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LectureNotes

InsulatedGateBipolarTransistors(IGBTs)

Outline
ConstructionandIVcharacteristics
Physicaloperation
Switchingcharacteristics
Limitationsandsafeoperatingarea
PSPICEsimulationmodels

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

IGBTs1

MulticellStructureofIGBT
IGBT=insulatedgatebipolartransistor.
emitter
conductor

contact to source
diffusion

field
oxide

gate
oxide

N+

N+

NN+
P+

N+

N+

gate
width
buffer layer
(not essential)
collector
metallization

gate
conductor
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

IGBTs2

CrosssectionofIGBTCell
gate
emitter

SiO
2
J
3
J

N
P

Ls

N
+
N
+
P

J - Unique feature of IGBT


1

collector

Parasitic thyristor

Buffer layer
(not essential)

CellstructuresimilartopowerMOSFET(VDMOS)cell.
PregionatcollectorenduniquefeatureofIGBTcomparedtoMOSFET.
Punchthrough(PT)IGBTN+bufferlayerpresent.
Nonpunchthrough(NPT)IGBTN+bufferlayerabsent.
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

IGBTs3

CrosssectionofTrenchGateIGBTUnitCell
Emitter
boddy-source short

Oxide
N+
P
Parasitic
SCR

N+
Channel
P
length

Gate
conductor
I

N-

NonpunchthruIGBT

+
Collector
Emitter
boddy-source short

Oxide
N+
P
Parasitic
SCR

N+
Channel
P
length

Gate
conductor
N-

ID
P

PunchthruIGBT

ID

N+

Collector

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

IGBTs4

IGBTIVCharacteristicsandCircuitSymbols
i

increasing V

GE

v
GE4

No Buffer Layer
v GE3

VRM BV
CES

With Buffer Layer

GE2

v GE1

V 0
RM
V

V
GE(th)

v
CE

RM

Outputcharacteristics

GE

Transfercurve

BV
CES

collector

drain

NchannelIGBTcircuitsymbols

gate

gate

source

emitter
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

IGBTs5

Blocking(Off)StateOperationofIGBT
gate
SiO
2
J
3
J

emitter
N

N
P

J - Unique feature of IGBT


1

Ls

N
+
N
+
P
collector
Parasitic thyristor

Blocking state operation - V GE < V GE(th)


J unction J 2 is blocking junction - n+ drift
region holds depletion layer of blocking
junction.
Without N+ buffer layer, IGBT has large
reverse blocking capability - so-called
symmetric IGBT
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

Buffer layer
(not essential)

With N+ buffer layer, junction J 1 has


small breakdownvoltage and thus IGBT
has little reverse blocking capability anti-symmetric IGBT
Buffer layer speeds up device turn-off

IGBTs6

IGBTOnstateOperation
gate
emitter
N

MOSFET section designed


to carry most of the IGBT
collector current

P
lateral (spreading)
resistance

N
+

N-

P+

On-state V CE(on) =

collector

gate

emitter
N

N
P
NN

P+

V J 1 + Vdrift + ICRchannel

Hole injection into drift


region from J 1 minimizes
V drift .

collector

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

IGBTs7

ApproximateEquivalentCircuitsforIGBTs
drift region
resistance

gate

V
drift

J1

channel

Approximateequivalentcircuitfor
IGBTvalidfornormaloperating
conditions.

Conduction path resulting


in thyristor turn-on (IGBT
latchup) if current in this
path is too large

gate

Principal
(desired)
path of
collector
current

V CE(on) = VJ 1 + V drift + IC Rchannel


CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

collector

Body region
spreading
resistance

emitter

IGBTequivalentcircuitshowing
transistorscomprisingtheparasitic
thyristor.
IGBTs8

StaticLatchupofIGBTs
lateral (spreading)
resistance

J
N

emitter

gate

P
J2
J 1

NN

+ +

P+

collector
Conduction paths causing lateral voltage drops and turn-on
of parasitic thyristor if current in this path is too large

Lateralvoltagedrops,iftoolarge,willforwardbiasjunctionJ3.
ParasiticnpnBJTwillbeturnedon,thuscompletingturnonofparasiticthyristor.
LargepowerdissipationinlatchupwilldestroyIGBTunlessterminatedquickly.
Externalcircuitmustterminatelatchupnogatecontrolinlatchup.
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

IGBTs9

DynamicLatchupMechanisminIGBTs
J

gate

emitter

3
+

J 2 P
lateral
(spreading)
resistance

J 1

NN

expansion of
depletion region

P+
collector

MOSFETsectionturnsoffrapidlyanddepletionlayerofjunctionJ2expandsrapidlyinto
Nlayer,thebaseregionofthepnpBJT.
ExpansionofdepletionlayerreducesbasewidthofpnpBJTanditsaincreases.
MoreinjectedholessurvivetraversalofdriftregionandbecomecollectedatjunctionJ2.
IncreasedpnpBJTcollectorcurrentincreaseslateralvoltagedropinpbaseofnpnBJTand
latchupsoonoccurs.
Manufacturersusuallyspecifymaximumallowabledraincurrentonbasisofdynamic
latchup.
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

IGBTs10

InternalCapacitancesVsSpecSheetCapacitances
C

C gc
G

bridge

C
+V b

Cce

C ge

C gc

E
G

Bridge balanced (Vb=0) Cbridge = C gc = C res

Cies

Cies = C ge + C gc

C oes
E
C oes = C gc + Cce

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

IGBTs11

IGBTTurnonWaveforms

Turn-on waveforms for


IGBT embedded in a
stepdown converter.
Very similar to turn-on
waveforms of MOSFETs.
Contributions to t vf2 .

V
GG+

(t)
GE

d(on)
Io

i (t)
C

Increase in Cge of

MOSFET section at low


collector-emitter
voltages.
Slower turn-on of pnp
BJT section.

t
ri
V

V
v

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

CE(on)

DD

(t)
CE
t fv1

t
t fv2
IGBTs12

IGBTTurnoffWaveforms
V
v (t)
GE

rv

fi2

MOSFET
current
BJT
current

Current tailing (t fi2 ) due to


stored charge trapped in drift
region (base of pnp BJ T) by rapid
turn-off of MOSFET section.

t d(off)

fi1

V
v

V
GGt

i (t)
C

GE(th
)

Turn-off waveforms for IGBT


embedded in a stepdown
converter.

DD
t

(t)
CE
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

Shorten tailing interval by either


reducing carrier lifetime or by
putting N+ buffer layer adjacent to
injecting P+ layer at drain.
Buffer layer acts as a sink for
excess holes otherwise trapped
in drift region becasue lifetime in
buffer layer can be made small
without effecting on-state losses buffer layer thin compared to drift
region.
IGBTs13

IGBTSafeOperatingArea
i

Maximum collector-emitter
voltages set by breakdown
voltage of pnp transistor 2500 v devices available.

C
-5
10 sec
FBSOA

-4
10 sec
DC

re-applied

dv
CE
dt
1000 V/

v
CE

Maximum collector current set


by latchup considerations - 100
A devices can conduct 1000 A
for 10 sec and still turn-off
via gate control.
Maximum junction temp. = 150
C.


RBSOA

3000 V/ s
v
CE

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

Manufacturer specifies a
maximum rate of increase of
re-applied collector-emitter
voltage in order to avoid latchup.
IGBTs14

DevelopmentofPSpiceIGBTModel
Cm
Coxs

source
N

gate
Coxd

Cgdj

P
Cdsj

Ccer
Drain-body or
base-collector
depletion layer

N
N

Rb
Cebj + Cebd

+
P
drain

NonlinearcapacitorsCdsjandCcerduetoNPjunctiondepletionlayer.

Reference"An
ExperimentallyVerified
NonlinearcapacitorCebj+CebdduetoP+N+junction
IGBTModel
Implementedinthe
MOSFETandPNPBJTareintrinsic(noparasitics)devices
SABERCircuit
Simulator",AllenR.
NonlinearresistorRbduetoconductivitymodulationofN draindriftregionof
Hefner,Jr.andDaniel
MOSFETportion.
M.Diebolt,IEEETrans.
onPowerElectronics,
NonlinearcapacitorCgdjduetodepletionregionofdrainbodyjunction(N Pjunction). Vol.9,No.5,pp.532
542,(Sept.,1994)
Circuitmodelassumesthatlatchupdoesnotoccurandparasiticthyristordoesnotturn.
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

IGBTs15

ParameterEstimationforPSpiceIGBTModel
BuiltinIGBTmodelrequiresnineparametervalues.
ParametersdescribedinHelpfilesofPartsutilityprogram.
Partsutilityprogramguidesusersthroughparameterestimationprocess.
IGBTspecificationsheetsprovidedbymanufacturerprovidesufficient
informaitonforgeneralpurposesimulations.
Detailedaccuratesimulations,forexampledevicedissipationstudies,may
requiretheusertocarefullycharacterizetheselectedIGBTs.
Drain

Cgdj
Coxd
Gate

Cebj +
Cebd
Ccer

Rb
Cdsj

Cm +
Coxs

Builtinmodeldoesnotmodel
ultrafastIGBTswithbuffer
layers(punchthroughIGBTs)or
reversefreewheelingdiodes

Source
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

IGBTs16

PSpiceIGBTSimulationVsExperiment
0V

10 V

5V

1
nF

15 V

20 V

25 V

Data from IXGH40N60 spec sheet


Simulated C
versus VCE
GC

0.75
nF

for IXGH40N60
V

GE

=0V

0.5
nF

0.25
nF

100 V

200 V

300 V

400 V

500 V

Collector - emitter Voltage


CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

IGBTs17