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A Look at Water and its

Contaminants
Unit 1 Section B
ChemCom Hon I
Ms. Brandi Thomas
**B.1 Physical Properties of Water
 Properties that can be observed and measured
without changing the chemical makeup of
substance
 This section focuses on the physical properties
of water –
 density,
 physical state,
 surface tension,
 boiling and freezing points
 and the solvent characteristics
 Aqueous Solutions
 Water based solutions
** Mixtures and Solutions
 Mixture
 Two or more substances that retain there individual
properties
 Heterogeneous Mixture
 Composition is not the same or uniform throughout.
• Suspension
 Particles are large enough to settle out and can be filtered
• Colloid

Particles are smaller than in suspension can not settle out…
cloudy appearance
• Dissolves

Particles smaller than particles in colloids and separate into
particles so small they can not be seen.
** Mixtures and Solutions
 Homogeneous Mixture

A mixture that is uniform throughout
• Solutions are homogeneous
• Solute

The dissolved substance
• Solvent

The dissolving agent
**Molecular view of Water
 Atom
 All matter is composed of atoms
 Element

Matter made up of only one type of atom
 90 different elements found in nature
 Compound
 A substance with two or more elements linked together chemically in
fixed positions
 Pure substance
 Each element and compound. A uniform and definite composition and
distinct properties
 Molecule
• Smallest unit of a pure substance that retains properties

Chemical Bond
• “glue” that holds atoms of a molecule together.
**B.4 Symbols, formulas, and
Equations
 An introduction to symbols, formulas, and
equations and to the significance of
subscripts and coefficients.
 International “chemical language” to
represent atoms, elements, and compounds.
 Chemical Symbols = “letters” of chemical
lang.
• Each element is assigned a chemical symbol.
• Only first letter is capitalized
**B.4 Symbols, formulas, and
Equations
 All elements are organized into the
periodic table.
 Chemical formula = “the word” in chemical
lang.
 Ex:H2O = Water
 A subscript indicates how many atoms of
each element are in the molecule or unit of
substance
 Ex:C3H8 = Propane (3 Carbon molecules and 8
Hydrogen)
**B.4 Symbols, formulas, and
Equations
 Chemical equations = the “sentences” of
chemical lang.
 Each chemical equation represents a
chemical reaction that happens or that
someone predicts might happen.
 Chemical Reactions = breaking and the
forming of chemical bonds, causing atoms
to rearrange into new substances.
**B.4 Symbols, formulas, and
Equations
 Reactants = the original substances in a
chemical equation.
 Products = the new substance formed
from the rearrangement of the reactant
**B.4 Symbols, formulas, and
Equations
 Diatomic Molecules Elements that exits as
 They exists as two Diatomic Molecules
bonded atoms of the Element Formula
same element.

Gen-U-ine Diatomic
Hydrogen H2
molecules Nitrogen N2
Oxygen O2
Fluorine F2
Chlorine Cl2
Bromine Br2
Iodine I2
**B.5 The Electrical Nature of
Matter
 The Electrical nature of matter is
discussed in terms of interaction among
charges, and in terms of neutrons,
protons, and electrons.
 Water is described as a polar molecule

Like forces repel each other
 Unlike charges attract each other.
**B.5 The Electrical Nature of
Matter
 Neutral atoms have equal numbers of
positively charged particles called Protons
and negatively charge electrons. Neutrons
are electrically neutral atoms
 Protons = (+)
 Electrons = (-)
 Positive neutrons and negative elections
form the glue that holds atoms together.
**B.6 Ions and Ionic Compounds
 Molecules make one type of compound

Another type of compound = ions
 Ions are charged atoms. Atoms can gain or
lose electrons to form positive or negative
ions.

Ionic compounds are composed of both
positive and negative ions. (no net charge)
• When an cation sticks to an anion = ionic
compounds
**B.6 Ions and Ionic Compounds
 Anions
 When and atom gains one or more electron
 Resulting in an negative charge
 Cations
 An atom losing one or more election resulting
in a positive charge.
 Polyatomic (many atom) ion

An ion consisting of a group of bonded atoms

Figure 18 (page 33)
***Figuring out how many electrons
atoms gain or lose…
 Count forward from it on the periodic table until
you reach the next noble gas
 Count backward from it on the periodic table
until you reach the last noble gas.
 If the forward < than backward, the element will
gain elections (amount you counted) for a
negative charge
 If backward is < than forward then you will lose
the number of electrons that you counted.
 Important: SKIP OVER TRANSITION METALS
WHEN COUNTNG TO NOBLE GASES,
Practice Problem
 What will the charges of the following
elements be when they gain or lose
electrons to gain the same electron
figuration as the nearest noble gas?
 A) Magnesium (Mg)
 B) Calcium (Ca)
 C) Bromine (Br)
~Properties of Ionic Compounds
 Ionic compounds form Crystals
 Ionic compounds often have high melting
and boiling points
 Ionic compounds are hard and brittle
 Ionic compounds conduct electricity when
dissolved in water or melted
~Writing Ionic Names from
Formulas
 Step 1

Determine the base name
• The first word is the cation
• The second word is the anion (if polyatomic ion
just look up on polyatomic chart)
 Step 2

Determine whether or not the compound will
require a roman numeral
 Step 3
***Writing Ionic Formulas from
names
 Step 1
 From the base name, determine the formula
and charge of ions
 Step 2

Write the formulas of the cations and anions
next to each other.
 Step 3
 Devise an ionic formula that gives the
compound a neutral charge.
Writing Ionic Formulas from Names
Example “Beryllium Hydroxide”
 “Beryllium” indicates Be+2 and
“hydroxide” indicates OH-1
 Putting them together we get Be+2OH-1.
 Because Beryllium hydroxide has to be
electrically neutral, there needs to be two
hydroxide ions for each beryllium ion.
As a result the formula of beryllium
hydroxide is Be(OH)2
Write the formula of the following
ionic Compound
 A) Lithium acetate
 B) sodium nitrate
Write the formula of the following
ionic Compound
 A) Lithium acetate
 LiC2H3O2
 B) sodium nitrate
 NaNO3
Group Activity
 In Groups of 4 do building skills on page
34.
B.7 Water testing
 Purpose: allow you to use a method that
chemist, including those investing the
Riverwood fish kill , use to detect specific
ions in water solutions
 Confirming test: A positive test confirms
the ion in question is present.

Change in color or appearance of precipitate
indicate a positive test.
B.7 Water testing
 A negative test does not equal an absent
ion.
 Qualitative test vs. Quantitative test. (This
lab is qualitative…(only test for presence
not amount)
 Testing for
• Iron (III) (Fe+3)
• Calcium (Ca 2+ )
• Chloride (Cl-)
• Sulfate (SO42-)
B.7 Water testing
 Reference Solutions
 Contains the ions of interest
 Control
 Does not contain the ion of interest
 The other samples

Natural Water/Mystery Water
 Tap water
• Are to be compared to the reference solutions
• Lab video
B.7 Water testing
 Post Lab

Questions 1-4 page 38
 For the next 5 min:
• With your partner go over questions 1-4
B.8 Pure and Impure Water
 Most families in the US have clean water
but not pure water.
 Pure is almost impossible since so many
substances dissolve in water, (even
atmospheric gases like nitrogen, hydrogen,
and carbon dioxide.
B.9 The RiverWood Mystery
 Making Decisions Group activity

In groups of 4 read over the directions and
questions on page 38-39 and answer
questions.
 Put the answers in your notes section of class
binder.

We will come back to these for a group
discussion and for our town council meeting
B.10 What are the possibilities
 Bridge to part C
 Identifies the processes just used by
students as typical work of scientist.
 Now that we know about the types of
substances that can be dissolved or
suspended in water, we can determine which
ones are potentially harmful to aquatic life.