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LectureNotes

HeatSinksandComponentTemperatureControl

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

HeatSinks1

NeedforComponentTemperatureControl

Allcomponents,capacitors,inductorsandtransformers,andsemiconductordevices
andcircuitshavemaximumoperatingtemperaturesspecifiedbymanufacturer.

Componentreliabilitydecreaseswithincreasingtemperature.Semiconductor
failureratedoublesforevery1015Cincreaseintemperatureabove50C
(approx.ruleofthumb).

Highcomponentoperatingtemperatureshaveundesirableeffectsoncomponents.
Capacitors

MagneticComponents

Semconductors

Electrolyteevaporation
rateincreases
significantlywith
temperatureincreases
andthusshortens
lifetime.

Losses(atconstantpower
input)increaseabove100
C

Unequalpowersharingin
paralleledorseriesed
devices.

Windinginsulation(lacquer
orvarnish)degradesabove
100C

Reductioninbreakdown
voltageinsomedevices.
Increaseinleakagecurrents.
Increaseinswitchingtimes.

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

HeatSinks2

TemperatureControlMethods

Controlvoltagesacrossandcurrentthroughcomponentsviagooddesignpractices.

Snubbersmayberequiredforsemiconductordevices.

Freewheelingdiodesmaybeneededwithmagneticcomponents.

Usecomponentsdesignedbymanufacturerstomaximizeheattransfervia
convectionandradiationfromcomponenttoambient.

Shortheatflowpathsfrominteriortocomponentsurfaceandlargecomponent
surfacearea.

Componentuserhasresponsibilitytoproperlymounttemperaturecritical
componentsonheatsinks.

Applyrecommendedtorqueonmountingboltsandnutsandusethermalgrease
betweencomponentandheatsink.

Properlydesignsystemlayoutandenclosureforadequateairflowsothatheat
sinkscanoperateproperlytodissipateheattotheambient.

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

HeatSinks3

HeatConductionThermalResistance
d
b

Genericgeometry
ofheatflowvia
conduction

P
cond

Temperature = T 2

heat flow
direction

T2 > T
1

Temperature = T
1

HeatflowPcond[W/m2]=A(T2T1)/d=(T2T1)/Rcond

ThermalresistanceRcond=d/[A]

CrosssectionalareaA=hb

=ThermalconductivityhasunitsofWm1C1(Al=220Wm1C1).
UnitsofthermalresistanceareC/W

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

HeatSinks4

ThermalEquivalentCircuits
Heatflowthrough

Thermalequivalentcircuit

astructurecomposed
oflayersofdifferent
materials.
Chip

Case

simplifiescalculationof
temperaturesinvariousparts
ofstructure.

Tj

Tc

Isolation pad
Heat sink T

T =P (R
i

+Rcs+Rsa)+Ta

jc

Ifthereparallelheatflowpaths,
Ambient Temperature T a

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

thenthermalresistancesofthe
parallelpathscombineasdo
electricalresistorsinparallel.

HeatSinks5

TransientThermalImpedance

HeatcapacityperunitvolumeCv=dQ/dT[Joules/C]preventsshortdurationhigh
powerdissipationsurgesfromraisingcomponenttemperaturebeyondoperatinglimits.

Transientthermalequivalent

P(t)

circuit.Cs=CvVwhereVisthe
volumeofthecomponent.

TransientthermalimpedanceZ (t)=[T (t)T ]/P(t)

P(t)

=RCs/4=thermal
time
constant

T (t= )=0.833P R
j

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

HeatSinks6

ApplicationofTransientThermalImpedance
SymbolicresponseforarectangularpowerdissipationpulseP(t)=Po{u(t)u(tt )}.
1

P(t)

Tj(t)=Po{Z(t)Z(tt1)}

P(t)
Half sine pulse
Po

Equivalent
rectangular
pulse
T/2
T/8

3T/8

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

Symbolicsolutionforhalfsinepower
dissipationpulse.

P(t)=Po{u(tT/8)u(t3T/8)};area
undertwocurvesidentical.

Tj(t)=Po{Z(tT/8)Z(t3T/8)}
HeatSinks7

ZforMultilayerStructures
P(t)

Multilayergeometry

Tj
Cu

Ta

Silicon
Copper mount
Heat sink

Tc

Tj

Transientthermal

P(t)

equivalentcircuit

C s (Si)

Cu

C s (Cu)

Tc

R (sink)

Cs (sink)

Ta

Transientthermal

R (Si)

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

impedance(asymptotic)
ofmultilayerstructure
assumingwidely
separatedthermaltime
constants.
HeatSinks8

HeatSinks
Aluminumheatsinksofvariousshapesandsizeswidelyavailableforcoolingcomponents.

Oftenanodizedwithblackoxidecoatingtoreducethermalresistancebyupto25%.

Sinkscooledbynaturalconvectionhavethermaltimeconstantsof415minutes.

Forcedaircooledsinkshavesubstantiallysmallerthermaltimeconstants,typically
lessthanoneminute.

Choiceofheatsinkdependsonrequiredthermalresistance,R

sa

,whichisdeterminedby

severalfactors.

sa

Maximumpower,Pdiss,dissipatedinthecomponentmountedontheheatsink.

Component'smaximuminternaltemperature,Tj,max
Component'sjunctiontocasethermalresistance,Rjc.

Maximumambienttemperature,Ta,max.

={Tj,maxTa,max}PdissRjc

PdissandTa,maxdeterminedbyparticularapplication.

Tj,maxandRjcsetbycomponentmanufacturer.

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

HeatSinks9

RadiativeThermalResistance
StefanBoltzmannlawdescribesradiativeheattransfer.

Prad=5.7x108EA[(Ts)4(Ta)4];[Prad]=[watts]

E=emissivity;blackanodizedaluminumE=0.9;polishedaluminumE=0.05

A=surfacearea[m2]throughwhichheatradiationemerges.

Ts=surfacetemperature[K]ofcomponent.Ta=ambienttemperature[K].

(T T )/Prad=R
s

,rad

=[TsTa][5.7EA{(Ts/100)4(Ta/100)4}]1

Exampleblackanodizedcubeofaluminum10cmonaside.T =120Cand
s

Ta=20C
R,rad=[393293][(5.7)(0.9)(6x102){(393/100)4(293/100)4}]1
R,rad=2.2C/W

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

HeatSinks10

ConvectiveThermalResistance
P

=convectiveheatlosstosurroundingairfromaverticalsurfaceatsealevelhaving
aheightdvert[inmeters]lessthanonemeter.
conv

Pconv=1.34A[TsTa]1.25dvert0.25
A=totalsurfaceareain[m2]
Ts=surfacetemperature[K]ofcomponent.Ta=ambienttemperature[K].

[T T ]/P
s

conv

=R,conv=[TsTa][dvert]0.25[1.34A(TsTa)1.25]1

R,conv=[dvert]0.25{1.34A[TsTa]0.25}1

Exampleblackanodizedcubeofaluminum10cmonaside.T =120CandT =20C.


s

R,conv=[101]0.25([1.34][6x102][12020]0.25)1
R,conv=2.2C/W
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

HeatSinks11

CombinedEffectsofConvectionandRadiation
Heatlossviaconvectionandradiationoccurinparallel.

Steadystatethermalequivalentcircuit

R,sink=R,radR,conv/[R,rad+R,conv]
Exampleblackanodizedaluminumcube10cmperside
R,rad=2.2C/WandR,conv=2.2C/W
R,sink=(2.2)(2.2)/(2.2+2.2)=1.1C/W
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

HeatSinks12