You are on page 1of 20

History project

Topic 3 the industrial revolution


Content

 Title--------------------------------------------------------------------p.1
 Content----------------------------------------------------------------
p.2
 Teammates list-------------------------------------------------------
p.3
 What is industrial revolution-------------------------------
p.4-p.6
 Invention one,railway--------------------------------------p.7-
p.18
 What have the teammates done for this
project-----------p.19
Teammates

 secret
What is industrial
revolution ?
 It is a major shift of technology,
agricultural and cultural conditions in the
18th century.
 There was also a Second
Revolution(1871-1914) in about 1850s.
 It mainly started in England. Soon it
spread to other countries in Europe.
Industrial
Revolution
Revolution in machine
Agricultural The Revolution of Textiles
Revolution
The Second
Potato Revolution(1871-1914)
Revolution(1695-
It was mainly about invention of electricity.
1845)
It also included the development of petroleum,
chemical, steel industrial.
Mass production and consumer goods were
developed in that time.
The manufacture of food, drinks, transport,
clothing etc. were all mechanization.
The features of industrial
revolution
 Increase in population
 Abolition of old privileges and
monopolies
 Accumulation of capital
 Demand for raw materials and new
markets
 Scientific innovations
 Technological innovation
 Development of world trade
Railway
Railway
George Stephenson

 George Stephenson (9 June 1781


– 12 August 1848) was an English
mechanical engineer.
 George Stephenson was born in
Wylam, Northumberland, a part of
Newcastle.
 The designer of the famous steam
locomotive, Rocket.
 The "Father of Railways".
Railway

 The railroad grew out of the need to move


heavy coal.
 In 1700, people used ponies( 小馬 )to pull
wagonload along the Newcastle coalfield. But
it was slow and tired.
 In 1712, steam engine was invented.
 In 1780s, the company of the coalfield in
Newcastle employed some people to look
after the steam engine which worked in the
coalfield.
 In the early 1820s, businessmen invited
Stephenson to be an “engine tenter” to look
after the engine.
 Ponies ( 小馬 ) and the goods.
Railway

 Soon, he was told to build a railway


between Darlington coalfield and the
port( 海港 ) of Stockton.
 The project was working.
 It faced problems. Framers claimed
the railways would destroy their
agriculture. Canal( 運河 )companies
said that the railway would took away
their livelihoods( 生計 ).
Railway

 But Stephenson ignored all the


criticism.
 Here is an example: one member
of the Parliament asked him that
what if a cow would got in the way
of the engine, would that be a
stupid condition? Stephenson
answered,” Yes, very stupid for
the cow!”
Railway

 In 1804 Richard Trevithick had built a


locomotive ( 火車頭 ) but the performance
wasn’t stable.
 In 1826 Stephenson began to build another
railway from Liverpool to Manchester. He also
built a locomotive, called the Rocket a
transport which was connected with a James
Watt’s invention---an important machines, a
steam engine.
 This was the first railway engine. It was
success. It ran 50km/hr.
 Because of the success of railway, the
Railway
the appear of steam train
Invention of steam machines

Demand for coals

Demand for manpower for mining( 礦業


) increased

Demand for the invention of new machines for


mining
Railway
Railway
The advantage of railway
People can travel to Railway is more cheap after the idea of
greater distance for mass production( 大量生產 )/ production
working or resting. line( 生產線 ) by Eli Whitney.
Workers on train drivers
Rail created jobs Road makers
The advantage of railway
engineers Coal workers

Post and newspaper


became very popular. The armies could arrive
the battlefield and
People could have more flesh
hospital quickly.
vegetables, fruit and meat etc.
Railway

inside
A post carriage of an
railway

focus
Railway
The effect of steam train
 Itmade a hot development of
train.
Steam Railway (mid 19th century to 20th century)
(but there are also steam train working nowadays in India)
Diesel locomotives Railway (1912-now)
(now they are widely, mainly used in Africa)
Gas turbine-electric Railway (1941-
1959) (now they are widely, mainly used in China and India)
Electric Railway (by Robert Davidson in 1837-
now)(the popular, the most successful and the most famous electric
train was invented by Siemens( 西門子 ), a German in 1879.)
Railway
"Stephenson gauge", is the
world's standard gauge.
What have the
teammates done for this

project
-------powerpoint and project booklet

 ----------project booklet and work allocation

 ------Seach information and


powerpoint and project booklet

 ----------project booklet

 --------detail searching and booklet

 ------project booklet

You might also like