Circuits
A.
B.
Diode Snubbers
C.
Turnoff Snubbers
D.
Overvoltage Snubbers
E.
Turnon Snubbers
F.
Thyristor Snubbers
AnoopMathew
HoDEEE
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org
Snubbers1
OverviewofSnubberCircuitsforHardSwitchedConverters
Function:Protectsemiconductordevicesby:
Limitingdevicevoltagesduringturnofftransients
Limitingdevicecurrentsduringturnontransients
Limitingtherateofrise(di/dt)ofcurrentsthrough
thesemiconductordeviceatdeviceturnon
Limitingtherateofrise(dv/dt)ofvoltagesacross
thesemiconductordeviceatdeviceturnoff
Shapingtheswitchingtrajectoryofthedeviceasit
turnson/off
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org
TypesofSnubberCircuits
1. UnpolarizedseriesRCsnubbers
Usedtoprotectdiodesandthyristors
2. PolarizedRCsnubbers
Usedasturnoffsnubberstoshapetheturnon
switchingtrajectoryofcontrolledswitches.
Usedasovervoltagesnubberstoclampvoltages
appliedtocontrolledswitchestosafevalues.
Limitdv/dtduringdeviceturnoff
3. PolarizedLRsnubbers
Usedasturnonsnubberstoshapetheturnoff
switchingtrajectoryofcontrolledswitches.
Limitdi/dtduringdeviceturnon
Snubbers2
NeedforDiodeSnubberCircuit
d i Df
+
Vd

Rs
Df
Io
Cs
i Df (t)
Io
d t
Vd
=
L
t
I rr
Sw
L = stray inductance
Sw closes at t = 0
Rs  Cs = snubber circuit
v (t)
Df
Diode voltage
without snubber
Vd
L
di L
d t
diL
Diode breakdown if V d + L
> BVBD
dt
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org
Snubbers3
EquivalentCircuitsforDiodeSnubber
L
+
Vd

Diode
snapof
cathode
Rs
anode
+
v
Cs

Vd
i Df
Rs = 0
v
d2vCs
= v
Df
vCs
Vd
=
LCs
L Cs
Governing equation 
dt2
Cs
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org
Cs
Snubbers4
PerformanceofCapacitiveSnubber
vCs(t) = V d  V d cos(ot) + V d
o =
1
L Cs
Cbase
sin(ot)
Cs
V cs,max = V d
I 2
rr
Cbase = L
V d
Cbase
1 +
Cs
1 +
Cs,max
Vd
2
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
C base
Cs
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org
Snubbers5
EffectofAddingSnubberResistance
SnubberEquivalentCircuit
L
i(t)

+
V
d

Rs
Df
+
(t)
Governing equation
Boundary conditions
Cs
d2 i
di
i
+ Rs
+
=0
2
dt
C
dt
s
V d I rrRs
di(0 +)
=
dt
L
Diodevoltageasafunctionoftime
Vdf
et
Vd (t)=1 cos()sin(at+);Rs2Rb
Rs
1
(2x)
2
1
a=o 1(/o) ;=2L ;o=
;=tan
LCs
2
4x
L[Irr]2
Cs
Rs
Vd
=C ;x=R ;Rb= I ;Cb=
;=tan1(/a)
2
b
b
rr
Vd
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org
Snubbers6
Performance of RC
Snubber
3
At t = tm vDf(t) = Vmax
tan1 (a/ )

tm =
+
0
a
a
V max
Vd
=1 +
Cs
Cbase
1+ 1 x exp(t m)
and
LsI rr2
Cbase =
V d2
x=
and
Rs
R s,opt
C s = C base
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org
base
2
V max
V
d
1
Rbase
Vd
Rbase =
Irr
= 1.3
R sI rr
V
0
0
Rs
R base
Snubbers7
DiodeSnubberDesign
Wtot
2
L s I rr/2
WR
2
L s I rr/2
0
2
0
V max
0
0
Vd
0 0
0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
for R = R
s
s,opt
0 0
R s,op
R base
0
0
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org
C s / C base
Snubbers8
NeedforSnubberswithControlledSwitches
Switchcurrentandvoltagewaveforms
Stepdownconverter
L1
V
d
L2
i
L3
L di
dt
sw
Sw
Io
I rr
sw
L di
dt
Io
+
vsw

vsw
to t
Io
V
d
t
1
t
4
t5
t6
L1 , L 2 , L 3 = stray inductances
Switchingtrajectoryofswitch
L = L1 + L + L
2
3
idealized
switching
loci
i sw
t5
t6
t
turnoff
o
t
turnon
t3
V
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org
Overvoltage at turnoff
due to stray inductance
vsw
Snubbers9
TurnoffSnubberforControlledSwitches
D
f
DF
Turnoff
snubber
Io
Ds
Rs
S
w
Io
Io i
i sw
Cs
Df
V
Stepdownconverterwithturnoffsnubber
Cs
Cs
Equivalentcircuitduringswitchturn
off.
Simplifyingassumptions
1. Nostrayinductance.
sw
2. isw(t)=Io(1t/tfi)
3. isw(t)uneffectedbysnubbercircuit.
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org
Snubbers10
TurnoffSnubberOperation
2
Io t
and v (t) =
Cs
2C t
s fi
Iot
Capacitor voltage and current for 0 < t < t fi iCs(t) =
t fi
Iot fi
For Cs = Cs1, vCs = Vd at t = tfi yielding Cs1 =
2V d
sw
sw
sw
Io
i
Df
tf
Df
Df
t
tf
Cs
V
d
v
Cs
Cs
< Cs1
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org
Cs = Cs1
Cs > C
s
1
Snubbers11
BenefitsofSnubberResistanceatSwitchTurnon
v sw
Io
Io
DsshortsoutRs
duringSwturnoff.
Rs
V
d
Sw
DuringSwturnon,
Dsreversebiasedand
CsdischargesthruRs.
Ds
Cs
Io
d
t ri
t ri + t rr
I rr
i sw
TurnonwithRs=0
v sw
i sw
discharge
of C s
t rr
t rr
EnergystoredonCsdissipated
inSw.
Vd
Io
Rs
I rr
TurnonwithRs>0
EnergystoredonCsdissipated
inRsratherthaninSw.
Voltagefalltimekeptquite
short.
ExtraenergydissipationinSw
becauseoflengthenedvoltage
falltime.
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org
Snubbers12
EffectofTurnoffSnubberCapacitance
1
Energydissipation
W total / W base
W
0.8
WR = dissipation in
resistor
0.6
WT = dissipation in
switch Sw
W R / W base
0.4
W T / W base
W
0.2
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.2
Iot fi
Cs1 =
2V d
1.4
Cs / C s1
Wtotal = WR + WT
i sw
Io
RBSOA
Switchingtrajectory
Cs = Cs1
Cs > Cs1
V
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org
v sw
Snubbers13
TurnoffSnubberDesignProcedure
SelectionofCs
Minimizeenergydissipation(WT)inBJTatturnon
MinimizeWR+WT
KeepswitchinglocuswithinRBSOA
ReasonablevalueisCs=Cs1
Snubberrecoverytime(BJTinonstate)
Capacitorvoltage=Vdexp(t/RsCs)
TimeforvCstodropto0.1Vdis2.3RsCs
SelectionofRs
BJTmustremainonforatimeof2.3RsCs
Vd
Limiticap(0+)= R <Irr
s
Vd
UsuallydesignerspecifiesIrr<0.2Ioso R =0.2Io
s
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org
Snubbers14
OvervoltageSnubber
L
Io
ov
Vd
kV
d
s
w
Io
Sw
Dov
Cov
s
w
fi
L =
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org
kV dt fi
Io
Snubbers15
OperationofOvervoltageSnubber
i
L
L
D ov
V
ov
t fi <<
+
ov
i
Cov
+
V
d
Dov,Covprovidealternatepath
forinductorcurrentasSwturns
off.
Switchcurrentcanfalltozero
muchfasterthanLscurrent.
Dfforcedtobeon
(approximatingashortckt)byIo
afterSwisoff.
+
C
ov
Cov
Equivalentcircuitafterturnoff
ofSw.
V
d
t
LC ov
s
w
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org
(t) = Io cos[
L
i L(0 +) = Io
Discharge of C ov thru R ov
L
I
v Cov (0 +) = V d
i
Chargeup of C ov from L
i
LCov
L
L
LCov
LC ov
4
Snubbers16
OvervoltageSnubberDesign
Cov =
L s Io2
(vsw,max) 2
Cov =
kV dt fiIo2
Io(0.1V d) 2
100k t fi Io
Vd
t fiIo
which is used
Rov
t of
2.3C ov
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org
Snubbers17
TurnonSnubber
+
D
Ls
+
f
Snubber
circuit
Ls
D
Ls
D
V
Ls
Sw
Io
Stepdownconverter
withturnonsnubber
Ls
Ls
f
Sw
SnubberreducesVswatswitch
turnonduedropacross
inductorLs.
Willlimitrateofriseofswitch
currentifLsissufficiently
large.
i sw
With
snubber
Without
snubber
Ls
Switchingtrajectorywithandwithoutturnonsnubber.
di sw
dt
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org
V
d
v
sw
Snubbers18
TurnonSnubberOperatingWaveforms
v
controlled by switch Sw
dt
and drive circuit.
LsIo
vsw =
t ri
Io
s
w
limited by circuit to
<
dt
Ls
t ri
I rr
s
w
t ri
t rr
I rr
s
w
reduced
V
Io
V dt ri
Ls1 =
Io
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org
i
disw
dt
s
w
t on
Ls Io
V
> tri
+ rr
t
Snubbers19
TurnonSnubberRecoveryatSwitchTurnoff
+
D
f
Io
Io R
Ls
is
w
V
d
Ls
Ls
vs
w
Ls
Sw
Assumeswitchcurrentfalltime
tri=0.
Inductorcurrentmustdischarge
thruDLsRLsseriessegment.
V
d
Io
t rv
Switchwaveformsatturnoffwithturnonsnubberincircuit.
Overvoltagesmalleriftfismaller.
Timeof2.3Ls/RLsrequiredforinductorcurrenttodecayto0.1Io
Offtimeofswitchmustbe>2.3Ls/RLs
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org
Snubbers20
TurnonSnubberDesignTradeoffs
Selection of inductor
LargerLsdecreasesenergydissipationinswitchatturnon
Wsw=WB(1+Irr/Io)2[1Ls/Ls1]
WB=VdIotfi/2andLs1=Vdtfi/Io
Ls>Ls1Wsw=0
LargerLsincreasesenergydissipationinRLs
WR=WBLs/Ls1
Ls>Ls1reducesmagnitudeofreverserecoverycurrentIrr
InductormustcarrycurrentIowhenswitchisonmakes
inductorexpensiveandhenceturnonsnubberseldomused
SelectionofresistorRLs
SmallervaluesofRLsreduceswitchovervoltageIoRLsat turnoff
Limitingovervoltageto0.1VdyieldsRLs=0.1Vd/Io
LargervaluesofRLsshortensminimumswitchofftimeof2.3Ls/RLs
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org
Snubbers21
ThyristorSnubberCircuit
P
1

3phasethyristorcircuitwithsnubbers
van(t) = Vssin(t), vbn(t) = Vssin(t  120),
vcn(t) = Vssin(t  240)
an +
 v bn
B

v cn +
C
Cs
4
Phasetoneutralwaveforms
v an
Rs
v
bn
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org
3
V
2 s
v LL = v
v
bn v an = ba
t1
Snubbers22
EquivalentCircuitforSCRSnubberCalculations
Assumptions
Trigger angle = 90 so that vLL (t) = maximum = 2 V LL
EquivalentcircuitafterT1reverserecovery
Reverse recovery time t rr <<period of ac waveform so that
vLL (t) equals a constant value of vba(t 1 ) =
2 V LL
Line impedance =
Vs
2V LL
V LL
V ( t )
1
ba

2Ia1
6Ia1
3Ia1
where Ia1 = rms value of fundamental component of the
line current.
V LL
L = 0.05
3Ia1
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org
2 L
P
T1 after
recovery
T 3 (on)
Cs
i
A
T1
Rs
Snubbers23
ComponentValuesforThyristorSnubber
Use same design as for diode snubber but adapt the formulas to the
thyristor circuit notation
I 2
rr
V d
Irr =
diL
t rr
dt
2V LL
2V LL
t rr =
2L
diL
dt
0.05 V LL
t rr = 25 Ia1t rr
3I a1
Vd =
Cs = Cbase =
Vd
Snubber resistance Rs = 1.3 Rbase = 1.3
Irr
2 V LL
2 V LL
Rs
0.05 V LL
3I a1
= 1.3
25 I
a1t rr
2V LL
2V LL
25Ia1t rr
2
=
8.7 Ia1t rr
V LL
0.07 V LL
Ia1t rr
WR =
L Irr2
2
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org
CsV d2
2
= 18 Ia1 V LL (t rr) 2
Snubbers24