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DriveCircuits

Outline
Drivecircuitdesignconsiderations
DCcoupleddrivecircuits
Isolateddrivecircuits
Protectionmeasuresindrivecircuits
Component/circuitlayoutconsiderations

CopyrightbyJohn

DriveCkts1

Functionality of Gate/Base Drive


Circuits

Turnpowerswitchfromoffstatetoonstate

Minimizeturnontimethroughactiveregionwherepowerdissipationislarge
Provideadequatedrivepowertokeeppowerswitchinonstate
Turnpowerswitchfromonstatetooffstate
Minimizeturnofftimethroughactiveregionwherepowerdissipationislarge
Providebiastoinsurethatpowerswitchremainsoff
Controlpowerswitchtoprotectitwhenovervoltagesorovercurrentsaresensed
Signalprocessingcircuitswhichgeneratethelogiccontrolsignalsnotconsideredpartofthedrivecircuit
Drivecircuitamplifiescontrolsignalstolevelsrequiredtodrivepowerswitch
Drivecircuithassignificantpowercapabilitiescomparedtologiclevelsignalprocessingcircuits
Provideelectricalisolationwhenneededbetweenpowerswitchandlogiclevelsignalprocessing/controlcircuits

CopyrightbyJohn

DriveCkts2

Drive Circuit Design


Considerations
Drivecircuittopologies
Outputsignalpolarityunipolarorbipolar
ACorDCcoupled
Connectedinshuntorserieswithpowerswitch
Outputcurrentmagnitude
LargeIonshortensturnontimebutlengthensturnoffdelaytime
LargeIoffshortensturnofftimebutlengthensturnondelaytime
Provisionsforpowerswitchprotection
Overcurrents
Blankingtimesforbridgecircuitdrives

Unipolar

Waveshapingtoimproveswitchperformance
ControlleddiB/dtforBJTturnoff
AntisaturationdiodesforBJTdrives
Speedupcapacitors
Frontporch/backporchcurrents

Componentlayouttominimizestrayinductanceandshieldingfromswitching
noise

CopyrightbyJohn

Bipolar

DriveCkts3

UnipolarDCcoupledDriveCircuitBJTExample

Circuit operation

V control > Vreference - BJ T at comparator output on


which puts Qpnp and Qsw on

V control < Vreference - BJ T at comparator output off


which turns Qpnp off and thus Qsw off

V
V

BB

Design procedure

V BE,off

R2 =
IB,off

Ipnp = IB,on +

I
o

; IB,off based on desired turn-off t ime.


V BE,on
R2

; IB,on value based on BJ T beta and

Comparator

pnp

R
1

V
control

value of Io.
V BB = VCE,on(Qpnp) + R1 IC,pnp + VBE,on(Qsw)
V BB = 8 to 10 V ; compromise between larger values which
minimize effects of V BE variations and smaller values
which minimize power dissipation in drive circuit

CopyrightbyJohn

Q
sw

R
2

V
reference

DriveCkts4

UnipolarDCcoupledDriveCircuitsMOSFETexamples
V

V
BB

d
V

>

control

reference

comparator output

o
Comparator
R

high and Q

on

sw

R
2

V
control

<

control

reference

sw
comparator output

low and Q

of
sw

V
reference

V
d

GG

>

control

reference

comparator output
I
o

high putting Q
npn

Comparator
R

on

and thus Q

on
sw

<

control

reference

control
Q
+

sw
comparator output

G
low putting Q

on

pnp

and thus Q
V

of
sw

reference

V
V

d
GG

I
o

IC bufer amp with

V
control

R
G

totem pole output


Q
sw
DS0026 or UC1706/07

CopyrightbyJohn

DriveCkts5

BipolarDCcoupledDriveCircuitBJTExample

BB+

Comparator

Largereversebasecurrentflowsto
minimizeturnofftimeandbaseemitter
ofQswreversedbiasedtoinsureoff
state.

BB+

control

Vcontrol<Vreferencecomparatoroutput
low,TBonand Qswoff.

T
B+
+
Q
sw

Vcontrol>Vreferencecomparatoroutput
high,TB+onandQswon.

BV
reference

C
BB-

V
BB-

CopyrightbyJohn

Largeforwardbasecurrenttominimize
turnontimeandtoinsuresaturationof
Qswforlowonstatelosses
DriveCkts6

BipolarDCcoupledDriveCircuitMOSFETExample
V

GG+

Comparator
I
o

D
f
T
B+

Bipolardrivewithsubstantialoutput
currentcapability

GG+

control

+
Q
sw
R
-

V
reference

T
B-

C
GG-

V
GG-

V
d
V
GG+

I
o
C
GG+

IC bufer amp with


control

totem pole output


Q
R
DS0026 or UC1706/07

sw
G

Simplebipolardrivecircuitwith
moderate(1amp)outputcurrent
capability

C
GG-

V
GG-

CopyrightbyJohn

DriveCkts7

NeedforElectricalIsolationofDriveCircuits

Isolated auxiliary

Negativehalfcycleofvs(t)positivedc
railnearsafetygroundpotential.T
emitterpotentiallargeandnegativewith
respecttosafetyandlogicground

power to base

drive circuits

base

Postivehalfcycleofvs(t)negativedc
railnearsafetygroundpotential.T+
emittersubstantiallypositivewithespect
tosafetygroundifTisoff

Signal
drive

isolation
circuit

Logic and

V
d

Control
v

Electronics
S
D

base
Signal

T
drive

F-

isolation
circuit

Control

Variationinemitterpotentialswith
respecttosafetyandlogicgroundmeans
thatelectricalisolationofemittersfrom
logicgroundisneeded.

Inputs

Safety

Ground

CopyrightbyJohn

F+

DriveCkts8

MethodsofControlSignalIsolation
Input to remainder of

isolated drive circuit


Logic level

Transformerisolation

control ckts

Power switch reference node

(BJT emitter, MOSFET source)


Logic ground

Light-

BB+
emitting

Isolated

dc supply

diode

Signal
Input to remainder of
from

Optocouplerisolation

isolated drive circuit


control

logic

Power switch
Control logic
reference node
ground
Photo-transistor

V
BB+

AC

Isolateddcpowersupplies
fordrivecircuits

power in

V
BB-

CopyrightbyJohn

DriveCkts9

OptoCouplerIsolatedBJTDrive
V
BB+

Signal
Opto-coupler
from

control

electronics

R
B

C
BB+

T
B+

Q
sw

T
B-

C
BB-

V
BB-

CopyrightbyJohn

DriveCkts10

TransformercoupledBJTDrive
V
d
Fast

High

signal

frequency

diodes

B
Oscillator

f
C

transformer

BB+
T
B+

Q
Q

sw

T
B-

C
BB-

V
control

V
BB+

AC

power

in

V
BB-

Oscillator output

V
control
t

Transformer

primary voltage

Input to

CopyrightbyJohn

comparator

DriveCkts11

OptoCouplerIsolatedMOSFETDrives
V

Signal

Opto-coupler

d
GG+

from control

electronics

I
o

D
f
T
B+

C
GG+

sw

R
G

T
B-

C
GG-

V
GG-

AC

power

in

GG+
Signal

Opto-coupler

from control
I
electronics

C
GG+

IC bufer amp with

totem pole output

DS0026 or

sw

G
UC1706/07

C
GG-

(Circuitry for isolated

V
GG-

dc supplies not shown)

CopyrightbyJohn

DriveCkts12

Isolated Drives Without Auxiliary DC


Supplies
- Proportional Flyback BJT Example
Regenerativecircuitoperation
T1oncurrentip=VBB/RpandQswoff
V
BB

i
C
R

T1turnedoffstoredenergyingappedtransformercore
inducespositivebasecurrentiBinQswcausingittogoactive
andcollectorcurrentiCbeginstoflow

C
p

N
1

2
Q
sw

i
p

Regenerativeactionoftransformerconnectionssuppliesa
basecurrentiB=N3iC/N2whichkeepsQswonevenwithip=0

T1turnedonpositivecurrentipcausesabasecurrent
iB=N3iC/N2N1ip/N2inQsw

Initiallyipquitelarge(ip(0+)=iB1(0+))soQswturnedoff

T
1

N
3

CircuitdesignmustinsureturnoffiBhasadequatenegative
magnitudeandduration
Bestsuitedforhighfrequencyoperationlowervoltsecond
requirementsontransformer.

CopyrightbyJohn

Alsobestsuitedforlimitedvariationsindutycycle
DriveCkts13

IsolatedDrivesWithoutAuxiliaryDCSupplies
MOSFETExample
V
DD
v
+

Buffer

v
sec

Buffer

output

(1 - D)
DD

C
voltage

t
duty

ratio

Mostsuitableforapplications
wheredutycycleDis50%or
less.Positivegoingsecondary
voltagedecreasesasDincreases.

D= 0.5

sec
t

Buffer output

v
voltage

t
duty

ratio

sec
D= 0.3
t

CopyrightbyJohn

DriveCkts14

IsolatedDriveWithoutAuxiliaryDCSupplies
MOSFETExample
V
control

Inverting

Buffer

v
sec

v
cap

Noninverting

Buffer

Zener diode voltage VZ


must be less than
negative pulse out of
transformer secondary or
pulse will not reach
MOSFET gate to turn it of.

Schmitt

trigger

V
control

t
A

v
A

V
Z

V
Z

sec
(dotted)

v
cap

CopyrightbyJohn

DriveCkts15

IsolatedDriveWithoutAuxiliaryDCSupplies
MOSFETExample
4011

Buffer

4047
v

v
control

oscillator

trans

Buffer
(1 MHz)

C
R

C
2

7555
R

v
2s

D
B

1s

v
control

v
Q
C

cha rges up to a
1

positive voltage at
v

power-up a nd remains
Q
there. D

prevents
B

discharge
v
trans

De cay of
1s
voltage on C
2
via R
2

v
2s

CopyrightbyJohn

DriveCkts16

EmitterOpenSwitchingofBJTs
V

i
BB+

standard

RBSOA

emitter open

switching RBSOA

Power

BJT

T
E

control

v
CE

switching

switching

locus with

locus with

standard

emitter open

Circuitoperation
TurnonpowerBJTbyturningonMOSFETTE.
TurnoffpowerBJTbyturningoffMOSFETTE.
Collectorcurrentflowsoutbaseasnegativebasecurrent.
GreateriB(off)comparedtostandarddrivecircuitsiC=biB(off)removesstoredchargemuchfaster
Turnofftimesreduced(uptotentimes).
base drive

base drive

OnstatelossesofseriescombinationofMOSFETandBJTminimized.
LowvoltageMOSFETwhichhaslowlossescanbeused.MaximumoffstateMOSFETvoltagelimitedby
Zenerdiode.
BJTbaseemitterjunctionreversebiasedwhenTEoffsobreakdownratingofBJTgivenbyBVCBOinsteado
of BVCEO.WithlowerBVCEOrating,BJTlossesinonstatereduced.
CircuitalsousefulforGTOsandFCTs.

CopyrightbyJohn

DriveCkts17

ThyristorGateDriveCircuit
1

Line

Voltage

DC power supply for

Delayangleblockis
commerciallyavailable
integratedcircuit

gate trigger circuit

zero crossing

detection

gate pulse

TCA780circuitfamily

isolation

transformers

Input

Delay

Control

Angle

Signal

Block

Pulse

Amplifier

gate pulse
Control
isolation
Logic
transformers
Ground

CopyrightbyJohn

DriveCkts18

ThyristorGateDriveCircuit(cont.)
Transformer

Line Voltage

Ramp

Control

Thyristorgatedrivewaveforms

voltage

Control of

1&2

Control of

3&4

D
1

15 V

Gatepulseamplifier

f
R
G

T
G
Trigger signal

CopyrightbyJohn

DriveCkts19

GTOGateDriveCircuit
R

R
2

T
G2

G1

R
10 A

V
pulse

GG+

2A

TurnonTG1andTG2toget
largefrontporchcurrent

Control

Circuit

L
G

V
GGR
7

T
G3
turn-off

TurnoffTG1aftersome
specifiedtimetoreducetotal
gatecurrenttobackporch
value.

pulse

Auxilliary

power supply

for gate drive

circuit

CopyrightbyJohn

DriveCkts20

OvercurrentProtectionWithDriveCircuits
V
d

V
BB+

R
1

o
p

D
p

overcurrent

BJT
protection

control

V
BB-

Point C one diode drop above VCE(sat) when BJT is on. Overcurrent will increase
VCE and thus potential at C.
If C rises above a threshold value and control signal is biasing BJT on,
overcurrent protection block will turn of BJT. Conservate design would
keep
BJT of until a manual reset had been done.

CopyrightbyJohn

DriveCkts21

Limiting Overcurrents by Limiting On-state Base


Current
+
I

o
F
Stepdown converter with

C
d

d
short curcuit at t = t
sc

i
C

I
I

C,sc

B,max
I
C(on)max

t
in

CE

sc

OvercurrentlimitedtoIC(on)max<IC,scbykeepingIB,max<IC,sc/b
IC,sc=maximumallowableinstantaneouscollectorcurrent
SameapproachcanbeusedwithMOSFETsandIGBTs.VGSmustberestrictedtokeepdraincurrentto
safevalues.

CopyrightbyJohn

DriveCkts22

BlankingTimesinBridgeCircuitDrives
Optocoupler or

transformer
1+

V
control, T

Turn of T+ before turning on

+
V

T- in order to avoid cross

signal ground

d
I
o

T
-

-conduction (shorting out of Vd)

V
control, T

V
Optocoupler or

1Control for

transformer
converter leg

V
control,

bridge

V
1+

V
1dead

time

V
control, T

+
blanking
blanking

collector
time

time

current

V
control, T

dead

time

CopyrightbyJohn

DriveCkts23

DriveCircuitWaveshapingforImprovedOperation
V
BB+

AntisaturationdiodeDaskeepsQswactive.
VAE=VBE(on)+VD1=VCE(on)+Vdas
VCE(on)=VBE(on)>VCE(sat)becauseVD1=Vdas

R
B

as
B+

D
1

DsprovidespathfornegativebasecurrentatQswturnoff.

sw

Storagedelaytimeatturnoffreducedbutonstatelossesincreaseslightly.

D
T

2
B-

Speedupcapacitors

V
BB-

i
BB+

R
C

on

T
B+
t

i
B
Transient overdrive
Q
sw

provided via C

for

on

faster turn-on of switch

T
B-

Same concept can be applied to

MOSFET and IGBT drive circuits


V
BB-

CopyrightbyJohn

DriveCkts24

DriveCircuitWaveshaping(cont.)
V
BB+

R
B

Controlledrateofchangeofturnoffbasecurrent
ExcessivelylongcollectorcurrenttailingtimeatBJTturnoffif
diB(off)/dtistoolarge.

T
B+
i
B
Q
sw

InductorLoffrestrictsdiB(off)/dttoVBB/Loff

L
of

T
B-

V
BB-

Frontporch,backporchgate/basecurrentsat
turnon

Back porch

Gate/base

current

current
BB+

Front
Front
porch

R
B1

current

Fasterturnonwithoutputtingdevice
deeplyintoonstatewhereturnoffdelay
timewillbesubstantiallyincreased.

porch
B2

Back

current

porch
Control
current

T
B+
i
B
Q
sw

T
B-

V
BB-

ApplicabletoBJTs,MOSFETs,IGBTs,and
GTOs.

CopyrightbyJohn

DriveCkts25

Circuit/ComponentLayoutConsiderations
Primeconsiderationisminimizingstrayinductance

Strayinductanceinserieswithhighvoltage
side ofpowerdeviceQswcausesovervoltageat
turn
off.

Q
sw

Strayinductanceinserieswithlowvoltageside
powerdeviceQswcancauseoscillationsat
turn onandturnoff.
Onecmofunshieldedleadhasabout5nHof
seriesinductance.

V
d

Keepunshieldedleadlengthstoanabsolute
minimum.

D
Control

Twisted or

Signal
shielded

conductors

Drive
Q
sw
Circui
G
t

Power terminals

Control terminals

Useshieldedconductorstoconnectdrive
circuittopowerswitchiftheremustbe
anyappreciableseparation(fewcmor
more)betweenthem

CopyrightbyJohn

Somepowerdevicesprovidedwithfourleads,twoinput
leadsandtwopowerleads,tominimizestrayinductance
ininputcircuit.
DriveCkts26