You are on page 1of 27

LectureNotes

BipolarJunctionTransistors(BJTs)
Outline
BJTstructureandIVcharacteristics
PhysicaloperationofpowerBJTs
Switchingcharacteristics
Breakdownvoltage
Secondbreakdown
Onstatevoltage
Safeoperatingareas

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

BJTs1

BasicGeometryofPowerBJTs
emitter
opening

base
metallization

emitter
metallization

SiO2

N+

N+

N+

N+

P
N

N+
collector

FeaturestoNote
Multiplenarrowemittersminimizeemittercurrentcrowding.
Multipleparallelbaseconductorsminimizeparasiticresistanceinserieswiththebase.
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

BJTs2

BJTConstructionParameters
emitter

base
N

10

5 20

50200
(collector drift
region)
250

10

10

19

16

14
10

N+ 10

19

-3
cm

NPN
BJT

base

-3

cm

cm

collector

emitter

-3

-3
cm

collector
PNP
BJT

base

collector

emitter

FeaturestoNote
Widebasewidthlow(<10)beta.
Lightlydopedcollectordriftregionlargebreakdownvoltage.
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

BJTs3

DarlingtonconnectedBJTs
B

C
I

C
i

i E,D
N+

N+
B ,D

B,M

D
M

N-

SiO2

D
1
C

=DM+ D+ M

C ,D

Compositedevicehasrespectablebeta.
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

BJTs4

C,M

PowerBJTIVCharacteristic
hard
saturation

quasi-saturation
-1 / R

second breakdown

FeaturestoNote
i

>I
etc
B5
B4

2ndbreakdownmustbe
avoided.

B5

B4
active region

primary
breakdown

I B3

B2

BVCBO>BVCEOextended
blockingvoltagerange.

B1
I
I

BV

CEO(sus)

<0

=0

BV

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

Quasisaturationuniqueto
powerBJTs

CEO
BV

CBO

BJTs5

BJTInternalCurrentComponents
E-B depletion
layer

I
E

B
I

I pE

E
N

C-B depletion
layer

B
+

pC

P
I

nE

N-

Carrier distributions in
normal active region

IneIncbecauseLnb={Dnbnb}1/2
<<Wbaseandcollectorareamuch
largerthanemitterarea.

p,n
electrons

no

holes

p
no

Ine>>Ipebecauseofheavyemitter
doping.

I nC

W
base

p,n

IneandIpeflowviadiffusion.Inc
andIpcflowviadrift.

npo

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

holes

Ipc<<othercurrentcomponents
becauseveryfewholesinbcspace
chargeregion.

BJTs6

PowerBJTCurrentGain

IC Inc since Ipc very small :

IB = - IC - IB = - Inc+ Ine + Ipe

IB/ IC = 1/ = (Ine - Inc)/Inc + Ipe/Inc

(Ine - Inc)/Inc represents fraction of electrons injected into base that


recombine in the base. Minimize by having large values of nb (for long
diffusion lengths) and short base widths Wbase

Ipe proportional to pno = (ni)2/Nde ; Minimize via large Nde

Short base width conflicts with need for larger base width needed in HV
BJTs to accomodate CB depletion region.

Long base lifetime conflicts with need for short lifetime for faster
switching speeds

Trade-offs (compromises) in these factors limit betas in power BJTs to


range of 5 to 20

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

BJTs7

BetaversusCollectCurrent
log ( h

FE

max
Proportional to I

C,max

-1
C

log ( I )
C
C,max

10

Beta decrease at large collector current due to high level injection effects
(conductivity modulation where n = p) in base.
When n = p, base current must increase faster than collector current to
provide
extra holes. This constitutes a reduction in beta.
High level injection conditions aided by emitter current crowding.
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

BJTs8

EmitterCurrentCrowding
lateral
voltage drop

E
+
N
P
N

current crowding
C

current crowding

IBproportionaltoexp{qVBE/(kT)}
LatervoltagedropsmakeVBElargeratedgeofemitters.
Base/emittercurrentandthuscarrierdensitieslargeratedgeofemitters.Socalledemitter
currentcrowding.
Thisemittercurrentcrowdingleadstohighlevelinjectionatrelativelymodestvaluesof
current.
Reduceeffectofcurrentcrowdingbybreakingemittersintomanynarrowregionsconnected
electricallyinparallel.
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

BJTs9

QuasisaturationinPowerBJTs
B

PowerBJT

N+

N+

+ V BC stored charge

Activeregion
VBC<0
Quasisaturation

stored charge

VBC>0butdriftregionnot
completelyfilledwithexcess
carriers.

virtual base

Q
Q
1

Hardsaturation
VBC>0anddriftregion
filledwithexcesscarriers.
virtual base

Betadecreasesinquasisaturationbecauseeffectivebasewidth(virtualbase)widthhasincreased.
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

BJTs10

GenericBJTApplicationClampedInductiveLoad
V dc
D

R
v

+
i

Model of an
inductively-loaded
switching circuit

CurrentsourceIomodelsaninductiveloadwithanL/Rtimeconstant>>thanswitchingperiod.
PositivebasecurrentturnsBJTon(hardsaturation).Socalledforwardbiasoperation.
Negativebasecurrent/baseemittervoltageturnsBJToff.Socalledreversebaisoperation.
FreewheelingdiodeDFpreventslargeinductiveovervoltagefromdevelopingacrossBJT
collectoremitterterminals.
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

BJTs11

PowerBJTTurnonWaveforms
I

B,on
t

i (t)
B
t d,on
V

(t)
BE

BE,on

t
V

BE,of
t ri

Io
i (t)
C
t fv1
t
V dc

fv2
V
CE,sat

(t)
CE

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

BJTs12

ExcessCarrierGrowthDuringBJTTurnon
carrier
density
versus
position

time

time

+
N
emitter

P
base

Ncollector
drift region

N+
collector
contact

Growthofexcesscarrierdistributionsbeginsaftertd(on)whenBEjunctionbecomesforwardbiased.
Entranceintoquasisaturationdiscernablefromvoltageorcurrentwaveformatstartoftimetvf2.
CollectorcurrenttailingduetoreducedbetainquasisaturationasBJTturnsoff.
Hardsaturationenteredasexcesscarrierdistributionhassweptacrossdirftregion.
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

BJTs13

TurnoffWaveformswithControlledBaseCurrent
I
i

B,on

I B,of

diB/dt

(t)
B

BE,on

VBE,of
ts
tf
I

(t)
t rv
V
CE,sat

1
V

dc

(t)
CE

t rv
2

Basecurrentmustmakeacontrolledtransition(controlledvalueofdi B/dt)from
positivetonegativevaluesinordertominimizeturnofftimesandswitchinglosses.
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

BJTs14

ControlledTurnoffExcessCarrierRemoval
Q2

time
Q3

Q1

time

+
N
emitter

P
base

Ncollector
drift region

N+
collector
contact

ts=storagetime=timerequiredtoremoveexcesschargeQ3.
trv1=timetoremovechargeQ2holdingtransistorinquasisaturation.
trv2=timerequiredforVCEtocompleteitsgrowthtoVdcwithBJTinactiveregion.
tfi=timerequiredtoremoveremainingstoredchargeQ1inbaseandeachedgeofcutoff.
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

BJTs15

TurnoffWaveformswithUncontrolledBaseCurrent
I B,on
i

I B,off

(t)
B

BE,on

ts

(t)
BE

V
t fi1

collector current
"tailing"

t fi2

I o
i

BE,off

(t)
t rv1
V
CE,sat

v
(t)
CE

dc

rv2

Excessiveswitchinglosseswithcollectorcurrenttailing.

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

BJTs16

UncontrolledTurnoffExcessCarrierRemoval
time
carrier
density
versus
position

time

time

+
N
emitter

time

P
base

Ncollector
drift region

N+
collector
contact

Uncontrolledbasecurrentremovesstoredchargeinbasefasterthanincollectordriftregion.
Baseemitterjunctionreversebiasedbeforecollectorbasejunction.
Storedchargeremainingindriftregionnowcanbeonlyremovedbythenegativebasecurrent
ratherthanthemuchlargercollectorcurrentwhichwasflowingbeforetheBEjunctionwas
reversebiased.
Takeslongertimetofinishremovalofdriftregionstoredchargethusleadingtocollectorcurrent
tailingandexcessiveswitchinglosses.
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

BJTs17

DarlingtonSwitchingBehavior
V

D
R

Q
D

+
v

dc

Q
D
1

TurnonwaveformsforDarlingtonverysimilartosingleBJTcircuit.
TurnontimessomewhatshorterinDarlingtoncircuitbecauseoflargebasedriveformainBJT.
TurnoffwaveformssignificantlydifferentforDarlington.
DiodeD1essentialforfastturnoffofDarlington.Withit,QMwouldbeisolatedwithoutany
negativebasecurrentonceQDwasoff.
OpenbaseturnoffofaBJTreliesoninternalrecombinationtoremoveexcesscarriersandtakes
muchlongethanifcarriersareremovedbycarriersweepoutviaalargecollectorcurrent.
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

BJTs18

DarlingtonTurnoffWaveforms
I
i

(t)
B

B,on

di B/dt

I B,of
t

(t)
B,D

t
be

(t)
B,M

(t)
C,D

I B,of

Io
i

(t)
C,M

t
BE,on

vBE
(t)

t
V BE,of
Q & Q
on
D
M

CE,sat

Q
of
D

V dc

(t)
CE

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

BJTs19

PowerBJTBreakdownVoltage
Blocking voltage capability of BJT limited by breakdown of CB junction.
BVCBO = CB junction breakdown with emitter open.
BVCEO = CB junction breakdown with base open.

BVCEO = BVCBO/()1/n ; n = 4 for npn BJTs and n = 6 for PNP BJTs

BE junction forward biased even when base current = 0 by reverse current from CB junction.
Excess carriers injected into base from emitter and increase saturation current of CB junction.
Extra carriers at CB junction increase likelyhood of impact ionization at lower voltages , thus
decreasing breakdown voltage.
Wide base width to lower beta and increase BVCEO.
Typical base widths in high voltage (1000V) BJTs = 5 to 10 and BV CEO = 0.5
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

BVCBO .

BJTs20

AvoidanceofReachthru
B

N+

- V CB +
+
P

+
+

+
+

N-

N+

Reach-thru of CB depletion across base to emitter

Largeelectricfieldofdepletionregionwillaccelerateelectronsfromemitteracrossbaseand
intocollector.Resultinglargecurrentflowwillcreateexcessivepowerdissipation.
Avoidanceofreachthru
WidebasewidthsodepletionlayerwidthlessthanbasewidthatCBjunctionbreakdown.
HeavierdopinginbasethanincollectorsothatmostofCBdepletionlayerisindriftregion
andnotinthebase.

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

BJTs21

SecondBreakdown

i (t)
C

PrecipitiousdropinCEvoltageandperhaps
riseincollectorcurrent.
t

Simultaneousriseinhighlylocalizedregionsof
powerdissipationandincreasesintemperature
ofsameregions.

v (t)
CE
t
few microseconds
or less

2ndbreakdownduringBJTturnoffin
stepdownconvertercircuit.

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

1. Directobservationsviainfraredcameras.
2. Evidenceofcrystallinecrackingandeven
localizedmelting.
PermanentdamagetoBJTorevendevice
failureif2ndbreakdownnotterminatedwithin
afewsec.

BJTs22

2ndBreakdownandCurrentDensityNonuniformities
Minoritycarrierdevicespronetothermalrunaway.
Minoritycarrierdensityproportionaltoni(T)whichincreasesexponentiallywithtemperature.
Ifconstantvoltagemaintainedacrossaminoritycarrierdevice,powerdissipationcauses
increasesintemp.whichinturnincreasescurrentbecauseofcarrierincreasesandthusbetter
conductioncharacteristic.
Increaseincurrentatconstantvoltageincreasespowerdissipationwhichfurtherincreases
temperature.
Positivefeedbacksituationandpotentiallyunstable.Iftemp.continuestoincrease,situation
termedthermalrunaway.
Currentdensitiesnonuniformitiesindevicesanaccenuate
problems.

I
+

AssumeJA>JBandTA>TB
A

>

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

Astimeproceeds,differencesinJandTbetweenregionsA
andBbecomegreater.
Iftemp.onregionAgetslargeenoughsothatni>majority
carrierdopingdensity,thermalrunawaywilloccurand
devicewillbein2ndbreakdown.
BJTs23

CurrentCrowdingEnhancementof2ndBreakdownSusceptibility
lateral voltage
drop
E

+
N

Emittercurrentcrowding
duringeitherturnonorturnoff
accenuatespropensityofBJTs
to2ndbreakdown.

P
N
current crowding

current crowding

C
lateral voltage drop
E

+
N

Minimizebydividingemitter
intomanynarrowareas
connectedelectricallyin
parallel.

P
N

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

current
crowding

BJTs24

VelocitySaturationandSecondBreakdown
Electron drift velocity

6
8x10
cm/sec

sat = 15 kV/cm

+
N

+
N

NJc

+
N

Jc

+
N

Electric field

N-

max

LargecurrentdensityindriftregionBJTactive.

Jc>qnNdEsat.Extraelectronsneededtocarry
extracurrent.

Moderatecurrentindriftregion
BJTactive
ElectricfieldE1=Jc/(qnNd)<Esat
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

Negativespacedensitygivesrisetononuniform
electricfield.
Emaxmayexceedimpactionizationthreshold
whiletotalvoltage<BVCEO.
BJTs25

ContributionstoBJTOnStateLosses
E

+
-

P
I
N

N+

+
V

V
BE,sat

BE,sat - V BC,sat

BC,sat

Re

VBE,satVBC,sattypically0.10.2Vat
moderatevaluesofcollectorcurrent.

Pon=ICVCE,sat
VCE,sat=VBE,satVBC,sat+Vd+IC(Rc+Re)

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

RiseinVBE,satVBC,satatlargercurrents
duetoemittercurrentcrowdingand
conductivitymodulationinbase.
BJTs26

BJTSafeOperatingAreas
Forwardbiassafeoperatingarea
log( i C )
I

Reversebiassafeoperatingarea

switching trajectory of diodeclamped inductive load circuit

CM

i
10

-5

I
sec

CM
RBSOA

T j,max

10

-4

sec

V
2nd
2nd
breakdown
breakdown

10

-3

sec

dc

BV
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

CEO

BE,of

=0

BV

log ( v

)
CE

BE,of < 0

BJTs27

BV

CBO

v
CE