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DeMoivres Theorem

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Plane;

DeMoivre's

Theorem

imaginary part. These are used to plot complex

numbers on a complex plane.

z x yi

z x y

2

Imaginary

Axis

z

z x yi

y

Real

Axis

of z denoted by z is the

distance from the origin to

the point (x, y).

The angle formed from the

real axis and a line from the

origin to (x, y) is called the

argument of z, with

requirement that 0 < 2.

y

tan

x

1

and so that it is

between 0 and 2

z x yi

and convert them to polar form. Recall the conversions:

x r cos

Imaginary

Axis

z =r

1

x

3

z r cos r sin i

y r sin

factor r out

r cos i sin

z is the same as r.

y

Real

Axis Find the polar form of this

number.

5

5

z 2 cos

i sin

6

6

1 4 2

2

1

tan

but in Quad II

3

5

6

1

Imaginary

Axis

1

tan

but in Quad II

3

1

z =r

1

x

3

Real

Axis

5

5

arg z

principal arg

6

6

5

5

z 2 cos

i sin

6

6

because you just work the trig functions and distribute

the r through.

5

5

3 1

z 2 cos

i sin

i 3 i

2

2 2

6

6

1

2

2

3

5

6

is in polar form, you would

plot the angle and radius.

Notice that is the same as

plotting

3 i

form together.

z1 r1 cos 1 i sin 1

z 2 r2 cos 2 i sin 2

z1 z2 r1 cos 1 i sin 1

r2 cos 2 i sin 2

Look at where

andwhere

we

ended

up and

r1r2 we

cosstarted

1 i sin

cos

i

sin

1

2

2

see if you can make a statement

as to what

happens

to

Must

FOIL

these two complex

the r 's and the 's when

you

multiply

numbers.

r1r2 cos 1 cos 2 i sin 2 cos 1 i sin 1 cos 2 i 2 sin 1 sin 2

Replace i 2 with -1 and group real terms and then imaginary terms

r1r2 cos 1 cos 2 sin 1 sin 2 sin 1 cos 2 cos 1 sin 2 i

use sum formula for cos

be two complex numbers. Then

(This says to multiply two complex numbers in polar

form, multiply the moduli and add the arguments)

If z 2 0, then

z1 r1

cos1 2 i sin1 2

z2 r2

(This says to divide two complex numbers in polar form,

divide the moduli and subtract the arguments)

be two complex numbers. Then

z1 z 2 r1r2 cis1 2

If z 2 0, then

z1 r1

cos1 2 i sin1 2

z2 r2

z1 r1

cis1 2

z 2 r2

find : (a) zw

(b) z w

o

o

o

o

multiply the moduli

(the i sine term will have same argument)

24 cos160 i sin160

24 0.93969 0.34202i

22.55 8.21i

in rectangular

coordinates simply

compute the trig

functions and multiply

the 24 through.

4 cos 40 i sin 40

z

4

o

o

o

o

cos 40 120 i sin 40 120

6

divide the moduli

2

cos 80o i sin 80o

3

PRINCIPAL ARGUMENT

In rectangular

coordinates:

2

0.1736 0.9848i 0.12 0.66i

3

complex numbers to powers. Abraham

DeMoivre did this and proved the

following theorem:

Abraham de Moivre

(1667 - 1754)

DeMoivres Theorem

then

z r cos n i sin n

n

modulus to that power and multiply the argument by that

power.

to powers. It would be a lot of work to find

3 i

3 i

3 i

3 i

3 i

and multiply all of these

together and simplify

powers of i --- UGH!

and use DeMoivre's Theorem.

1

2

tan 1

but in Quad II 5

2

r 3 1 4 2

3

6

5

5

3 i 2 cos i sin

6

6

4

10

10

16 cos

i sin

3

3

5

5

2 cos 4 i sin 4

6

6

16

2

2

8 8 3i

We know that if we cube root both sides we

could get 1 but we know that there are 3

roots. So we want the complex cube roots of

1.

z 1

3

rational exponent (and therefore meaning a root), we can

develop a method for finding complex roots. This leads

to the following formula:

2k

2k

z k r cos

i sin

n

n

n

n

where k 0, 1, 2, , n 1

We want cube root so our n = 3. Can you convert 1 to

polar form? (hint: 1 = 1 + 0i)

1 0

2

2

tan 0

r 1 0 1

1

0 2k

0 2k

z k 1 cos

i sin

3

3

3

3

, for k 0, 1, 2

with k = 0 and get one root, then with k = 1

to get the second root and finally with k = 2

for last root.

We want cube

root so use 3

numbers here

2k

2k

z k r cos

i sin

n

n

n

n

0 2k

0 2k

z k 1 cos

i sin

3

3

3

3

0 2 0

z0 1 cos

3

3

0 2 0

i sin

3

0 21

i sin

3

3

2

3

1 cos 0 i sin 0 1

Here's the root we

already knew.

1

3

i

2 2

0 2 2

i sin

3

1

3

4

4

1 cos

i

i sin

2 2

3

3

, for k 0, 1, 2

0 21

z1 1 cos

3

3

1 cos

i

sin

0 2 2

3

z 2 1 cos

3

3

these numbers

you get 1.

(Try it and see!)

Let's plot these on the complex

plane

each line is 1/2 unit

1

3

1

3

1,

i,

i

2 2

2 2

about 0.9

Notice each of

the complex

roots has the

same magnitude

(1). Also the

three points are

evenly spaced

on a circle. This

will always be

true of complex

roots.

Acknowledgement

I wish to thank Shawna Haider from Salt Lake Community College, Utah

USA for her hard work in creating this PowerPoint.

www.slcc.edu

Shawna has kindly given permission for this resource to be downloaded

from www.mathxtc.com and for it to be modified to suit the Western

Australian Mathematics Curriculum.

Stephen Corcoran

Head of Mathematics

St Stephens School Carramar

www.ststephens.wa.edu.au

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