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Introduction to GIS

Cornerstones of GIS

What is

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION
SYSTEM
Geographic
Information
Information System
System

Spatial Database

Some Definition of GIS


An organized collection of computer hardware, software, geographic data,
and personnel designed to efficiently capture, store, update, manipulate, analyze,
and display all forms of geographically referenced information.
www.fws.gov/data/IMADS/glossary.htm

A system of computer hardware, software and data for collecting, storing,


analyzing and disseminating information about areas of the earth.
www.oahutrans2k.com/info/glossary/G.htm
A Geographic Information System is a computer-based tool for mapping and analyzing things
that exist and events that happen in the local authority. GIS technology integrates common
database operations such as query and statistical analysis with the unique visualization and
geographic analysis benefits offered by maps. A geographic information system is the
combination of skilled people having achieved training, spatial and attribute/descriptive
data, analytic methods, computer software and hardware all organized to automate,
manage, and deliver information through geographic information.
http://cookbook.hlurb.gov.ph/3-01-introduction

An Early Example of
GIS

Since these figures represent something else that have


associated attributes, these cave paintings may be
considered a GIS.

modern GIS equivalent

Caribou
Herds are
tracked
through
GPS and
monitored
using a GIS
software

Components of GIS

All of
these
must be
found to
have a
well
functionin
g GIS

HARDWARE

HARDWARE

Computer

Input
Devices
- Digitizer
- Scanner
- GPS

Output Devices
- Printer
- Plotter

SOFTWARE

GIS software provides the


functions and tools needed
to store, analyse, and
display geographic
information. Key software
components are:
Tools for the input and manipulation of geographic
information
A database management system (DBMS)
Tools that support geographic query, analysis, and
visualisation
A graphical user interface (GUI) for easy access to tools

SOFTWARE

Software Situation in the


Philippines

HLURB Survey 2006

METHODOLOGY

Also called Applications or


Analysis

METHODOLOGY

Process of transforming data to


information

An Example of
Methodology

METHODOLOGY

Information Product

METHODOLOGY

Location of
Subdivision
Project

Data

Data

80 %

Data
GIS DATA
Base Maps include roads, political boundaries, rivers
and lakes, parks and landmarks; place names
Environmental maps - include data related to the
environment, weather, environmental risk, satellite
imagery, topography, and natural resources.
Socio-economic data - include data related to
census/demography, health care, real state,
telecommunications, emergency preparedness, crime,
business establishments, and transportation.

Kinds of Data that GIS Handles


Spatial data
data pertaining to the location and spatial
dimensions of geographical entities, and data
that can be linked to locations in geographic
space, usually via features on a map.
usually translated into simple objects: points,
lines, areas and grids (pixels).
Example: Barangay Map, Land Parcels

Kinds of Data that GIS


Attribute data (Non-spatial or Aspatial Data)
Handles
Usually organized in tables
refers to the properties of a specific, precisely defined location. The data are
often statistical but may be text, images or multi-media. These are linked in
the GIS to spatial data that define the location. They are often referred to as
non-spatial data since they do not in themselves represent location
information.
Example: Barangay Name, PIN

Geographic Data
Characteristics
Spatial data
and their
attributes are
linked
By
their
geographic
location
By unique
identifiers

Spatial Data Types


Two major categories of spatial data
representation in GIS: raster and vector.
Raster approach: cells
Vector approach: points, lines, and polygons

RASTER
VECTORFILE
FILE

Some Examples for Each Data Type


Raster
- Satellite Images (tif, bsq, bil)
- Orthophotos (tif,sid)
- Scanned images (tif, gif, jpg, bmp)

Vector
- Drawing Files (dwg)

AutoCAD

- Shapefiles (shp,shx,dbf)

ESRIs ArcView

- TAB (tab)

MapInfo

Data Build Up in the Cookbook


From Paper Map

Data Build Up in the Cookbook


Georeference and Digitize

Data Build Up in the Cookbook


Fill out the Excel

Data Build Up in the Cookbook


Open the tables in GIS and
Join

Data Build Up in the Cookbook


Create the Thematic Map Required in the Information Product

Manpower/People
A vital component of any system is
the people as they are the ones
who will make the system a useful
service.

Cornerstones of a Functioning GIS


Money

Money
Skills
Development
Mindset of users
and beneficiaries

Dependent

Manpower/People
What should People part of GIS do?
Advocate use
Develop Skills
Users must be comfortable first in
using GIS as Maps

Step by step
TRAIN OTHERS IN GIS
EXCHANGE OF DATA BETWEEN LGU AND OTHER INSTITUTIONS
EXCHANGE OF DATA BETWEEN LGU OFFICES
GIS BUILDING IN THE PLANNING OFFICE
USE GIS AS AN ANALYSIS TOOL
BUILD BASIC ATTRIBUTE DATA IN THEMATIC ACTIVITIES

Application
to CLUP

BUILD GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION


MASTER ATTRIBUTE DATA IN A GIS
MASTER GIS AS A PRESENTATION TOOL
MASTER BASIC GIS AS A DRAWING TOOL
KNOW GIS IN THEORY

Practice and
Simple use

Trainin
g

the GIS and Geospatial Indu

the GIS and Geospatial Indu


GPS and Digital Maps on Mobile Phones

the GIS and Geospatial Indu

"You can print


money, manufacture
diamonds, and people
are a dime a dozen,
but they'll always
need land. It's the one
thing they're not
making any
more of. "

Thank You !