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LectureNotes

PowerMOSFETs
Outline
ConstructionofpowerMOSFETs
PhysicaloperationsofMOSFETs
PowerMOSFETswitchingCharacteristics
FactorslimitingoperatingspecficationsofMOSFETs
COOLMOS
PSPICEandothersimulationmodelsforMOSFETs

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

MOSFETs1

MulticellVerticalDiffusedPowerMOSFET(VDMOS)
source
conductor

contact to source
diffusion

field
oxide

gate
oxide

+
P

+
P

gate
width

Ngate
conductor

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

N+

MOSFETs2

ImportantStructuralFeaturesofVDMOS
source

body-source
short

gate conductor
field oxide
gate oxide

N+
P (body)
N-

(drift region)

N+

N+

N+
P (body)

parasitic
BJT

channel
length

integral
diode

N+
drain

1.ParasiticBJT.Heldincutoffbybodysourceshort
2.Integralantiparalleldiode.FormedfromparasiticBJT.
3.Extensionofgatemetallizationoverdraindriftregion.Fieldplateandaccumulation
layerfunctions.
4.Divisionofsourceintomanysmallareasconnectedelectricallyinparallel.
Maximizesgatewidthtochannellengthratioinordertoincreasegain.
5.Lightlydopeddraindriftregion.Determinesblockingvoltagerating.
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

MOSFETs3

AlternativePowerMOSFETGeometries
Source
boddy-source short
Oxide
N+

N+
Channel
P
length

Gate
conductor

P
Parasitic BJT

N-

ID

Integral
diode

N+

TrenchgateMOSFET
Newestgeometry.Lowest
onstateresistance.

Drain
gate oxide

gate

source

N+

N+

N
i

N+

drain

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

VgrooveMOSFET.
Firstpracticalpower
MOSFET.
Higheronstate
resistance.

MOSFETs4

MOSFETIVCharacteristicsandCircuitSymbols
i

[v
- V
GS

ohmic
V

= v
GS(th)

]
DS

GS5

active
V
GS4

actual

V
GS3

linearized

GS2

V
GS1

< V
GS(th)
GS

BV

V
GS(th)

v
DS
DSS

v
GS

G
G
N-channel
MOSFET
S

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

P-channel
MOSFET

MOSFETs5

TheFieldEffectBasisofMOSFETOperation
VGG1

SiO
2

V
GG3

SiO
2

+ + + +

+
ionized
acceptors

depletion layer
boundary

VGG2

SiO
2

+ + + +

free electrons

+ +

+ + + + + +

+
inversion layer
with free electrons

N
+

depletion layer
ionized
boundary
acceptors

+ + +

ionized
acceptors

+ +

+ +

depletion layer boundary

V alue det er mined by sever al fact or s


1. Type of mat er ial used for gat e conduct or
2. Doping densit y of body r egion dir ect ly
beneat h gat e
3. Impur it ies/ bound char ges in oxide

4. Oxide capacit ance per unit ar ea Cox =

Thr eshol d V ol t age V GS(t h)



V GS wher e st r ong i nver si on l ayer has for med.

Typi cal val ues 2- 5 vol t s i n power MOSFETs
.

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

MOSFETs6

DriftVelocitySaturation
electron
drift velocity

Mobility also decreases because large


values of V GS increase free electron

8x10 6
cm/sec

density.

1.5x10

V/cm

electric
field

In MOSFET channel, J = q n n E
= q n v n ; velocity v n = n E
Velocity saturation means that the
mobility n inversely proportional to

At larger carrier densities, free carriers


collide with each other (carrier-carrier
scattering) more often than with lattice and
mobility decreases as a result.

Mobilty decreases, especially via carriercarrier scattering leead to linear transfer


curve in power devices instead of square
law transfer curve of logic level MOSFETs.

electric field E.
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

MOSFETs7

ChanneltoSourceVoltageDrop

GG

V
DD1

Vox(x)
N

inversion

V (x)
CS
x

V GS = V GG = V ox + V CS(x) ;
V CS(x) = ID1 RCS(x)
D1

Larger x value corresponds be being


closer to the drain and to a smaller
V ox.

depletion

Smaller V ox corresponds to a smaller

N
N

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

channel thickness. Hence reduction in


channel thickness as drain is
approached from the source.

MOSFETs8

ChannelPinchoffatLargeDrainCurrent
+
V

GG

DD2

Vox(x)
inversion

V (x)
CS
x

depletion
velocity
saturation
region

D2

A pparent dilemma of
channel disappearing at
drain end for large I D
avoided.
1. Large elect ric field at drain
end orient ed parallel t o
drain current flow. A rises
from large current flow in
channel const rict ion at
drain.

N
N

I D2 >I D1 so V CS2(x) >V CS1(x) and t hus channel


narrower at an given point .
Tot al channel resist ance from drain t o source
increasing and curve of I D vs V DS for a fixed V GS
flat t ens out .
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

2. This elect ric field t akes


over maint enance of
minimum inversion layer
t hickness at drain end.
Larger gat e- source bias
V GG post pones flat t ening
of I D vs V DS unt il larger
values of drain current are
reached.
MOSFETs9

MOSFETSwitchingModelsforBuckConverter
Vd

Io

DS(on)

RG

V
GG

BuckconverterusingpowerMOSFET.

gs

MOSFETequivalentcircuitvalidfor
onstate(triode)regionoperation.

D
C

gd

gd
I = f(V )
GS
D

G
C

gs
S

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

MOSFETequivalentcircuitvalidforoff
state(cutoff)andactiveregionoperation.
MOSFETs10

MOSFETCapacitancesDeterminingSwitchingSpeed
gate

source

C gs
N+

N+

gd

gd2

idealization

gd

Cds
actual

N
drain-body
depletion layer

N+

C gd1
v

drain

= v
GS
DS

200 V

DS

Gate-source capacitance Cgs approximately


constant and independentof applied voltages.
Gate-drain capacitance C
gd varies with applied
voltage. Variation due to growth of depletion layer
thickness until inversion layer is formed.
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

MOSFETs11

InternalCapacitancesVsSpecSheetCapacitances
MOSFETinternalcapacitances

Reversetransferorfeedbackcapacitance
C

C gd
G

bridge

D
C gs

+V b

Cds
C gd

Bridge balanced (Vb=0) Cbridge = Cgd = C rss

Inputcapacitance
G

Outputcapacitance
G

Ciss
S

Ciss = C gs + C gd

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

C oss
S
C oss = C gd + Cds
MOSFETs12

TurnonEquivalentCircuitsforMOSFETBuckConverter
Equivalent cir cuit
dur ing t d(on).

V in

D
F

I o
C

+
V

GG

Equivalent cir cuit


dur ing t r i .

D
F

Equivalent cir cuit


dur ing t fv1 .

C
R

GG

C gd1

DC

+
gs

V in

GG

Cgd1

+
V

GG

gs

V in

Equivalent cir cuit


dur ing t f v2 .

I o
R

I o

DC

C gd1

V in

I o

DS(on)

G
C

gs

C gd2

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

MOSFETs13

MOSFETbasedBuckConverterTurnonWaveforms
V

GG+

V
GS,I o
V

= R (C
+C )
gs
G gd2

GS(th)

Freewheelingdiode
assumedtobeideal.
(noreverserecovery

current).

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

MOSFETs14

TurnonGateChargeCharacteristic
V
gs

Vgs,on
I
V + D1
t
g
mo

d1

V
d

V
d2
V

Specified I

Q
on


Qon=

C
gd

d3

D1

T1

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

+
V
ds
-

ds

g (V - V )
t
m gs

C
gs

Qgate

+
V
gs
-

D1

V
gs

V + I /g
t
D1 m

V
t
V
gs,of
I
d

t
V
gs,on
I

D1

V
ds
V
d

V
ds,on
t
MOSFETs15

TurnonWaveformswithNonidealFreewheelingDiode
i

Io

V in

(t)
F

I o + I rr
t

I rr

I rr

i (t)
D
t rr
t

GS,I

in

C gs

Equivalentcircuitfor
estimatingeffectoffree
wheelingdiodereverse
recovery.

o
t

GG

V
GS(th)

Io

ri

C gd1

(t)
DS
t

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

MOSFETs16

MOSFETbasedBuckConverterTurnoffWaveforms
= RG(Cgd2+ C gs)

v (t)
GS
V

GG

GS,I o

i (t)
G

Assume ideal fr eewheeling diode.


Essentially the
inver se of the tur n- on
pr ocess.

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

Model quanitatively
using the same
equivalent cir cuits as
for tur n- on. Simply
use cor r ect dr iving
voltages and initial
conditions
MOSFETs17

dV/dtLimitstoPreventParasiticBJTTurnon
D

gate

source

N+

N+
P

Cgd

parasitic
BJT

Cgd

N+

S
drain

Large positive Cgd

dV DS

dt
could turn on parasitic BJ T.

D
L+
D

F+

T+

I o
D

T-

Turn-on of T+ and reverse recovery of Df- will


dv DS
produce large positive Cgd
in bridge circuit.
dt
Parasitic BJ T in T- likely to have been in reverse
active mode when Df- was carrying current. Thus

L-

DF-

stored charge already in base which will increase


dv DS
likeyhood of BJ T turn-on when positive Cgd
is
dt
generated.

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

MOSFETs18

MaximumGateSourceVoltage
V GS(max) = maximum per missible gatesour ce voltage.
If V GS >V GS(max) r uptur e of gate oxide by
lar ge electr ic f ields possible.
EBD(oxide) 5- 10 million V / cm
Gate oxide typically 1000 anstr oms thick
V GS(max) < [5x10 6 ] [10 - 5 ] = 50 V
Typical V GS(max) 20 - 30 V
Static char ge on gate conductor can r uptur e
gate oxide
Handle MOSFETs with car e (gr ound
your self bef or e handling device)
Place anti- par allel connected Zener diodes
between gate and sour ce as a pr otective
measur e

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

MOSFETs19

MOSFETBreakdownVoltage
depletion layer boundary
without field plate
action of gate electrode

depletion layer boundary


with field plate action
of gate electrode

BV DSS = drain-source breakdown


voltage with V GS = 0
Caused by avalanche breakdown of
drain-body junction
Achieve large values by
1. Avoidance of drain-source reachthrough by heavy doping of body
and light doping of drain drift region
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

2. Appropriate length of drain drift region


3. Field plate action of gate conductor
overlap of drain region
4. Prevent turn-on of parasitic BJ T with
body-source short (otherwise BV DSS
= BV CEO instead of BV CBO)

MOSFETs20

MOSFETOnstateLosses
gate

source
channel
resistance

accumulation
layer
resistance

N+
P
P
I

source region
resistance

drift region
resistance

drain region
resistance

+
drain

On-state power dissipation Pon =


Io2 rDS(on)
Large V GS minimizes accumulation
layer resistance and channel
resistance
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

rDS(on) dominated by drain drift resistance


for BV DSS > few 100 V
Vd

rDS(on) =

ID

3x10 -7

BV DSS2
A

rDS(on) increases as temperature increases.


Due to decrease in carrier mobility with
increasing temperature.
MOSFETs21

ParallelingofMOSFETs
D

MOSFETs can be easily


paralleled because of
positive temperature
coefficient of rDS(on) .

Rd
Q
1
G

Positive temperature coefficient leads to thermal


stabilization effect.
If rDS(on)1 > rDS(on)2 then more current and thus
higher power dissipation in Q2 .
Temperature of Q2 thus increases more than
temperature of Q1 and rDS(on) values become
equalized.
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

MOSFETs22

MOSFETSafeOperatingArea(SOA)
log ( i

DM
10

-5

sec

10 -4 sec
Tj,max
10

-3

sec

No second br eakdown.

DSS
log (v

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

FB = for war d bias.


V GS 0.
RB = r ever se bias.
V GS 0.

DC

BV

No distinction between
FBSOA and RBSOA. SOA
is squar e.

)
DS

MOSFETs23

StructuralComparison:VDMOSVersusCOOLMOS
source

N+

N+

N+

+
P

gate
cond
uctor

+
P

N+

Conventional
verticallyoriented
powerMOSFET

N-

N+
drain

source

N+

P
b
P
b

N+

gate
cond
uctor

N+
W

P
b
P

N
b

N+

N+

COOLMOSstructure
(compositebufferstructure,
superjunctionMOSFET,
supermultiresurf
MOSFET)
VerticalPandNregionsof
widthbdopedatsame
density(Na=Nd)

drain

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

MOSFETs24

COOLMOSOperationinBlockingState
source

gate
cond
uctor

N+

P
b

N+

N+

COOLMOSstructurepartially
depleted.

N+

P
b

V1
+

N+
drain

P
b

Notentypedriftregionand
adjacentptypestripesdeplete
uniformlyalongentirevertical
length.

source

gate
cond
uctor

N+

Arrowsindicatedirectionof
depletionlayergrowthasdevice
turnsoff.

N+

N+
N
Ec

Ec

P
b

N+

Vc
+

N+
drain

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

COOLMOSstructureatedge
offulldepletionwithapplied
voltageVc.Depletionlayer
reachestomiddleofverticalP
andNregionsatb/2.
Usingstepjunctionformalism,
Vc=(qb2Nd)/(4)=bEc,max/2
KeepEc,maxEBD/2.Thus
Nd(EBD)/(qb)

MOSFETs25

COOLMOSOperationinBlockingState(cont.)
source

gate
cond
uctor

N+

N+

P
b

N+
P

N
Ev

Ev

P
b

N+

Ev

P
Ec

Ec

N+
drain

V > Vc

ForappliedvoltagesV>Vc,verticallyorientedelectricfieldEvbeginstogrowindepletionregion.
EvspatiallyuniformsincespacechargecompensatedforbyEc.EvV/WforV>>Vc.
DopinglevelNdinntypedriftregioncanbemuchgreaterthanindriftregionofconventional
VDMOSdriftregionofsimilarBVBDcapability.
AtbreakdownEv=EBD300kV/cm;V=BVBD=EBDW
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

MOSFETs26

COOLMOSOperationinONState
source

gate
cond
uctor

N+

P
b

N+

N+

R
on

P
b

OnstatespecificresistanceARon[cm2]
muchlessthancomparableVDMOS
becauseofhigherdriftregiondoping.

N+

V
1

COOLMOSconductionlossesmuch
lessthancomparableVDMOS.

N+
drain

R
L

RonA=W/(qnNd);RecallthatNd=(EBD)/(qb)
BreakdownvoltagerequirementssetW=BVBD/EBD.
SubstitutingforWandNdyieldsRonA=(bBVBD)/(nEBD2)
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

MOSFETs27

RonAComparison:VDMOSversusCOOLMOS
COOLMOSatBVBD=1000V.Assumeb10m.UseEBD=300kV/cm.
RonA=(103cm)(1000V)/[(9x1014F/cm)(12)(1500cm2Vsec)(300kV/cm)2]
RonA=0.014cm.CorrespondstoNd=4x1015cm3
TypicalVDMOS,RonA=3x107(BVBD)2
RonA=3x107(1000)2=0.3cm;CorrespondingNd=1014cm3
RatioCOOLMOStoVDMOSspecificresistance=0.007/0.3=0.023orapproximately1/40
AtBVBD=600V,ratio=1/26.
ExperimentallyatBVBD=600V,ratiois1/5.
Formorecompleteanalysissee:AntonioG.M.StrolloandEttoreNapoli,OptimalONResistance
VersusBreakdownVoltageTradeoffinSuperjunctionPowerDevice:ANovelAnalyticalModel,IEEE
Trans.OnElectronDevices,Vol.48,No.9,pp21612167,(Sept.,2001)

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

MOSFETs28

COOLMOSSwitchingBehavior
LargerblockingvoltagesVds>depletion
voltageVc,COOLMOShassmallerCgs,Cgd,
andCdsthancomparable(sameRonand
BVDSS)VDMOS.

MOSFETwitchingwaveformsforclampedinductiveload.

v (t)
GS

V GS,Io
V

GS(th)
t

v (t)
DS

EffectonCOOLMOSswitchingtimes
relativetoVDMOSswitchingtimes.

V
DS(on)

V
d

t
t

d(on)

i (t)
D

t ri

t fv1 t

fv2

SmallblockingvoltagesVds<depletion
voltageVc,COOLMOShaslargerCgs,Cgd,
andCdsthancomparable(sameRonand
BVDSS)VDMOS.

d(off)

Io

trv1

Turnondelaytimeshorter

Currentrisetimeshorter

Voltagefalltime1shorter

t fi

t rv2
t

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

Voltagefalltime2longer

Turnoffdelaytimelonger

Voltagerisetime1 longer

Voltagerisetime2shorter

Currentfalltimeshorter

MOSFETs29

PSPICEBuiltinMOSFETModel
Circuitcomponents
Drain

RD

RG,RDS,RS,RB,andRD=parasitic
ohmicresistances

CgsCgd,andCgb=constantvoltage
independentcapacitors

CbsandCbd=nonlinearvoltage
dependentcapacitors(depletionlayer
capacitances)

Idrain=f(Vgs,Vds)accountsfordc
characteristicsofMOSFET

Modeldevelopedforlateral(signallevel)
MOSFETs

Cgb

Cbd

Cgd

RB

RG
Idrain

RDS

Bulk

Gate

Cgs

Cbs

RS

Source

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

MOSFETs30

Lateral(Signallevel)MOSFET
Body-source short
C
gs

gd

BodysourceshortkeepsCbsconstant.

N+

N+
C

BodysourceshortputsCbdbetweendrainand
source.

bg

bd

bs

Drain-body

Variationsindrainsourcevoltagerelatively
small,sochangesinCbdalsorelativelysmall.

B
Source-body

depletion layer

depletion layer

Cgs,Cbg,Cgdduetoelectrostatic
capacitanceofgateoxide.Independent
ofappliedvoltage
CbsandCbdduetodepletionlayers.
Capacitancevarieswithjunctionvoltage.
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

Capacitancesrelativelyindependentofterminal
voltages
ConsequentlyPSPICEMOSFETmodelhas
voltageindependentcapacitances.

MOSFETs31

VerticalPowerMOSFET
Body-

source

gate

source

short

C
gs
C
bg

+
C

gd

N
P

bs

N
bd

+
N

drain
drain-body

Draindriftregionandlargedrainsource
voltagevariationscauselargevariationsin
drainbodydepletionlayerthickness
LargechangesinCgdwithchangesindrainsource
voltage.10to100:1changesinCgdmeasuredinhigh
voltageMOSFETs.

depletion

layer

MOSFETcircuitsimulation
modelsmusttakethisvariation
intoaccount.

ModeratechangesinCgbandCbs.
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

MOSFETs32

InadequaciesofPSPICEMOSFETModel
4

MTP3055E

C gd

GS

= 0

CgsandCgdinPSPICEmodelare
constantindependentofterminalvoltages

[nF]
SPICE model

InverticalpowerMOSFETs,Cgdvaries
substantiallywithterminalvoltages.

Motorola subcircuit model


0

60V

0V

10V

20V
V
DS

30V

MTP3055E V
DS

Comparisonoftransientresponseofdrain
sourcevoltageusingPSPICEmodeland
animprovedsubcircuitmodel.Both
modelsusedinsamestepdownconverter
circuit.

40V
Motorola
subcircuit
model

20V
0V

0s

100ns

Time

SPICE
model
200ns

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

300ns

MOSFETs33

ExampleofanImprovedMOSFETModel
DevelopedbyMotorolafortheirTMOSlineof
powerMOSFETs
Drain
LDRAIN
DGD
CGDMAX
RGDMAX

CGS

SpacechargecapacitanceofDGDmodels
voltagedependentgatedraincapacitance.

DBODY

CGDMAXinsuresthatgatedraincapacitance
doesnotgetunrealisticallylargeatverylow
drainvoltages.

RDBODY

DBODYmodelsbuiltinantiparalleldiode
inherentintheMOSFETstructure.

RDRAIN2

LGATE RGATE
Gate

RDRAIN1

M1usesbuiltinPSPICEmodelstodescribe
dcMOSFETcharacteristics.Spacecharge
capacitancesofintrinsicmodelsettozero.

M1

RSOURCE
LSOURCE

CGSmodelsgatesourcecapacitanceof
MOSFET.Voltagedependenceofthis
capacitanceignoredinthismodel.

Source

Resistancesandinductancesmodelparasitic
componentsduetopackaging.

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

Manyothermodelsdescribedinliterature.Too
numeroustolisthere.
MOSFETs34

AnotherImprovedMOSFETSimulationModel
M2andM3areSPICElevel2
MOSFETsusedalongwithVoffsetto
modelvoltagedependentbehaviorof
Cgd.

Drain

L
D

R
d

M3

M2

D
sub
V

Q
ofset

JFETQ1andRdaccountforvoltagedrop
inNdraindriftregion

+
-

DsubisbuiltinSPICEdiodemodelused
toaccountforparasiticantiparalleldiode
inMOSFETstructure.

M1

Gate
L

R
G

R
S

L
S

Source

LG,RG,LSRS,LD,RDparasitic
inductancesandresistances

Reference"AnAccurateModelfor
PowerDMOSFETsIncludingInter
electrodeCapacitances",RobertScott,
GerhardA.Frantz,andJenniferL.
Johnson,IEEETrans.onPower
Electronics,Vol.6,No.2,pp.192198,
(April,1991)

M1=intrinsicSPICElevel2MOSFETwithno
parasiticresistancesorcapacitances.
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

MOSFETs35