or systematic investigation. Technical Proposal: Proposal with the objective to modify or create something requiring technical knowledge and skills.

Criteria: Nature Of Audience

TYPES

INTERNAL

EXTERNAL

INTERNAL PROPOSAL Addressed to readers within the organization. EXTERNAL PROPOSAL Communicated to people outside your own organization

Criteria: Source of Origin
TYPES

SOLICITED

UNSOLICITED

SOLICITED PROPOSAL Written in response to a request for proposal. UNSOLICITED PROPOSAL Written with self-initiative in order to solve a specific problem or to meet a specific need. One does not receive any request for writing such a proposal.

STRUCTURE OF FORMAL PROPOSAL

PARTS OF A FORMAL STRUCTURE
          

Title Page Table of Contents List of illustrations Executive Summary Statement of the Problem Introduction Proposed Plan or schedule Conclusions Cost Estimate Recommendations Appendices

WRITING TIPS FOR A PROPOSAL

Proposal writing is persuasive writing which should involve three stages of writing, i.e.,
  

Pre-writing Writing Post-writing

PRE-WRITING
    

Purpose Identification Audience Analysis Project Analysis Scope Determination Analysis of the action desired

WRITING
Writing a proposal involves organizing the data that has been collected, outlining what will be presented in the proposal and writing the first draft.

POST-WRITING
Post writing involves revising, editing and evaluation in order to improve its content, layout and structure. It should further involve editing of the text for grammatical and lexical accuracy. It should also be evaluated critically to ensure that the proposal can achieve its purpose. Finally, the final draft is prepared.

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