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The challenge of establishing a

scientific and progressive society, a


society that is innovative and forward
looking, one that is not only a
consumer of technology but also a
contributor to the scientific and
technological civilization - YAB
Datuk Sri Mohd Najib Tun Razak

SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY


HUMAN CAPITAL
ROADMAP
By:

Noor Azizah Samsuddin


Nuraini bt Abu Bakar
Khairani bt Khalid
Anusia Radhakrishna

Science &
Technology
Human Capital
Roadmap

Background and
Current state
Call for actionPremise of
of demand &
Expanding the
S & T Human
supply for S & T
S & T talent
Capital
Human Capital
Pipeline
Roadmap
For the future

Consolidated
S&T
Human Capital
Roadmap

Moving
Forward

SCIENCE :
knowledge of the physical world
gained through systematic
observation and experimentation
TECHNOLOGY:
application of scientific knowledge
to the development of tools,
machines or process that change or
manipulate the human environment
to accomplish practical task or
objectives.

ENGINEERING:
application of scientific principles
developed to the design of a device,
system, or process to achieve a
defined task.
MATHEMATICS:
lingua franca of science and
engineering concept, and a
discipline in its own right with
applications beyond S & T domain
into the finance and economics
realms.

S & T Human Capital


Quantitative Distribution

Where are we now?


Current enrolment ratio for
Science and Art :20 : 80
Targeted ratio:
60 :40

Existing Human Capital Education


Value Chain

Conceptual version of the S & T


Human Capital Roadmap

Current state of demand


and supply for S & T Human
Capital
Current status
of S & T Human
Capital Value
Chain

Secondary
education

Tertiary
education

Enrollment in Science and Arts


Streams at Upper Secondary Level

Enrollment of Upper Secondary


School Students in Available
Streams

Infrastructure
-lab

Education
path

Teaching

Issues at
Secondary
education
Interest in
science

Quality

Quantity

Operational issue at tertiary


education level
1 ) Quality :
Low quality of matriculation/foundation students
Matriculation/foundation certificate not recognized.
Student highest qualification is back to SPM
2) Incentive
Unattractive scholarship in pursuing science at tertiary
level
3) PhD
Insufficient numbers of PhD holders to conduct research
PhD holders do not pursue post-docs, hence inexperienced
leading/supervise other researches. Post-doc not
considered as important requirement

4) Programme/Organisation
There are 15 IHLs (4 IPTA & 11 IPTS) that offered medicine
& engineering, without science faculty. Thus, weak
foundation.

Chapter 3: Call for action-Expanding


the science & Technology Talent
Pipeline for the Future
Secondary

Goal/ Vision:

Objectives:

Tertiary

To steer ~60%
students into science
stream & tertiary
S&T education

To provide sufficient
capacity, quality
teaching, R&D
platform & fulfill
skilled human capital
requirement.
-60% to go in science -Meeting 60:40
stream
- Increase PhD
- Prepare students for holders
tertiary level
- Channeling student
-- Focus on pipeline
to tertiary level
- Quality of educator

Job market
Goal: Attraction & retention of S&T human capital
Objectives: Ideation of correct strategies, listing of action plan &

Secondary Education

Target
60% of upper secondary school students to take science
270k students ready to enter S&T courses at tertiary level

Approaches
Establishing the platform numerical analysis with recommendations
To obtain steady growth and attrition rate excluding international,
private, MRSM & Islamic school
Teacher & student ration to be kept at reasonable standard

i) Projection of upper secondary students


- Science class & classroom usage at school level attained to
estimate the quantity of infrastructural space to accommodate
extra intake of students.
- Data reveals total number of 6465 classrooms available that can be
converted into science classes.
- Short term plan accommodating 24969 may be successful provided
proper strategy is executed & unwavering implementation of this
numerical strategy.

ii) Forecast of Science Student Enrolment in Form 4 & Form 5


- The number of Form 5 students with science education will
reach 260,000 by year 2016 and a total output 1.8million by
2020 if positive intervention is put to action as recommended.
iii) Resources to Accommodate The Projected Number of
Science Students
- Number of class is projected by setting the ratio classroom:
students 1:30
- International average 1:17, thus reshuffling required.
- 22412:266205 is ratio of 1:12

Set of recommendations:
a. Nurturing interest in S&T
b. Popularizing S&T education
c. Sharpening S&T skills and abilities
d. Appropriate impactful incentives to be in the S&T stream

Ratio Science &


Mathematics Teacher to
Student

Coordination of Strategies, Action Plans, Stakeholders and


Success indicators
A structured approach is presented in the following table in
chronological order formatted as short- term, medium- term &
long- term plans to the relevant stakeholders.
Strategic Reform Initiatives

Tertiary Education

Target
500k S&T graduates generated by 2020 in accordance to the field
and qualification
Approaches
- Intervention of greater number of SPM leavers of the science stream
into diploma, degree, masters & doctorate programmes in S&T fields.
- Must have adequate capacity of local universities and colleges &
sufficient pool of teaching staffs.
- Forging of good relationship between industries and higher learning
institutions in the form of R&D and career advising strategic
partnerships.
- Increased financial support such as scholarships, convertible loans
and R&D grants for S&T degree programmes.

i) Diploma intake:
- Output from school from 2011-2020 is approximately 1.8 million, 900k
chaneled into various pre-university institutions and other 900k go
into workforce/ taking non S&T courses.
- 800k expected to proceed to further studies at degree level in 20132020.

ii) Degree intake:


- From 800k, about 488k expected to graduate and join workforce
in 2020.
- 61%-engineering, 12%-health, 27%-science (pure science).
iii) Graduate studies:
- Total 30k PhDs in S&T are expected to join workforce by 2020.
- 65k M. Sc degree are graduates in 2020. which together fulfill
the demand of R&D personnel in 2020 by furthering their
studies to PhD.
- Remaining 10K assigned to join private institutes of higher
learning to build public-private partnership.
- Assuming every 45k PhD students translates into 45K projects
with estimation of RM200k being cost of single project and RM9
billion in total.
- Matching combination from private sectors, minimum GERD is
expected to be 2% by 2020.

S&T Human Capital Flow at Tertiary


Education Level and Cost of R&D