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VOLTAGE REGULATION

CALCULATIONS
BY
CH.NARASIMHA MURTHY
CONSULATANT/ CIRE

VOLTAGE REGULATIONDefinition
VOLTAGE REGULATION IS EXPRESSED AS
A PERCENTAGE DROP WITH REFERENCE
TO THE RECEIVING VOLTAGE
PERCENTAGE REGULATION= 100(EsEr)/Er
Where Es= Sending Voltage
Er= Receiving Voltage

Permissible Voltage
Regulations
over

Declared voltage

%Variation

Low voltage(< 250 volts)


+ 6 to -6
Medium Voltage(<650 volts)
+ 6 to -6
High Voltage (>650 volts and
up to 33000 volts) + 6 to -9
Extra High Voltage (above
33000 Volts) +9 to
-12.5

Declared Voltages In Andhra


Pradesh As per Tariff
Regulations

Low Tension (LT) (Up to 70 kva or 75


kw)
240 volts (Single Phase)
415 volts (3 Phase)
High Tension(H T) (Above 70 kva)
11 kv1500 kva
33 kv5000 kva
Extra High Tension (EHT)
132 /220 kv..Above 5000 kva

Equivalent Circuit of a Short


Line
Is=Ie=I
Es
Er
Qr

ES

Z=R+j
x

Load

Er

Phasor Diagram of a Short


Line for lagging current

Es
IxX
Qr

Er
I

Er
cosr

I
R
IR

Er Snr

Derivation of Relation Between


Es &Er
Es = ((Er cos r+ IR)2 +(Er sin r+IX)2)1/2
=((Er2+I2(R2+X2)+2ErI(R cosr+Xsinr))1/2
= Er{1+2 I R cosr+2 I X sinr+I2(R2+X2}1/2
{

Er

}
Last term is usually of negligible order
Therefore

E r2

Derivation of Relation Between


Es &Er
Es = Er{1+2 I R cosr + 2I X sinr}1/2
{
Er
Er
}
Expanding binomially and retaining the
first order terms,we get
Es= Er(1+IR cosr +IX sinr)
Er
Er
OR Es= Er+I (R cosr+X sinr)
The above equation is reasonably
accurate

VOLTAGE REGULATION
% VR= (Es-Er)*100

}(Es-Er) is the voltage


Er
} drop

in the line
= I(R cosr+X sinr)* 100
Er
For a leading power factor angle r will be
negative:
Hence % VR = I(R cosr-X sinr)* 100

Er

CALCULATION OF VRs
From the above equation ,it may be seen
that voltage drop is to be calculated at
every node of the network in order to
arrive at the VR at the tail end or any
point of the network consisting of number
of nodes ( or Tap off points) to check up
whether the % VR is within permissible
limits and whether there is cushion for
addition of further loads or a new network
is to be planned.

CALCULATION OF VRs
The above method is quite
cumbersome and time consuming.
Digital computer and a reputed
software is required for carrying out
rigourous analysis of networks.
However for making quick hand
calculations simpler method using
what is known as Regulation
Constants is available

CALCULATION OF REGULATION
CONSTANT (RC)
A Typical Radial Feeder having N
nodes.
n+1 is the source node(132/33 kv or
33/11 Kv or 11/.4 KV substations)

CALCULATION OF REGULATION
CONSTANT (RC)
Consider a radial network having n nodes
with loads (p1,q1),(p2,q2).(pn,qn) at nodes
1,2.n
P1,p2,pn are active loads & q1,q2.qn are
reactive loads. Apparent load say at node I
=Sqrt(pi2+qi2)
n+1 is the source/supply node. eg.,33/11 kv
substation in case of 11 kv network OR
132/33 kv substation in case of 33 kv
network

CALCULATION OF REGULATION
CONSTANT (RC)
Total Voltage drop in the Network
=Sum of voltage drops in sections 1to n
n
=
Ii *(Li*ri cos +Lixi sin) *100
i=1
n
kvai*Li*(ri cos + xi sin)}
*100
i=1
sqrt(3)*kv *(Er/sqrt(3))*1000

CALCULATION OF REGULATION
CONSTANT (RC)
kv=Es=Er(as the difference between E s
and Er is small)
% VR= (rcos+xsin)*kvai*Li
10 *(kv)2
The product kvai*Li is known as kva-km
of the line i.e., sum of products of
load(kva) in the section and its length(km)
Hence % VR= (rcos+xsin)*Kva-km
10*(kv)2

CALCULATION OF REGULATION
CONSTANT (RC)
RC= %VR for kva-km=100
=(rcos+xsin)*100
10*(kv)2
RC can also be expressed as kva-km for

1% VR i.e., 1= (rcos+xsin)*Kva-km
10*(kv)2
Hence kva-km for 1% VR=
10*(kv)2
rcos+xsin

RCS for 33 KV 3-phase lines at .


08 PF
Sl.N
o

Size of
ACSR
conducto
r
normally
used

Cod Curren MVA


e
t
KM for
Carryi 1%
ngCap Regulati
a
on
city
(amps
)

80MM2
(7/4.09
mm)

Rac
con

17.77

160

100 MM2

Dog 300

20.55

185

(6/4.72+7/
1.57)

%
Regulatio
n for 100
KVA KM

Maximum
MVA KM
Loading(For
9% VR)

RCS for 11 KV 3-phase lines at .


08 PF
Sl.N
o

Size of
ACSR
conducto
r
normally
used

Cod Curren KVA KM


e
t
for 1%
Carryi Regulati
ngCap on
a
city
(amps
)

%
Regulatio
n for 100
KVA KM

Maximum
KVA KM
Loading(For
8% VR)

50MM2
(7/3.35
mm)

Rab
bit

183

1697

0.05892

13576

30 MM2
(7/2.59)

Wea 123
sel

1156

0.08648

9248

20 MM2
(7/2.11)

Squi 97
rrel

825

0.12115

6600

RCS for LT 3-phase lines at .


08 PF
Sl.N
o

Size of
ACSR
conducto
r
normally
used

Cod Curren KVA KM


e
t
for 1%
Carryi Regulati
ngCap on
a
city
(amps
)

%
Regulatio
n for 100
KVA KM

Maximum
KVA KM
Loading(For
6% VR)

50MM2
(7/3.35
mm)

Rab
bit

183

2.51

39.80

15.06

30 MM2
(7/2.59)

Wea 123
sel

1.69

58.87

10.14

20 MM2
(7/2.11)

Squi 97
rrel

1.2

83.20

7.2

Calculation of Voltage
Regulation on 33 KV Line
1x8MVA 33/11
KV ss

1 Kms

30 kms
20 Kms

2km
13L/33 KV
SS

16 kms

C
33/11 KVSS 2x5
MVA(10 MVA)

1x5 MVA 33/11 KV


SS

Calculation of Voltage
Regulation on 33 KV Line
Taking moments in MVA-KM
AB 23x30
=690
BD 13x20
=260
DF
16x5
= 80
Total MVA-KM 1030
% VR at F with a DF of 1.5= 1030
=1030
RCxDF
20.55x1.5
=33.41

Voltage Regulation of 11KV


Line
J

10
0

25

10
0

25

63

10
0

63
10
0B

A
1

33/11K
V SUBSTN

1.5

1.
5

I
H

0.5

I
2

25

100

63

10
0

63

2.5
10
0

1
100

2.5

63

63
10
0
P

Q
N

10
0

2.5
M

Total Connected transformer capacity on the 11KV line is :


i)10 X 100
=1000KVA
ii) 6 X 63
= 378KVA
iii)5 X 25
= 125KVA
Total
1503 KVA
For calculating the voltage regulation of the main feeder, it
is assumed that the loads on the tap lines are concentrated
at the point of tapping and taking moments about the
sections we have
1. OA =
1503X 1
= 1503.00
2. AB =
1403 X 1.5
= 2104.5
3. BH =
1215 X 1.5
= 1822.5
4. HC =
1115 X 0.5
= 577.5
5. CI =
927 X 1
= 927.0
6. ID =
764 X 1
= 764.0
7. DR =
601 X 2
= 1202.0
8. RE =
413 X 2
= 826.0
9. EF =
288X2.5
= 720.0
10.FG =
100X1
= 100.00
Total :KVA-KM
10,526.5

%Regulation = Total KVA.KM X Regulation


constant
per 100KVA-KM)
100X DF
Assuming a diversity factor of 1.5,regulation constant for 7/2.59
ACSR at 0.8 power factor is 0.08648
%Regulation =10,526.5 X 0.08648 = 7.0%
100X DF
Similarly the % regulation of the tap lines also can be calculated.
Let us consider the farthest tap line and find out the regulation
at M. Taking moments in KVA, for the main feeder with 7/2.59
ACSR, we have:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

1503 X 1 =
1403 X 1.5
1215 X 1.5
1114 X 0.5
927 X 1.0
765 X 1.0
601 X 2.0
413 X 2.0
288 X 2.5

Total KVA-KM

1503
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

2104.5
1822.5
577.5
927.0
764.0
1202.0
826.0
720.0

10,4625

For the tap line FM 7/2.11 ACSR, We have


1) 188 X 1
=
2) 88 X 0.5
=
3) 25 X0.5
=
Total KVA-KM

188
44
12.5
244.5

1. % Regulation on 7/2.11 ACSR, we have


=10,462.5 X 0.08648
= 6.02%
100 X 1.5
2. . % Regulation on 7/2.11 ACSR, we have
=244.5 X 0.12115= 0.197%
100 X 1.5
% Regulation at the point M of tap line =
6.02+0.197=6.217%

Calculation of Voltage
Regulation for LT 3 phase Line
7.5
HP
0.3

0.2

0.2
0.1

5 HP

5 HP
C

0 25
02

0.1
Cr

11/0.4 kv
DTC

5HP

7.5HP
10

11HP

7.5 HP

Calculation of Voltage
Regulation for LT 3 phase Line
Taking moments in HP X KM we have
1)47.5 X 0.3 = 14.25
2)42.5 X 0.2 = 8.50
3)35 X0.2
= 7.00
4)27.5 X 0.1 = 2.75
5)22.5 X0.25 = 5.625
6)15 x 0.2
= 3.00
7)10 X 0.1
= 1.00
Total HPKM
42.125

Calculation of Voltage
Regulation for LT 3 phase Line
%VR=Total HP KM X Regulation
constant for 100 KVA KM xConversion
factor from HP to KW/
100 X DF
% VR= 42.125 X 39.8 X 0.746/100 X
1.5 = 6%
(Where the Regulation constant of
7/3.35mm ACSR
at 0.8 PF is
39.8/100 kva-km; DF = 1.5)

PRESENT PRACTICES
VOLTAGE REGULATION (V.R)
Farthest Point of Network Is
Considered as Tail End
Consequent Sections between SS
and Tail End Constitute Main Line
Loads on the spur lines assumed to
be concentrated at the points where
the spur lines tap off from the Main
Line

PRESENT
PRACTICES(Contd)
The Total Load incident on each section

of Main Line computed and Multiplied


by its Length. Product Familiarly known
asKVA-KM
KVA-KM of all sections added to obtain
TOTAL KVA-KM of Main Line , divided by
DF and multiplied by Regulation
Constant (R.C) to obtain % Tail End
Regulation of feeder

PRESENT PRACTICES
(Contd)
LOSSES
Product of square of load and distance for
each section(including sections on spur
lines) calculated
KVA2-KM for feeder obtained by adding
KVA2-KM of all sections, multiplied by Loss
Constant (L.C) to obtain Peak Power
Loss(ppl)
Kwh loss=ppl*LLF*No.of hours in the peroid

LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS


Draw Backs of Existing System:
Calculation of VRS and losses by
using RC and LC Time Consuming,
Labourious and Approximate
Formulae for RC and LC presume
Constant Voltage at end of each
section of network. Actual VR and
losses will be higher.

VR figure is for tail end. We need

voltages and losses at intermediate


points and on spur lines for
examining the need of Boosters
and Capacitors
Assumption that farthest end of
the feeder is lowest voltage point
may not be true. Present Hand
Calculation methods are erroneous.

RADIAL LOAD FLOW


ALGORITHM
PL2
QL2

n-1

n-2

n
+1

Pn
qn

Pn-1
qn-1

Pn-2
qn-2

p3
q3

PL1
PL1

p2

p1

q2

q1

RADIAL LOAD FLOW


ALGORITHM
Read sending end voltage E
and active
n+1

power Pi and reactive power Qi incident on


each node for i=1,n
Initially assume that active power loss PLOS i
and reactive power loss QLOSi in each
section is zero for i=1,n, Set OLD LOSS=0
Estimate active power(PLi)and reactive
power(QLi) flow in each section for i=1,n
using

RADIAL LOAD FLOW


ALGORITHM
PL = P + PLOS
i

QLi= Qj +QLOSj
Calculate the voltage at each node starting from
sending end and proceeding towards tailend
E2i+1 = Ei 2+2 x(PLi x RLi+QLi x XLi)+
(PLi2+QLi2)RLi/Ei2
Calculate the active power loss and reactive
power loss in each section
PLOSi =(PL2i+QLi2)RLi/Ei2
QLOSi= (PLi2+Qli2)XLi/Ei2

RADIAL LOAD FLOW


ALGORITHM
Estimate total loss in the feeder and
% of variation of the loss
NEWLOS= PLOSi

ERR=ABS(NEWLOSOLDLOS)/NEWLOS
Check whether ERR is less than
convergence criteria set. If Yes,
Terminate the Algorithm.

RADIAL LOAD FLOW


ALGORITHM
Print active and reactive power flows

and active power loss in each section


and voltage at each node
If not ,store value of latest feeder
loss and repeat steps 3,4,5,6,7 till
convergence limit is satisfied

LFA FOR A TYPICAL 11 kv


FEEDER
Analysis for a typical 11 kv feeder
using the conventional KVA- KM
method and computerized Load Flow
Analysis is given for comparision .

COMPARISION OF VOLTAGE
AND PEAK POWER LOSS
Method

Maximum
Voltage
Drop %

Peak
Power
Loss KW

Computer Aided
Load Flow
Conventional
Method of
Voltage Drop and
Loss Constants

22.5

406.0

16.2

235.0

38.89

72.76

% Error

THANK YOU