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# The Complex

Plane;
DeMoivre's
Theorem

## Remember a complex number has a real part and an

imaginary part. These are used to plot complex
numbers on a complex plane.

z x yi

z x y
2

Imaginary
Axis
z

z x yi
y

Real
Axis

## The magnitude or modulus

of z denoted by z is the
distance from the origin to
the point (x, y).
The angle formed from the
real axis and a line from the
origin to (x, y) is called the
argument of z, with
requirement that 0 < 2.

y
tan
x
1

and so that it is
between 0 and 2

z x yi

## We can take complex numbers given as

and convert them to polar form. Recall the conversions:

x r cos

Imaginary
Axis
z =r
1
x
3

z r cos r sin i

y r sin
factor r out

r cos i sin

## The magnitude or modulus of

z is the same as r.
y

## Plot the complex number: z 3 i

Real
Axis Find the polar form of this
number.

5
5

z 2 cos
i sin

6
6

1 4 2
2

1
tan
3
5

6
1

Imaginary
Axis

1
tan
3
1

z =r
1
x
3

Real
Axis

5
5
arg z
principal arg
6
6

5
5

z 2 cos
i sin

6
6

## It is easy to convert from polar to rectangular form

because you just work the trig functions and distribute
the r through.

5
5

3 1
z 2 cos
i sin
i 3 i
2
2 2
6
6

1
2

2
3

5
6

## If asked to plot the point and it

is in polar form, you would
Notice that is the same as
plotting

3 i

## Let's try multiplying two complex numbers in polar

form together.

z1 r1 cos 1 i sin 1

z 2 r2 cos 2 i sin 2

z1 z2 r1 cos 1 i sin 1

r2 cos 2 i sin 2

Look at where
andwhere
we
ended
up and
r1r2 we
cosstarted
1 i sin
cos

i
sin

1
2
2
see if you can make a statement
as to what
happens
to
Must
FOIL
these two complex
the r 's and the 's when
you
multiply
numbers.
r1r2 cos 1 cos 2 i sin 2 cos 1 i sin 1 cos 2 i 2 sin 1 sin 2

Replace i 2 with -1 and group real terms and then imaginary terms

## Multiply the Moduli and Add the Arguments

r1r2 cos 1 cos 2 sin 1 sin 2 sin 1 cos 2 cos 1 sin 2 i
use sum formula for cos

## Let z1 r1 cos 1 i sin 1 and z 2 r2 cos 2 i sin 2

be two complex numbers. Then

## z1 z 2 r1r2 cos1 2 i sin 1 2

(This says to multiply two complex numbers in polar
form, multiply the moduli and add the arguments)

If z 2 0, then

z1 r1
cos1 2 i sin1 2
z2 r2
(This says to divide two complex numbers in polar form,
divide the moduli and subtract the arguments)

## Let z1 r1 cos 1 i sin 1 and z 2 r2 cos 2 i sin 2

be two complex numbers. Then

## z1 z 2 r1r2 cos1 2 i sin 1 2

z1 z 2 r1r2 cis1 2
If z 2 0, then

z1 r1
cos1 2 i sin1 2
z2 r2
z1 r1
cis1 2
z 2 r2

find : (a) zw

(b) z w

o
o
o
o

## 4 6 cos 40 120 i sin 40 120

multiply the moduli

(the i sine term will have same argument)

24 cos160 i sin160

24 0.93969 0.34202i

22.55 8.21i

## If you want the answer

in rectangular
coordinates simply
compute the trig
functions and multiply
the 24 through.

4 cos 40 i sin 40
z

## w 6 cos120o i sin 120o

4
o
o
o
o
cos 40 120 i sin 40 120
6
divide the moduli

## subtract the arguments

2
cos 80o i sin 80o
3

## In polar form we want an angle between 0 and 180

PRINCIPAL ARGUMENT
In rectangular
coordinates:

2
0.1736 0.9848i 0.12 0.66i
3

## You can repeat this process raising

complex numbers to powers. Abraham
DeMoivre did this and proved the
following theorem:
Abraham de Moivre
(1667 - 1754)

DeMoivres Theorem

## If z r cos i sin is a complex number,

then

z r cos n i sin n
n

## This says to raise a complex number to a power, raise the

modulus to that power and multiply the argument by that
power.

## This theorem is used to raise complex numbers

to powers. It would be a lot of work to find

3 i

3 i

3 i

3 i

3 i

## you would need to FOIL

and multiply all of these
together and simplify
powers of i --- UGH!

## Instead let's convert to polar form

and use DeMoivre's Theorem.
1
2
tan 1
2
r 3 1 4 2
3
6

5
5
3 i 2 cos i sin
6
6

4

10
10
16 cos
i sin

3
3

5
5

2 cos 4 i sin 4
6
6

16

2
2

8 8 3i

## Solve the following over the set of complex numbers:

We know that if we cube root both sides we
could get 1 but we know that there are 3
roots. So we want the complex cube roots of
1.

z 1
3

## Using DeMoivre's Theorem with the power being a

rational exponent (and therefore meaning a root), we can
develop a method for finding complex roots. This leads
to the following formula:

2k
2k
z k r cos
i sin

n
n
n
n

where k 0, 1, 2, , n 1

## Let's try this on our problem. We want the cube roots of 1.

We want cube root so our n = 3. Can you convert 1 to
polar form? (hint: 1 = 1 + 0i)
1 0
2
2
tan 0
r 1 0 1
1

0 2k
0 2k
z k 1 cos
i sin

3
3
3
3

, for k 0, 1, 2

## Once we build the formula, we use it first

with k = 0 and get one root, then with k = 1
to get the second root and finally with k = 2
for last root.

We want cube
root so use 3
numbers here

2k
2k
z k r cos
i sin

n
n
n
n

0 2k
0 2k
z k 1 cos
i sin

3
3
3
3

0 2 0
z0 1 cos
3
3

0 2 0
i sin
3

0 21
i sin
3
3
2
3

1 cos 0 i sin 0 1
Here's the root we

1
3

i

2 2

0 2 2
i sin
3

1
3
4
4
1 cos
i
i sin

2 2
3
3

, for k 0, 1, 2

0 21
z1 1 cos

3
3

1 cos

i
sin

0 2 2
3
z 2 1 cos
3
3

## If you cube any of

these numbers
you get 1.
(Try it and see!)

## We found the cube roots of 1 were:

Let's plot these on the complex
plane
each line is 1/2 unit

1
3
1
3
1,
i,
i
2 2
2 2
Notice each of
the complex
roots has the
same magnitude
(1). Also the
three points are
evenly spaced
on a circle. This
will always be
true of complex
roots.

Acknowledgement
I wish to thank Shawna Haider from Salt Lake Community College, Utah
USA for her hard work in creating this PowerPoint.
www.slcc.edu