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LectureNotes

EmergingDevices

Outline

PowerJFETDevices
FieldControlledThyristor
MOSControlledThyristor
HighVoltageIntegratedCircuits/DiscreteModules
NewSemiconductorMaterials

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

EmergingDevices1

PowerJFETGeometry
N-channel JFET
gate
source

D
+

l
gs

Recessed gate

JFET

cross-section.

channel

l
gd
+
N

P-channel JFET
drain

GatesourcegeometryhighlyinterdigitatedasinMOSFETs.
Widthw=mstoafewtensofms;lc<w;lgsminimized.

lgdsetbyblockingvoltageconsiderations.
S
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

EmergingDevices2

PowerJFETIVCharacteristics
Output characteristics
iD

Transfer curve.

V
GS
VGS1

VGS2

VGS3

VGS4

vD
S

blocking
gain

VGS

v
D
S

PowerJFETisanormallyondevice.Substantialcurrentflowswhengate
sourcevoltageisequaltozero.
OppositetoBJTs,MOSFETs,andIGBTswhicharenormallyoffdevices.
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

EmergingDevices3

ControllingPotentialBarrierinJFETs
electron
V
potential

-V

=0
DS

(x)
CS
x

increasing

Suppresspotentialbarrierby
increasingVDSatfixedVGS.
WhenVDS>|VGS|substantial
draincurrentsflow.

V
DS

|VGS|>|Vp|(pinchoffvoltage)
potentialbarriertoelectronflow
fromsourcetodraincreated.No
draincurrentcanflow.

+
V
DD

Blockingcapabilitylimitedby
magnitudeofelectricfieldindrift
region.Longerdriftregionshave
largerblockingvoltagecapability.

+
P

E
GS

V (x)

CS

E
+

DS

V
GG

N
P

NormallyoffJFETcreatedby
havingnarrowenoughchannel
widthsothatthechannelispinched
offatzerogatesourcevoltage.

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

EmergingDevices4

JFETOnandOffStates
JFETinonstate

JFET in blocking state

D
depletionregion

depletion
region
+
V

DD

P+

+
V
DD
-

P+

P+

P+

Channelopenbetweendrainandsource.
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

VGG

Channelpinchedoff(closed)between
drainandsource.
EmergingDevices5

BipolarStaticInductionTransistor(BSIT)
BSIT in blocking state

JFETinonstate

D
depletionregion

D
depletion
region

+
VDD
-

P+

+
V

P+

DD

P+

P+

Channelwidthandchanneldopingchosen
sothatatzerogatesourcevoltage,
depletionlayersofgatechanneljunction
pinchoffthechannel.
NarrowerchannelthannormallyonJFET.
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

GG

Forwardbiasgatechanneljunctionto
reducedepletionregionwidthandopenup
channel.

Substantialcurrentflowintogate.
EmergingDevices6

JFETSwitchingCharacteristics
EquivalentcircuitsofJFETSnearlyidenticaltothoseofMOSFETs
SwitchingwaveformsnearlyidenticaltothoseofMOSFETsincludingvaluesof
variousswitchingtimeintervals
JFETVGSstartsatnegativevaluesandstepstozeroatturnonwhileMOSFETVGSstarts
atzeroandstepstopositivevalueatturnon
FETonstatelossessomewhathigherthanforMOSFETtechnologyrelatednotfundamental
NormallyoffJFET(BipolarstaticinductiontransistororBSIT)switchingcharacteristics
moresimilartothoseofBJT
DifferencesbetweenBSITandBJTobservablemainlyatturnoff
1.BSIThasnoquasisaturationregionandthusonlyonecurrentfalltime(nocurrenttailing)at
turnoff.
2.OverallturnofftimesofBSITshorterthanforBJT
3.DifferencesduetofactthatBSIThasnoinlinepnjunctionthatcanblocksweepoutof
excesscarriersasdoesBJT
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

EmergingDevices7

FieldControlledThyristor(FCT)
VerticalCrosssection

Circuitsymbol

anode
cathode

gate

+
+

gate

cathode

+
P

anode

Injecting contact -

unique feature of FCT

Sometimestermedabipolarstaticinductionthyristor(BSIThy).
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

EmergingDevices8

FCTIVCharacteristics
i
A
V

FCThasanormallyon
characteristic.

GK

V
GK2

GK1

GK3

Canbemadetohavea
normallyoff
characteristic.

-V
RM
V
AK

V
AK

blocking gain

1.Reducechannel
widthsothatzerobias
depletionlayerwidth
ofgatechannel
junctionpinchesoff
channel
2.Thentermeda
bipolarstaticinduction
thyristor(BSIThy).

V
GK

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

EmergingDevices9

PhysicalOperationofFCT
FCTessentiallyapowerJFETwithaninjectingcontactat
thedrain
Injectingcontactcausesconductivitymodulationofdrain
driftregionandresultsinmuchloweronstatelosses
Atturnoff,gatedrawslargenegativecurrentsimilartoa
GTObecauseofstoredchargeindriftregion

Cascodeswitching
circuit.
Implementanormally
offcompositeswitch.
R1andR2insurethat
voltageacross
MOSFETnotoverly
large.Permitsuseof
lowvoltagehigh
currentdevice.
HV

FCTnotalatchingswitchasisaGTO.FCThasno
regenerativeaction.
FCTcanbemadeanormallyoffdevicebyusingnarrow
channelwidthssothatzerobiaswidthgatedepletionlayer
pinchsoffchannel.

R1

Vcontrol

R2

R1 >> R2 1-10 Meg


CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

EmergingDevices10

FCTSwitchingCharacteristics
FCTswitchingwaveformsqualitativelysimilartothyristororGTO

includinglargenegativegatecurrentatturnoff.

FCThasgatecontrolledturnonandturnoffcapabilitiessimilartoGTO.
FCTswitchingtimessomewhatshorterthanGTO.
GatedrivemustbecontinuouslyappliedtoFCTbecauseFCThasno
latchingcharacteristic.
FCThasmuchlargerreapplieddv/dtratingthanGTObecauseoflackof
latchingaction.
FCThasdi/dtlimitsbecauseoflocalizedturnonandthenexpansionof
turnedonregionacrossentiredevicecrosssection.
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

EmergingDevices11

JFETBasedDevicesVsOtherPowerDevices
BlockingvoltagecapabilityofJFETscomparabletoBJTsandMOSFETs.
JFETonstatelosseshigherthanMOSFETstechnologylimitation.
SwitchingspeedsofnormallyonJFETsomewhatslowerthanthoseofMOSFETtechnology
limitation.
BSITswitchingtimescomparabletoBJTsinprincipleshouldbefasterbecauseoflackofin
linepnjunctiontrappingstoredchargeatturnoff.
NosecondbreakdowninnormallyonJFETs,similartoMOSFETs.
BSITsandBSIThyhaveandpossiblylimitations.
JFETbasedpowerdevicesmuchlesswidelyusedbecauseofnormallyoncharacteristic.This
hasalsoslowedresearchanddevelopmenteffortsinthesedevicescomparedtootherdevices.
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

EmergingDevices12

PMCT(PtypeMOScontrolledThyristor
Unitcellverticalcrosssection
SiO
2

conductor

CompleteMCTcomposedof
tensofthousandsofidentical
cellsconnectedinparallel.

G
+

N
+
P

P
P
ONFET

ONFET

channel

channel

Pdesignationreferstodoping
ofthelightlydopedPlayer
whichcontainsthedepletion
layeroftheblockingjunction.

OFFFET

channels

+
N

NotethatONandOFFFETs
arepositionedattheanodeend
ofthedevice.

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

EmergingDevices13

PMCTEquivalentCircuit&CircuitSymbol
PMCTequivalentcircuit

PMCTcircuitsymbol

anode

anode
A
+

gat

gate
OFF-FET

AK

ON-FET

cathode
cathode

PMCTusedwithanodegrounded.
Gateanodevoltageisinputdrivevoltage.
UsePMCTincircuitswithnegativevoltages.

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

EmergingDevices14

NMCT(NtypeMOScontrolledThyristor
VerticalcrosssectionofNMCTunitcell

NMCTcomposedof
thousandsofcells
connectedelectricallyin
parallel.

SiO
2

conductor

+
P

Ndesignationreferstothe
Nlayerwhichcontainsthe
depletionlayerofthe
blockingjunction.

N
ONFET

ONFET

channel

channel

P
OFFFET

channels

NotethattheONandOFF
FETsarepositionedat
thecathodeendofthe
device.

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

EmergingDevices15

NMCTEquivalentCircuit&CircuitSymbol
NMCTequivalentcircuit

NMCTcircuitsymbol
anode

anode

ON-FET
gate
OFF-FET

gat

cathode

cathode

NMCTusedwithcathodegrounded.
Gatecathodevoltageisinputdrivevoltage.
UseNMCTincircuitswithpositivevoltages.
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

EmergingDevices16

GatecontrolledTurnonofMCTs
TurnonMCTbyturningontheONFET
PositivegatecathodevoltageforNMCT
NegativegateanodevoltageforPMCT
ThesepolaritiesofgatevoltageautomaticallykeeptheOFFFETincutoff.
ONFETdeliversbasecurrenttothelowgainBJTinthethyristorequivalentcircuit
and activatesthatBJT.
PNPtransistorintheNMCT
NPNtransistorinthePMCT
Lowgaintransistoractivatesthehighergaintransistorandthyristorlatcheson.
Oncehighergaintransistor,whichisinparallelwithONFETisactivated,current
isshuntedfromONFETtotheBJTandtheONFETcarriesverylittlecurrentin
theMCTonstate.
Only510%ofthecellshaveanONFET.
Cellsareclosepacked.Withinoneexcesscarreierdiffusionlengthofeachother.
AdjacentcellswithoutanONFETturnedonviadiffusionofexcesscarriersfrom
turnedoncell.
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

EmergingDevices17

GatecontrolledTurnoffofMCTs
TurnMCToffbyturningontheOFFFET
NegativegatecathodefortheNMCT
PositivegateanodevoltageforthePMCT
ThesegatevoltagepolaritiesautomaticallykeeptheONFETincutoff.
OFFFETshuntsbasecurrentawayfromthehighergainBJTinthethyristor
equivalentcircuitandforcesittocutoff.
NPNtransistorintheNMCT.
PNPtransistorinthePMCT.
CutoffofhighergainBJTthenforceslowgainBJTintocutoff.
EveryMCTcellhasanOFFFET.
OFFFETkeptactivatedduringentireMCToffstatetoinsurenoinadvertent
activationofthethyristor.
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

EmergingDevices18

MaximumControllableAnodeCurrent
IfdrainsourcevoltageofOFFFETreachesapproximately0.7Vduringturnoff,
thenMCTmayremainlatchedinonstate.
HighergainBJTremainsonifOFFFETvoltagedrop,whichisthebaseemitter
voltageoftheBJTreaches0.7volts.
Thusmaximumonstatecurrentthatcanbeturnedoffbymeansofgatecontrol.
PMCThaveapproximatelythreetimeslargergatecontrolledanodecurrent
ratingthanasimilar(samesizeandvoltagerating)NMCT.
OFFFETofthePMCTisannchannelMOSFETwhichhasthreetimeslarger
channelmobilitythanthepchannelOFFFEToftheNMCT.
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

EmergingDevices19

RationaleofOFFFETPlacement
PMCTcrosssectionshowing
rationaleforOFFFETplacement

Turning off the BJT with the larger


value of most effective way to
break the latching condition
1 + 2 = 1
BJT with the smaller base width has
the larger value of .
P-MCT ; PNP BJT has smaller
base
width
N-MCT ; NPN BJT has smaller
base width
OFF-FET put in parallel with baseemitter of larger gain BJT so that
OFF-FET shorts out base-emitter
when the FET is activated.

A
G
N
P
OFF-FET

P+

+
P
OFF-FET

N
P

Wider of two base regions


N

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

EmergingDevices20

MCTSwitchingWaveforms
Gate-cathode

NMCTStepdownConverter

voltage

V
Tn

I
o

V
Tp
t

V
d

N-MCT

d,off

fv1
Anode-cathode

voltage

rv1
fv2

V
d

PMCTStepdownConverter
t

rv2

Anode

current

I
o

V
d

P-MCT

t
ri2

fi1

t
d,on

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
t

ri1

t
fi2

EmergingDevices21

MCTTurnonProcess
Turnondelaytimetd,ontimerequiredforgatevoltagetoreachONFETthreshold
startingfromreversebiasvalueofVGG,off
Currentrisetimetri1andtri2
tri1;ONFETturnsonacceptingallthecurrentthegatedrivevoltagewillpermit.
ONFETinitsactiveregion.
tri2;NPNandPNPBJTsturnonandcurrentshuntedawayfromONFET.BJTs
andONFETintheiractiveregions.

Voltagefalltimetfv1andtfv2
tfv1;BJTsintheiractiveregionssovoltagefallinitiallyfast.

tfv2;BJTsinquasisaturation,sotheirgainisreducedandrateofvoltagefall
decreases.
Atendofvoltagefalltimeinterval,BJTsenterhardsaturationandMCTisin
theonstate.

Gatecathodevoltageshouldreachfinalonstatevalueintimesnolongerthana
specifiedmaximumvalue(typically200nsec).Insurethatallparalleledcellsturnon
atthesametimetominimizecurrentcrowdingproblems.
Keepgatecathodeatonstatevalueforthedurationoftheonstatetominimize
likelyhoodofinadvertantturnoffofsomecellsifcurrentissubstantiallyreduced
duringonstate.
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

EmergingDevices22

MCTTurnoffProcess
Turnoffdelaytimetd,offtimerequiredtoturnofftheONFET,activatetheOFF
FET,andbreakthelatchingconditionbypullingtheBJTsoutofhardsaturation
andintoquasisaturation.
Requiresremovalofsubstantialamountofstoredcharge,especiallyinthebase
regionsofthetwoBJTs(n1andp2thyristorlayers).
Voltagerisetimestrv1andtrv2
trv1;timerequiredtoremovesufficientstoredchargesothatBJTsleavequasi
saturationandenteractiveregionandblockingjunction(J2)becomesreverse
biased.
trv2;BJTsinactiveregionandtheirlargergaincauses anodevoltagetorapidly
completegrowthtopowersupplyvoltageVd
Currentfalltimetfi1andtfi2
tfi1;InitialrapidfallincurrentuntilhighgainBJT(NPNBJTinthePMCT
equivalentcircuit)goesintocutoff.
tfi2;storedchargestillremaininginbase(driftregionofthyristor)ofthe
lowgainBJTremovedinthisinterval.Theopenbasenatureoftheturnoff
casuseslongertimeintervalgivinga"tail"totheanodecurrentdecay.
Gatecathodevoltagekeptatoffstatevalueduringentireoffstateintervalto
preventaccidentalturnon.
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

EmergingDevices23

MCTOperatingLimitations
Imaxsetbymaximumcontrollableanodecurrent.
Presentlyavailabledeviceshave50100Aratings.
Vmaxsetbyeitherbreakovervoltageofthyristor
sectionorbreakdownratingoftheOFFFET.
Presentlyavailabledevicesratedat600V.10002000
vdevicesprototyped.

MCTsafeoperatingarea.Very
conservativelyestimated.

Anode
current
I

max

dvDS

dt limitedbymechanismsidenticaltothosein
thyristors.Presentlyavailabledevicesratedat500
1000V/sec.
diD
dt limitedby potential currentcrowdingproblems.
Presently available devi
ces rated at 500
A/sec.

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

Anode-cathode voltage

BO

EmergingDevices24

HighVoltage(Power)IntegratedCircuits
ThreeclassesofpowerICs
1.Smartpowerorsmart/intelligentswitches
Verticalpowerdeviceswithonchipsenseandprotectivefeaturesand
possiblydriveandcontrolcircuits
2.Highvoltageintegratedcircuits(HVICs)
ConventionalICsusinglowvoltagedevicesforcontrolanddrive
circuitsandlateralhighvoltage powerdevices
3.Discretemodules
Multiplechipsmountedonacommonsubstrate.Separatechipsfor
drive,control,andpowerswitch andpossiblyotherfunctions.
PICrationale
Lowercosts
Increasedfunctionality
Higherreliability
Lesscircuit/systemcomplexity
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

EmergingDevices25

IssuesFacingPICCommercialization
Technicalissues
Electricalisolationofhighvoltagedevicesfromlowvoltagecomponents
Thermalmanagementpowerdevicesgenerallyoperateathigher
temperaturesthanlowpowerdevices/circuits.
OnchipinterconnectionswithHVconductorrunsoverlowvoltage
devices/regions.
Fabricationprocessshouldprovidefullrangeofdevicesandcomponents
BJTs,MOSFETs,diodes,resistors,capacitors,etc.
Economicissues
Highupfrontdevelopmentcosts
RelativecostofthethreeclassesofPICs
Needforhighvolumeapplicationstocoverdevelopment
expenses.
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

EmergingDevices26

DielectricIsolation
Si0 2

N+

B
N+

Dielectricallyisolatedtubs
SiO2isolationandsilicon
thinfilmovergrowth.

N
+

Si wafer
Si wafer

SiO
2
Si wafer with SiO

Si wafer with SiO

2
Wafers bonded together

metallurgically

Top Si wafer thinned


Si wafer
for circuit fabrication

Si wafer with SiO


Si wafer with SiO

Waferbondingand
subsequentwafer
thinning.

Bottom wafer
Clean, flat surfaces
dielectrically isolated
contacted at elevated
from top thin Si film
temperatures under

pressure

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

EmergingDevices27

SelfIsolationandJunctionIsolation
Lateral Logic

Level MOSFET

Lateral HV MOSFET

Selfisolationonlyfeasible
withMOSFETdevices.

P substrate

isolatedregions

+
N

Junctionisolation.
parasitic

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

diode

EmergingDevices28

HighVoltageLowVoltageCrossovers
Electricfieldlines

Metalat+V

SiO
2
+
N

Fieldcrowdingand
prematurebreakdown.

+
P

depletion
layer

P@V

Polysilicon

Metalat+V
fieldshield

SiO
2
+
N

depletion

layer

Useoffieldshieldsto
minimizefieldcrowding
problemsatHV/LV
crossovers.

P@V

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

EmergingDevices29

SmartorIntelligentSwitchUsingMOSFETs
Lateral Logic
Level MOSFET

Vertical Power MOSFET


G

+
P

N
N

+
P

+
P

Diode

Crosssectional
diagramofswitch.
P

+
D

Circuitdiagram

Addadditionalcomponentsonvertical
MOSFETwaferaslongasnomajor
processchangesrequired.

Diode

Power

Lateral Logic

MOSFET

Level MOSFET

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

PNjunctionformedfromNdriftregion
andPbodyregionalwaysreversebiased
ifdrainofpowerMOSFETpositive
respecttosource.Provideselectrical
isolationofthetwoMOSFETs.
EmergingDevices30

SmartPowerSwitchUsingBJTs
Lateral Logic

Vertical Power

Lateral Logic

Level NPN BJT

NPN BJT

Level PNP BJT

+
P

N
P
P

Crosssectionalview

P
-

epi

epi

epi
+

+
N

P-epi

+
N

ThreeelectricallyisolatedBJTsdiagramed
PNjunctionisolationviaPepiandtopsideP+diffusion
Doubleepitaxialprocesssquence
PepigrownonN+substrate
N+buriedlayerdiffusedinnext
NepifordriftregiongrownoverPepi
P+isolationdiffusionstoPepi
DiffusionforbaseandemittersofBJTs

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

EmergingDevices31

HighVoltageIntegratedCircuits(HVICs)
Lateral HV

DMOSFET

Lateral Logic

Lateral Logic

Level NPN BJT

Level PNP BJT

P
epi

+
P

+
P

+
N

epi

epi

HVICusing
junctionisolation

+
N

P-substrate

Lateral HV

Lateral Logic

N-channel

Lateral Logic

Level N-MOSFET

Level P-MOSFET

DMOSFET
G

S
D

+
N

+
P

N
+

HVICusingself
isolation

P substrate

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

EmergingDevices32

DiscreteModuleExampleIXYSI3MIGBTModule
Intelligentisolatedhalfbridge
200A1080V
Builtinprotectionandsensingof
overcurrents,overvoltages,
overtemperatures,shortcircuits.
ModuleswithonlyIGBTsandanti
paralleldiodesavailablewith
ratingsof3300V1200A

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

EmergingDevices33

IGCTIntegratedGateCommutatedThyristor
Turn-on
Q1
C1

Cn
Qn

10V - 5A

GCT Gate
Control
Q1

Qn
20V - 6 A

C1

SpeciallydesignedGTOwithlow
inductancegatedrivecircuit
Ratings
Blockingvoltage4500V
Controllableonstatecurrent4000A
Averagefwdcurrent1200A

Switchingtimes10sec

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

Cn

C2

50,000 F

GCT Cathode

Turn-of

Approximategatedrivecircuit

Ion500A10sec

Iofffullforwardcurrent10usec

Verylowseriesinductance3nH
EmergingDevices34

EmitterTurnoffThyristor
Q1
C1

Cn
Qn

10V - 5A

GTO or GCT
Control
Qn
Q1

Qn
Q1

PerformancesimilartoIGCTs
AdvantagesoverIGCTs
Simplerdrivecircuit
EasiertoparallelMOSFETsinserieswithGTO
havepositivetemperaturecoefficient
SeriesMOSFETscanbeusedforovercurrentsensing
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

EmergingDevices35

EconomicConsiderationsinPICAvailability
PICdevelopmentcosts(exclusiveofproductioncosts)
Discretemoduleshavelowerdevelopmentcosts
LargerdevelopmentcostsforsmartswitchesandHVICs
Productioncosts(exclusiveofdevelopmentcosts)ofsmartswitchesand
HVICslowerthanfordiscretemodules.
ReliabilityofsmartswitchesandHVICsbetterthandiscretemodules.
Greaterflexibility/functionalityindiscretemodules
Widerrangeofcomponentsmagnetics,optocouplers
PICswillbedevelopedforhighvolumeapplications
Automotiveelectronics
Telecommunications
Powersupplies
Officeautomationequipment
Motordrives
Flourescentlightingballasts

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

EmergingDevices36

SummaryofSiliconPowerDeviceCapabilities
Vof

Thyristors

5 kV

GTOs, IGCTs, ETOs

4 kV

3 kV

IGBT
s

2 kV

MCT
s

Io
n

BJTs

1 kHz

1 kV

10 kHz

MOSFET
s

100 kHz
1 MHz

500 A

1000 A

1500 A

2000 A

3000 A

Frequency

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

EmergingDevices37

NewSemiconductorMaterialsforPowerDevices
Siliconnotoptimummaterialforpowerdevices
Galliumarsenidepromisingmaterial
Higherelectronmobilities(factorofabout56)fasterswitchingspeeds
andloweronstatelosses
LargerbandgapEghigheroperatingtemperatures
Siliconcarbideanotherpromisingmaterials
LargerbandgapthansiliconorGaAs
MobilitiescomparabletoSi
Significantlylargerbreakdownfieldstrength
LargerthermalconductivitythanSiorGaAs
Diamondpotentiallythebestmaterialsforpowerdevices

Largestbandgap
Largestbreakdownfieldstrength
Largestthermalconductivity
LargermobilitiesthansiliconbutlessthanGaAs

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

EmergingDevices38

PropertiesofImportantSemiconductorMaterials
Property

Si

GaAs

3CSiC

6HSiC

Bandgap@300

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

Diamond

EmergingDevices39

OnStateResistanceComparisonwithDifferentMaterials

Specificdriftregionresistanceofmajoritycarrierdevice

4q(BVBD)2
RonA

emn(EBD)3
Normalizetosiliconassumeidenticalareasandbreakdown
voltages
Ron(x)A
eSimSi
Ron(Si)A=resistanceratio= exmx

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

EmergingDevices40

MaterialComparison:PNJunctionDiodeParameters

ApproximatedesignformulasfordopingdensityanddriftregionlengthofHVpn
junctions

BasedonstepjunctionP+NN+structure

e[EBD]2
Nd=driftregiondopinglevel2qBV

BD

2BVBD
Wd=driftregionlength E

BD

Numericalcomparison1000Vbreakdownrating
Material

Nd

Si

1.3x1014

GaAs

5.7x1014

50

SiC

1.1x1016

10

Diamond

1.5x1017

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

cm3

Wd
67m

2
EmergingDevices41

MaterialComparison:CarrierLifetimeRequirements

Driftregioncarrierlifetimerequiredfor1000Vpnjunctiondiode

Approximatedesignformulabasedonstepjunction


CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

EmergingDevices42

RecentAdvances/Benchmarks
Galliumarsenide
600VGaAsSchottkydiodesannouncedbyMotorola.250VavailablefromIXYS
3GaAswafersavailable
Siliconcarbide
3wafersavailablefromCreeResearchexpensive
600V6ASchottkydiodesavailablecommerciallyInfineonTechnologiesAG(Siemensspinoff)
Controlledswitchesalsodemonstrated
1800V3ABJTwithbetaof20
3100V12AGTO
Diamond
Polycrystallinediamondfilmsofseveralmicronthicknessgrownoverlarge(square
centimeters)areas
Simpledevicestructuresdemonstratedindiamondfilms.
PNjunctions
Schottkydiodes
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

EmergingDevices43

Projections
GaAs
DevicessuchasSchottkydiodeswhicharepreesentlyatornear
commercialintroductionwillbecomeavailableandused.
GaAsdevicesofferonlyincrementalimprovementsinperformanceover
SidevicescomparedtoSiCordiamond.
BroadintroductionofseveraltypesofGaAsbasedpowerdevices
unlikely.
SiC
RapidadvancesinSiCdevicetechnology
SpurredbythegreatpotentialimprovementinSiCdevicescomparedto
Sidevices.
CommerciallyavailableSiCpowerdeviceswithin510years.
Diamond
Researchconcentratedinimprovingmaterialstechnology.
Growthofsinglecrystalmaterial
Ancilliarymaterialsissuesohmiccontacts,dopants,etc.
Nocommerciallyavailablediamondbasedpowerdevicesinthe
forseeablefuture(next1020years).
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003

EmergingDevices44