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Snubber

Circuits
A.

Overview of Snubber Circuits

B.

Diode Snubbers

C.

Turn-off Snubbers

D.

Overvoltage Snubbers

E.

Turn-on Snubbers

F.

Thyristor Snubbers

AnoopMathew
HoDEEE

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

Snubbers1

OverviewofSnubberCircuitsforHardSwitchedConverters
Function:Protectsemiconductordevicesby:
Limitingdevicevoltagesduringturnofftransients
Limitingdevicecurrentsduringturnontransients
Limitingtherateofrise(di/dt)ofcurrentsthrough
thesemiconductordeviceatdeviceturnon
Limitingtherateofrise(dv/dt)ofvoltagesacross
thesemiconductordeviceatdeviceturnoff
Shapingtheswitchingtrajectoryofthedeviceasit
turnson/off

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

TypesofSnubberCircuits
1. UnpolarizedseriesRCsnubbers
Usedtoprotectdiodesandthyristors
2. PolarizedRCsnubbers
Usedasturnoffsnubberstoshapetheturnon
switchingtrajectoryofcontrolledswitches.
Usedasovervoltagesnubberstoclampvoltages
appliedtocontrolledswitchestosafevalues.
Limitdv/dtduringdeviceturnoff
3. PolarizedLRsnubbers
Usedasturnonsnubberstoshapetheturnoff
switchingtrajectoryofcontrolledswitches.
Limitdi/dtduringdeviceturnon

Snubbers2

NeedforDiodeSnubberCircuit

d i Df
+
Vd
-

Rs

Df

Io
Cs

i Df (t)

Io

d t

Vd
=
L
t
I rr

Sw

L = stray inductance
Sw closes at t = 0
Rs - Cs = snubber circuit

v (t)
Df
Diode voltage
without snubber

Vd
L

di L
d t

diL
Diode breakdown if V d + L
> BVBD
dt

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

Snubbers3

EquivalentCircuitsforDiodeSnubber
L
+
Vd
-

Diode
snap-of

cathode

Simplified snubber the capacitive snubber

Rs

anode

+
v
Cs
-

Vd
i Df

Rs = 0

Worst case assumptiondiode snaps of instantaneously


at end of diode recovery

v
d2vCs

= -v

Df

vCs
Vd
=
LCs
L Cs

Governing equation -

Boundary conditions - vCs(0 +) = 0 and iL(0 +) = Irr

dt2

Cs

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

Cs

Snubbers4

PerformanceofCapacitiveSnubber

vCs(t) = V d - V d cos(ot) + V d

o =

1
L Cs

Cbase
sin(ot)
Cs

V cs,max = V d

I 2
rr
Cbase = L

V d

Cbase
1 +

Cs

1 +

Cs,max

Vd
2

0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

C base
Cs

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

Snubbers5

EffectofAddingSnubberResistance
SnubberEquivalentCircuit
L

i(t)
-

+
V
d
-

Rs

Df
+

(t)

Governing equation

Boundary conditions

Cs

i(0 +) = Irr and

d2 i
di
i
+ Rs
+
=0
2
dt
C
dt
s

V d -I rrRs
di(0 +)
=
dt
L

Diodevoltageasafunctionoftime
Vdf
et
Vd (t)=1 cos()sin(at+);Rs2Rb

Rs
1
(2x)
2
1
a=o 1(/o) ;=2L ;o=
;=tan

LCs
2
4x
L[Irr]2
Cs
Rs
Vd
=C ;x=R ;Rb= I ;Cb=
;=tan1(/a)
2
b
b
rr
Vd

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

Snubbers6

Performance of R-C
Snubber
3

At t = tm vDf(t) = Vmax
tan-1 (a/ )
-
tm =
+
0
a
a
V max
Vd

=1 +
Cs

Cbase

1+ -1 -x exp(-t m)

and

LsI rr2
Cbase =
V d2

x=

and

Rs

R s,opt

C s = C base

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

base

2
V max
V

d
1

Rbase
Vd
Rbase =
Irr

= 1.3

R sI rr
V

0
0

Rs
R base

Snubbers7

DiodeSnubberDesign
Wtot
2
L s I rr/2

WR
2
L s I rr/2
0

2
0
V max

0
0

Vd
0 0
0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0

for R = R
s
s,opt

0 0
R s,op
R base

0
0

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

C s / C base

Snubbers8

NeedforSnubberswithControlledSwitches
Switchcurrentandvoltagewaveforms

Stepdownconverter
L1

V
d

L2

i
L3

L di
dt

sw

Sw

Io

I rr

sw
L di
dt

Io

+
vsw
-

vsw
to t

Io

V
d

t
1

t
4

t5

t6

L1 , L 2 , L 3 = stray inductances

Switchingtrajectoryofswitch

L = L1 + L + L
2
3

idealized
switching
loci

i sw
t5

t6
t

turn-off

o
t

turn-on

Overcurrent at turn-on due to


diode reverse recovery

t3
V

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

Overvoltage at turn-off
due to stray inductance

vsw

Snubbers9

TurnoffSnubberforControlledSwitches

D
f

DF

Turn-off
snubber

Io

Ds
Rs

S
w

Io

Io- i
i sw

Cs

Df
V

Stepdownconverterwithturnoffsnubber

Cs

Cs

Equivalentcircuitduringswitchturn
off.
Simplifyingassumptions
1. Nostrayinductance.

sw

2. isw(t)=Io(1t/tfi)
3. isw(t)uneffectedbysnubbercircuit.

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

Snubbers10

TurnoffSnubberOperation

2
Io t
and v (t) =
Cs
2C t
s fi

Iot
Capacitor voltage and current for 0 < t < t fi iCs(t) =
t fi
Iot fi
For Cs = Cs1, vCs = Vd at t = tfi yielding Cs1 =
2V d

Circuit waveforms for varying values of Cs


i

sw

sw

sw

Io
i

Df
tf

Df

Df
t

tf

Cs

V
d
v

Cs

Cs

< Cs1

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

Cs = Cs1

Cs > C
s
1

Snubbers11

BenefitsofSnubberResistanceatSwitchTurnon
v sw

Io

Io

DsshortsoutRs
duringSwturnoff.

Rs
V

d
Sw

DuringSwturnon,
Dsreversebiasedand
CsdischargesthruRs.

Ds
Cs

Io

d
t ri

t ri + t rr

I rr

i sw

TurnonwithRs=0

v sw

i sw

discharge
of C s

t rr

t rr

EnergystoredonCsdissipated
inSw.

Vd

Io

Rs
I rr

TurnonwithRs>0
EnergystoredonCsdissipated
inRsratherthaninSw.
Voltagefalltimekeptquite
short.

ExtraenergydissipationinSw
becauseoflengthenedvoltage
falltime.

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

Snubbers12

EffectofTurnoffSnubberCapacitance
1

Energydissipation

W total / W base
W

0.8

WR = dissipation in
resistor

0.6

WT = dissipation in
switch Sw

W R / W base

0.4

W T / W base
W

0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

Iot fi
Cs1 =
2V d

1.4

Cs / C s1

Wtotal = WR + WT

i sw
Io

Wbase = 0.5 V dIot fi


Cs < Cs1

RBSOA

Switchingtrajectory

Cs = Cs1
Cs > Cs1
V

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

v sw

Snubbers13

TurnoffSnubberDesignProcedure
SelectionofCs
Minimizeenergydissipation(WT)inBJTatturnon
MinimizeWR+WT
KeepswitchinglocuswithinRBSOA
ReasonablevalueisCs=Cs1

Snubberrecoverytime(BJTinonstate)
Capacitorvoltage=Vdexp(t/RsCs)
TimeforvCstodropto0.1Vdis2.3RsCs

SelectionofRs

BJTmustremainonforatimeof2.3RsCs

Vd
Limiticap(0+)= R <Irr
s
Vd
UsuallydesignerspecifiesIrr<0.2Ioso R =0.2Io
s
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

Snubbers14

OvervoltageSnubber
L

Io

ov

Vd

kV
d
s
w
Io

Sw

Dov

Cov

Step-down converter with


overvoltage snubber comprised
of Dov, Cov, and Rov.
Overvoltage snubber limits
overvoltage (due to stray I
nductance) across Sw as it
turns of.

s
w

fi

Switch Sw waveforms without overvoltage snubber

t fi = switch current fall time ; kV d = overvoltage on Sw


diL
Io
kV d = L
= L
dt
t fi

L =
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

kV dt fi
Io

Snubbers15

OperationofOvervoltageSnubber
i

L
L

Dov on for 0 < t <

D ov
V

ov
t fi <<

+
ov

i
Cov

+
V
d

Dov,Covprovidealternatepath

forinductorcurrentasSwturns
off.

Switchcurrentcanfalltozero
muchfasterthanLscurrent.
Dfforcedtobeon
(approximatingashortckt)byIo
afterSwisoff.

Equivalent circuit while


inductor current decays to zero

+
C

ov

Cov

Equivalentcircuitafterturnoff
ofSw.

V
d

t
LC ov

with time constant R ov C


ov
V sw,max

s
w

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

(t) = Io cos[
L

i L(0 +) = Io

Discharge of C ov thru R ov

L
I

v Cov (0 +) = V d
i

Charge-up of C ov from L
i

LCov

L
L

LCov

Energy transfer from L to C ov


Cov ( V sw,max) 2
L(I o) 2
=
2
2

LC ov
4

Snubbers16

OvervoltageSnubberDesign
Cov =

L s Io2
(vsw,max) 2

Limit vsw,max to 0.1V d


kV d t fi
Using Ls =
Io

Cov =

kV dt fiIo2
Io(0.1V d) 2

in equation for Cov yields


=

100k t fi Io
Vd
t fiIo

Cov = 200 k Cs1 where Cs1 =


2V d
in turn-of snubber

which is used

Recovery time of Cov (2.3RovCov) must be less


than off-time duration, t of , of the switch Sw.

Rov

t of
2.3C ov

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

Snubbers17

TurnonSnubber
+
D

Ls

+
f
Snubber
circuit

Ls
D

Ls

D
V

Ls

Sw

Io

Stepdownconverter
withturnonsnubber

Ls

Ls

f
Sw

SnubberreducesVswatswitch
turnonduedropacross
inductorLs.
Willlimitrateofriseofswitch
currentifLsissufficiently
large.

i sw
With
snubber

Without
snubber

Ls

Switchingtrajectorywithandwithoutturnonsnubber.

di sw
dt

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

V
d

v
sw
Snubbers18

TurnonSnubberOperatingWaveforms
v

Small values of snubber inductance (L s < L s1 )


disw

controlled by switch Sw
dt
and drive circuit.

LsIo
vsw =
t ri

Io

s
w

Large values of snubber inductance (L s > L s1 )


disw
Vd
Io

limited by circuit to
<
dt
Ls
t ri

I rr

s
w

t ri

t rr
I rr

s
w

reduced
V

Io

V dt ri

Ls1 =
Io

Irr reduced when Ls > L s1 because Irr proportional to

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

i
disw
dt

s
w
t on

Ls Io
V

> tri

+ rr
t

Snubbers19

TurnonSnubberRecoveryatSwitchTurnoff
+
D
f

Io

I o RLs exp(-R Ls t/L s )

Io R

Ls

is
w
V
d

Ls

Ls

vs
w

Ls

Sw

Assumeswitchcurrentfalltime
tri=0.
Inductorcurrentmustdischarge
thruDLsRLsseriessegment.

V
d

Io
t rv

Switchwaveformsatturnoffwithturnonsnubberincircuit.
Overvoltagesmalleriftfismaller.
Timeof2.3Ls/RLsrequiredforinductorcurrenttodecayto0.1Io
Offtimeofswitchmustbe>2.3Ls/RLs

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

Snubbers20

TurnonSnubberDesignTradeoffs
Selection of inductor
LargerLsdecreasesenergydissipationinswitchatturnon
Wsw=WB(1+Irr/Io)2[1Ls/Ls1]
WB=VdIotfi/2andLs1=Vdtfi/Io
Ls>Ls1Wsw=0

LargerLsincreasesenergydissipationinRLs
WR=WBLs/Ls1
Ls>Ls1reducesmagnitudeofreverserecoverycurrentIrr
InductormustcarrycurrentIowhenswitchisonmakes
inductorexpensiveandhenceturnonsnubberseldomused

SelectionofresistorRLs
SmallervaluesofRLsreduceswitchovervoltageIoRLsat turnoff
Limitingovervoltageto0.1VdyieldsRLs=0.1Vd/Io
LargervaluesofRLsshortensminimumswitchofftimeof2.3Ls/RLs
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

Snubbers21

ThyristorSnubberCircuit
P

1
-

3phasethyristorcircuitwithsnubbers
van(t) = Vssin(t), vbn(t) = Vssin(t - 120),
vcn(t) = Vssin(t - 240)

an +

- v bn

B
-

v cn +

C
Cs
4

Phasetoneutralwaveforms

v an

Rs

v
bn

vLL (t) = 3 V ssin(t - 60)


Maximum rms line-to-line voltage V LL =

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

3
V
2 s

v LL = v
v
bn v an = ba

t1
Snubbers22

EquivalentCircuitforSCRSnubberCalculations
Assumptions
Trigger angle = 90 so that vLL (t) = maximum = 2 V LL

EquivalentcircuitafterT1reverserecovery
Reverse recovery time t rr <<period of ac waveform so that
vLL (t) equals a constant value of vba(t 1 ) =

2 V LL

Worst case stray inductance L gives rise to reactance equal


to or less than 5% of line impedance.

Line impedance =

Vs

2V LL

V LL

V ( t )
1
ba
-

2Ia1
6Ia1
3Ia1
where Ia1 = rms value of fundamental component of the
line current.
V LL

L = 0.05
3Ia1

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

2 L

P
T1 after
recovery
T 3 (on)

Cs
i
A

T1

Rs

Snubbers23

ComponentValuesforThyristorSnubber

Use same design as for diode snubber but adapt the formulas to the
thyristor circuit notation

Snubber capacit or Cs = Cbase = L

I 2
rr

V d

From snubber equivalent circuit 2 L

Irr =

diL
t rr
dt

2V LL

2V LL

t rr =

2L

diL
dt

0.05 V LL

t rr = 25 Ia1t rr

3I a1

Vd =

Cs = Cbase =

Vd
Snubber resistance Rs = 1.3 Rbase = 1.3
Irr

2 V LL

2 V LL

Rs

0.05 V LL
3I a1

= 1.3

25 I

a1t rr

2V LL

2V LL
25Ia1t rr

2
=

8.7 Ia1t rr
V LL

0.07 V LL
Ia1t rr

Energy dissipat ed per cycle in snubber resistance = WR

WR =

L Irr2
2

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

CsV d2
2

= 18 Ia1 V LL (t rr) 2

Snubbers24