History project

Topic 3 the industrial revolution

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Title--------------------------------------------------------------------p.1 Content---------------------------------------------------------------p.2 Teammates list------------------------------------------------------p.3 What is industrial revolution------------------------------p.4-p.6 Invention one,railway--------------------------------------p.7p.18 What have the teammates done for this project-----------p.19

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What is industrial revolution ?
 It

is a major shift of technology, agricultural and cultural conditions in the 18th century.  There was also a Second Revolution(1871-1914) in about 1850s.  It mainly started in England. Soon it spread to other countries in Europe.

Industrial Revolution
Agricultural Revolution Potato Revolution(16951845)

Revolution in machine

The Revolution of Textiles The Second Revolution(1871-1914) It was mainly about invention of electricity. It also included the development of petroleum, chemical, steel industrial. Mass production and consumer goods were developed in that time. The manufacture of food, drinks, transport, clothing etc. were all mechanization.

The features of industrial revolution
 Increase

in population  Abolition of old privileges and monopolies  Accumulation of capital  Demand for raw materials and new markets  Scientific innovations  Technological innovation  Development of world trade



George Stephenson

George Stephenson (9 June 1781 – 12 August 1848) was an English mechanical engineer.  George Stephenson was born in Wylam, Northumberland, a part of Newcastle.  The designer of the famous steam locomotive, Rocket.  The "Father of Railways".

The railroad grew out of the need to move heavy coal.  In 1700, people used ponies( 小馬 )to pull wagonload along the Newcastle coalfield. But it was slow and tired.  In 1712, steam engine was invented.  In 1780s, the company of the coalfield in Newcastle employed some people to look after the steam engine which worked in the coalfield.  In the early 1820s, businessmen invited Stephenson to be an “engine tenter” to look after the  Ponies (engine. and the goods. 小馬 )

 Soon,

he was told to build a railway between Darlington coalfield and the port( 海港 ) of Stockton.  The project was working.  It faced problems. Framers claimed the railways would destroy their agriculture. Canal( 運河 )companies said that the railway would took away their livelihoods( 生計 ).

 But

Stephenson ignored all the criticism.  Here is an example: one member of the Parliament asked him that what if a cow would got in the way of the engine, would that be a stupid condition? Stephenson answered,” Yes, very stupid for the cow!”

In 1804 Richard Trevithick had built a locomotive ( 火車頭 ) but the performance wasn’t stable.  In 1826 Stephenson began to build another railway from Liverpool to Manchester. He also built a locomotive, called the Rocket a transport which was connected with a James Watt’s invention---an important machines, a steam engine.  This was the first railway engine. It was success. It ran 50km/hr.  Because of the success of railway, the


the appear of steam train
Invention of steam machines

Demand for coals Demand for manpower for mining( 礦業 ) increased Demand for the invention of new machines for mining



The advantage of railway
People can travel to greater distance for working or resting. Railway is more cheap after the idea of mass production( 大量生產 )/ production line( 生產線 ) by Eli Whitney.
Workers on train

Road makers

Rail created jobs The advantage of railway

Coal workers

Post and newspaper became very popular. People could have more flesh vegetables, fruit and meat etc.

The armies could arrive the battlefield and hospital quickly.



A post carriage of an railway



The effect of steam train
 It

Steam Diesel Gas

(mid 19th century to 20th century) (but there are also steam train working nowadays in India)

made a hot development of train.


locomotives Railway


(now they are widely, mainly used in Africa) (19411959) (now they are widely, mainly used in China and India) (by Robert Davidson in 1837now)(the popular, the most successful and the most famous electric train was invented by Siemens( 西門子 ), a German in 1879.)

turbine-electric Railway Railway



gauge", is the world's standard gauge.

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What have the teammates done for this project -------powerpoint and project booklet
----------project booklet and work allocation ------Seach information and powerpoint and project booklet ----------project booklet --------detail searching and booklet ------project booklet

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