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VOLTAGE REGULATION CALCULATION

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CALCULATIONS

BY

CH.NARASIMHA MURTHY

CONSULATANT/ CIRE

VOLTAGE REGULATIONDefinition

VOLTAGE REGULATION IS EXPRESSED AS

A PERCENTAGE DROP WITH REFERENCE

TO THE RECEIVING VOLTAGE

PERCENTAGE REGULATION= 100(EsEr)/Er

Where Es= Sending Voltage

Er= Receiving Voltage

Permissible Voltage

Regulations

over

Declared voltage

%Variation

+ 6 to -6

Medium Voltage(<650 volts)

+ 6 to -6

High Voltage (>650 volts and

up to 33000 volts) + 6 to -9

Extra High Voltage (above

33000 Volts) +9 to

-12.5

Pradesh As per Tariff

Regulations

kw)

240 volts (Single Phase)

415 volts (3 Phase)

High Tension(H T) (Above 70 kva)

11 kv1500 kva

33 kv5000 kva

Extra High Tension (EHT)

132 /220 kv..Above 5000 kva

Line

Is=Ie=I

Es

Er

Qr

ES

Z=R+j

x

Load

Er

Line for lagging current

Es

IxX

Qr

Er

I

Er

cosr

I

R

IR

Er Snr

Es &Er

Es = ((Er cos r+ IR)2 +(Er sin r+IX)2)1/2

=((Er2+I2(R2+X2)+2ErI(R cosr+Xsinr))1/2

= Er{1+2 I R cosr+2 I X sinr+I2(R2+X2}1/2

{

Er

}

Last term is usually of negligible order

Therefore

E r2

Es &Er

Es = Er{1+2 I R cosr + 2I X sinr}1/2

{

Er

Er

}

Expanding binomially and retaining the

first order terms,we get

Es= Er(1+IR cosr +IX sinr)

Er

Er

OR Es= Er+I (R cosr+X sinr)

The above equation is reasonably

accurate

VOLTAGE REGULATION

% VR= (Es-Er)*100

Er

} drop

in the line

= I(R cosr+X sinr)* 100

Er

For a leading power factor angle r will be

negative:

Hence % VR = I(R cosr-X sinr)* 100

Er

CALCULATION OF VRs

From the above equation ,it may be seen

that voltage drop is to be calculated at

every node of the network in order to

arrive at the VR at the tail end or any

point of the network consisting of number

of nodes ( or Tap off points) to check up

whether the % VR is within permissible

limits and whether there is cushion for

addition of further loads or a new network

is to be planned.

CALCULATION OF VRs

The above method is quite

cumbersome and time consuming.

Digital computer and a reputed

software is required for carrying out

rigourous analysis of networks.

However for making quick hand

calculations simpler method using

what is known as Regulation

Constants is available

CALCULATION OF REGULATION

CONSTANT (RC)

A Typical Radial Feeder having N

nodes.

n+1 is the source node(132/33 kv or

33/11 Kv or 11/.4 KV substations)

CALCULATION OF REGULATION

CONSTANT (RC)

Consider a radial network having n nodes

with loads (p1,q1),(p2,q2).(pn,qn) at nodes

1,2.n

P1,p2,pn are active loads & q1,q2.qn are

reactive loads. Apparent load say at node I

=Sqrt(pi2+qi2)

n+1 is the source/supply node. eg.,33/11 kv

substation in case of 11 kv network OR

132/33 kv substation in case of 33 kv

network

CALCULATION OF REGULATION

CONSTANT (RC)

Total Voltage drop in the Network

=Sum of voltage drops in sections 1to n

n

=

Ii *(Li*ri cos +Lixi sin) *100

i=1

n

kvai*Li*(ri cos + xi sin)}

*100

i=1

sqrt(3)*kv *(Er/sqrt(3))*1000

CALCULATION OF REGULATION

CONSTANT (RC)

kv=Es=Er(as the difference between E s

and Er is small)

% VR= (rcos+xsin)*kvai*Li

10 *(kv)2

The product kvai*Li is known as kva-km

of the line i.e., sum of products of

load(kva) in the section and its length(km)

Hence % VR= (rcos+xsin)*Kva-km

10*(kv)2

CALCULATION OF REGULATION

CONSTANT (RC)

RC= %VR for kva-km=100

=(rcos+xsin)*100

10*(kv)2

RC can also be expressed as kva-km for

1% VR i.e., 1= (rcos+xsin)*Kva-km

10*(kv)2

Hence kva-km for 1% VR=

10*(kv)2

rcos+xsin

08 PF

Sl.N

o

Size of

ACSR

conducto

r

normally

used

e

t

KM for

Carryi 1%

ngCap Regulati

a

on

city

(amps

)

80MM2

(7/4.09

mm)

Rac

con

17.77

160

100 MM2

Dog 300

20.55

185

(6/4.72+7/

1.57)

%

Regulatio

n for 100

KVA KM

Maximum

MVA KM

Loading(For

9% VR)

08 PF

Sl.N

o

Size of

ACSR

conducto

r

normally

used

e

t

for 1%

Carryi Regulati

ngCap on

a

city

(amps

)

%

Regulatio

n for 100

KVA KM

Maximum

KVA KM

Loading(For

8% VR)

50MM2

(7/3.35

mm)

Rab

bit

183

1697

0.05892

13576

30 MM2

(7/2.59)

Wea 123

sel

1156

0.08648

9248

20 MM2

(7/2.11)

Squi 97

rrel

825

0.12115

6600

08 PF

Sl.N

o

Size of

ACSR

conducto

r

normally

used

e

t

for 1%

Carryi Regulati

ngCap on

a

city

(amps

)

%

Regulatio

n for 100

KVA KM

Maximum

KVA KM

Loading(For

6% VR)

50MM2

(7/3.35

mm)

Rab

bit

183

2.51

39.80

15.06

30 MM2

(7/2.59)

Wea 123

sel

1.69

58.87

10.14

20 MM2

(7/2.11)

Squi 97

rrel

1.2

83.20

7.2

Calculation of Voltage

Regulation on 33 KV Line

1x8MVA 33/11

KV ss

1 Kms

30 kms

20 Kms

2km

13L/33 KV

SS

16 kms

C

33/11 KVSS 2x5

MVA(10 MVA)

SS

Calculation of Voltage

Regulation on 33 KV Line

Taking moments in MVA-KM

AB 23x30

=690

BD 13x20

=260

DF

16x5

= 80

Total MVA-KM 1030

% VR at F with a DF of 1.5= 1030

=1030

RCxDF

20.55x1.5

=33.41

Line

J

10

0

25

10

0

25

63

10

0

63

10

0B

A

1

33/11K

V SUBSTN

1.5

1.

5

I

H

0.5

I

2

25

100

63

10

0

63

2.5

10

0

1

100

2.5

63

63

10

0

P

Q

N

10

0

2.5

M

i)10 X 100

=1000KVA

ii) 6 X 63

= 378KVA

iii)5 X 25

= 125KVA

Total

1503 KVA

For calculating the voltage regulation of the main feeder, it

is assumed that the loads on the tap lines are concentrated

at the point of tapping and taking moments about the

sections we have

1. OA =

1503X 1

= 1503.00

2. AB =

1403 X 1.5

= 2104.5

3. BH =

1215 X 1.5

= 1822.5

4. HC =

1115 X 0.5

= 577.5

5. CI =

927 X 1

= 927.0

6. ID =

764 X 1

= 764.0

7. DR =

601 X 2

= 1202.0

8. RE =

413 X 2

= 826.0

9. EF =

288X2.5

= 720.0

10.FG =

100X1

= 100.00

Total :KVA-KM

10,526.5

constant

per 100KVA-KM)

100X DF

Assuming a diversity factor of 1.5,regulation constant for 7/2.59

ACSR at 0.8 power factor is 0.08648

%Regulation =10,526.5 X 0.08648 = 7.0%

100X DF

Similarly the % regulation of the tap lines also can be calculated.

Let us consider the farthest tap line and find out the regulation

at M. Taking moments in KVA, for the main feeder with 7/2.59

ACSR, we have:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

1503 X 1 =

1403 X 1.5

1215 X 1.5

1114 X 0.5

927 X 1.0

765 X 1.0

601 X 2.0

413 X 2.0

288 X 2.5

Total KVA-KM

1503

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

2104.5

1822.5

577.5

927.0

764.0

1202.0

826.0

720.0

10,4625

1) 188 X 1

=

2) 88 X 0.5

=

3) 25 X0.5

=

Total KVA-KM

188

44

12.5

244.5

=10,462.5 X 0.08648

= 6.02%

100 X 1.5

2. . % Regulation on 7/2.11 ACSR, we have

=244.5 X 0.12115= 0.197%

100 X 1.5

% Regulation at the point M of tap line =

6.02+0.197=6.217%

Calculation of Voltage

Regulation for LT 3 phase Line

7.5

HP

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.1

5 HP

5 HP

C

0 25

02

0.1

Cr

11/0.4 kv

DTC

5HP

7.5HP

10

11HP

7.5 HP

Calculation of Voltage

Regulation for LT 3 phase Line

Taking moments in HP X KM we have

1)47.5 X 0.3 = 14.25

2)42.5 X 0.2 = 8.50

3)35 X0.2

= 7.00

4)27.5 X 0.1 = 2.75

5)22.5 X0.25 = 5.625

6)15 x 0.2

= 3.00

7)10 X 0.1

= 1.00

Total HPKM

42.125

Calculation of Voltage

Regulation for LT 3 phase Line

%VR=Total HP KM X Regulation

constant for 100 KVA KM xConversion

factor from HP to KW/

100 X DF

% VR= 42.125 X 39.8 X 0.746/100 X

1.5 = 6%

(Where the Regulation constant of

7/3.35mm ACSR

at 0.8 PF is

39.8/100 kva-km; DF = 1.5)

PRESENT PRACTICES

VOLTAGE REGULATION (V.R)

Farthest Point of Network Is

Considered as Tail End

Consequent Sections between SS

and Tail End Constitute Main Line

Loads on the spur lines assumed to

be concentrated at the points where

the spur lines tap off from the Main

Line

PRESENT

PRACTICES(Contd)

The Total Load incident on each section

by its Length. Product Familiarly known

asKVA-KM

KVA-KM of all sections added to obtain

TOTAL KVA-KM of Main Line , divided by

DF and multiplied by Regulation

Constant (R.C) to obtain % Tail End

Regulation of feeder

PRESENT PRACTICES

(Contd)

LOSSES

Product of square of load and distance for

each section(including sections on spur

lines) calculated

KVA2-KM for feeder obtained by adding

KVA2-KM of all sections, multiplied by Loss

Constant (L.C) to obtain Peak Power

Loss(ppl)

Kwh loss=ppl*LLF*No.of hours in the peroid

Draw Backs of Existing System:

Calculation of VRS and losses by

using RC and LC Time Consuming,

Labourious and Approximate

Formulae for RC and LC presume

Constant Voltage at end of each

section of network. Actual VR and

losses will be higher.

points and on spur lines for

examining the need of Boosters

and Capacitors

Assumption that farthest end of

the feeder is lowest voltage point

may not be true. Present Hand

Calculation methods are erroneous.

ALGORITHM

PL2

QL2

n-1

n-2

n

+1

Pn

qn

Pn-1

qn-1

Pn-2

qn-2

p3

q3

PL1

PL1

p2

p1

q2

q1

ALGORITHM

Read sending end voltage E

and active

n+1

each node for i=1,n

Initially assume that active power loss PLOS i

and reactive power loss QLOSi in each

section is zero for i=1,n, Set OLD LOSS=0

Estimate active power(PLi)and reactive

power(QLi) flow in each section for i=1,n

using

ALGORITHM

PL = P + PLOS

i

QLi= Qj +QLOSj

Calculate the voltage at each node starting from

sending end and proceeding towards tailend

E2i+1 = Ei 2+2 x(PLi x RLi+QLi x XLi)+

(PLi2+QLi2)RLi/Ei2

Calculate the active power loss and reactive

power loss in each section

PLOSi =(PL2i+QLi2)RLi/Ei2

QLOSi= (PLi2+Qli2)XLi/Ei2

ALGORITHM

Estimate total loss in the feeder and

% of variation of the loss

NEWLOS= PLOSi

ERR=ABS(NEWLOSOLDLOS)/NEWLOS

Check whether ERR is less than

convergence criteria set. If Yes,

Terminate the Algorithm.

ALGORITHM

Print active and reactive power flows

and voltage at each node

If not ,store value of latest feeder

loss and repeat steps 3,4,5,6,7 till

convergence limit is satisfied

FEEDER

Analysis for a typical 11 kv feeder

using the conventional KVA- KM

method and computerized Load Flow

Analysis is given for comparision .

COMPARISION OF VOLTAGE

AND PEAK POWER LOSS

Method

Maximum

Voltage

Drop %

Peak

Power

Loss KW

Computer Aided

Load Flow

Conventional

Method of

Voltage Drop and

Loss Constants

22.5

406.0

16.2

235.0

38.89

72.76

% Error

THANK YOU

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