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DesignofMagneticComponents

Outline
A.

Inductor/TransformerDesignRelationships

B.

MagneticCoresandMaterials

C.

PowerDissipationinCopperWindings

D.

ThermalConsiderations

E.

AnalysisofSpecificInductorDesign

F.

InductorDesignProcedures

G.

AnalysisofSpecificTransformerDesign

H.

EddyCurrents

J.

TransformerLeakageInductance

K.

TransformerDesignProcedures

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.oeg

Magnetics1

MagneticComponentDesignResponsibilityofCircuitDesigner
Ratings for inductors and transformers in power
electronic circuits vary too much for commercial
vendors to stock full range of standard parts.

Core
(double E)

Instead only magnetic cores are available in a


wide range of sizes, geometries, and materials as
standard parts.
Circuit designer must design the
inductor/transformer for the particular
application.

Winding
Bobbin

Design consists of:


1. Selecting appropriate core material, geometry,
and size
2. Selecting appropriate copper winding
parameters: wire type, size, and number of
turns.
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.oeg

Assembled
core and
winding

Magnetics2

ReviewofInductorFundamentals
Assumptions
No core losses or copper winding losses
Linearized B-H curve for core with
mo
lm >>g and A >>g2
Magnetic circuit approximations (fux
uniform over core cross-section, no
fringing flux)

Cross-sectional
area of core = A

l m= mean path length

i1

N1

Air gap: Hg
g

Starting equations
Hm lm + Hg g = N I (Amperes Law)
Bm A = Bg A = (Continuity of flux
assuming no leakage flux)
m Hm= Bm (linearized B-H curve) ;

Core: Hm

B
Bs

o Hg = Bg
Results
NI
Bs > Bm = Bg =
= / A
lm/ m+ g/ o
AN 2
LI = N ; L =
lm/ m+ g/ o
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.oeg

B
H

linear region
B
B
=

H
H
Magnetics3

ReviewofTransformerFundamentals
Assumptions same as for
inductor

Starting equations
H1 L m = N1I1 ; H2 L m = N2 I2
(Ampere's Law)
HmL m = (H1 - H2)L m = N1 I1 - N2 I2
mHm = Bm (linearized B-H curve)
d1
d2
v1 = N1
; v2 = N2
dt
dt
(Faraday's Law)
Net flux = 1 - 2 = mHmA
mA(N1I1-N 2I2)
=
Lm
Results assuming m , i.e. ideal core
or ideal transformer approximation.

= 0 and thus N1I1= N2 I2


m
d(1 - 2 )
v1
v2
v1
v2

=0 =
;
=
dt
N1
N2
N1
N2
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.oeg

Cross-sectional
area of core = A

l m= mean path length

i2

i1
+
v1
-

N1

+
v
2
-

N2

2
Magnetic fux

B
Bs
B
H

linear region
B
B
=

H
H
Magnetics4

Current/FluxDensityVersusCoreSize
Larger electrical ratings require larger current I and
larger flux density B.
Core losses (hysteresis, eddy currents) increase
as B2 (or greater)
Winding (ohmic) losses increase as I2 and are
accentuated at high frequencies (skin effect,
proximity effect)

B
Bs
Minor
hystersis
loop
H

To control component temperature, surface area of


component and thus size of component must be
increased to reject increased heat to ambient.
At constant winding current density J and core
flux density B, heat generation increases with
volume V but surface area only increases as V2/3.
Maximum J and B must be reduced as electrical
ratings increase.
Flux density B must be < Bs

- Bs
core

Higher electrical ratings larger total flux


larger component size
Flux leakage, nonuniform flux distribution
complicate design
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

fringing
flux
Magnetics5

MagneticComponentDesignProblem
Challengeconversionofcomponentoperatingspecs
inconvertercircuitintocomponentdesignparameters.
Goalsimple,easytouseprocedurethatproduces
componentdesignspecsthatresultinanacceptable
designhavingaminimumsize,weight,andcost.
Inductorelectrical(e.g.convertercircuit)
specifications.
InductancevalueL
InductorcurrentsratedpeakcurrentI,ratedrms
currentIrms,andrateddccurrent(ifany)Idc
Operatingfrequencyf.
Allowablepowerdissipationininductoror
equivalentlymaximumsurfacetemperatureofthe
inductorTsandmaximumambienttemperatureTa.
Transformerelectrical(convertercircuit)
specifications.
RatedrmsprimaryvoltageVpri
RatedrmsprimarycurrentIpri
TurnsratioNpri/Nsec
Operatingfrequencyf
Allowablepowerdissipationintransformer or
equivalentlymaximumtemperaturesTsandTa
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

Designprocedureoutputs.
Coregeometryandmaterial.
Coresize(Acore,Aw)
Numberofturnsinwindings.
ConductortypeandareaAcu.
Airgapsize(ifneeded).
Threeimpedimentstoasimpledesignprocedure.
1. DependenceofJrmsandBoncoresize.
.
2. Howtochoseacorefromawiderangeof
materialsandgeometries.
3. Howtodesignlowlosswindingsathigh
operatingfrequencies.
Detailedconsiderationofcorelosses,winding
losses,highfrequencyeffects(skinandproximity
effects),heattransfermechanismsrequiredforgood
designprocedures.
Magnetics6

CoreShapesandSizes
Magneticcoresavailableinawidevarietyofsizesandshapes.
FerritecoresavailableasU,E,andIshapesaswellaspotcores
andtoroids.
Laminated(conducting)materialsavailableinE,U,andIshapes
aswellastapewoundtoroidsandCshapes.
OpengeometriessuchasEcoremakeforeasierfabricationbut
morestrayfluxandhencepotentiallymoresevereEMI
problems.
Closedgeometriessuchaspotcoresmakeformoredifficult
fabricationbutmuchlessstrayfluxandhenceEMIproblems.
Bobbinorcoilformerprovidedwithmostcores.

insulating layer
magnetic steel
lamination

Dimensionsofcoreareoptimizedbythemanufacturersothatfora
givenrating(i.e.storedmagneticenergyforaninductororVI
ratingforatransformer),thevolumeorweightofthecoreplus
windingisminimizedorthetotalcostisminimized.
Largerratingsrequirelargercoresandwindings.
Optimizationrequiresexperienceandcomputerizedoptimization
algorithm.

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

Magnetics7

DoubleECoreExample
d
a
2
a
2

a
1.9 a
1.4 a
hw

ha

bw

2
ba

Bobbin

Assembled core and winding

Core
Characteristic
Core area Acore
Winding area A w

Relative Size
1.5 a2
1.4 a2

Area product AP = AwA c


Core volume V core

2.1 a4
13.5 a3

Winding volume V w
Total surface area of
assembled core and
winding

12.3a3
59.6 a2

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

Absolute Size for


a = 1 cm
1.5 cm2
1.4 cm2
2.1 cm4
13.5 cm3
12.3 cm3
59.6 cm2

Magnetics8

TypesofCoreMaterials
Iron-based alloys

Ferrite cores

Various compositions
Fe-Si (few percent Si)
Fe-Cr-Mn
METGLASS (Fe-B, Fe-B-Si, plus many
other compositions)
Important properties
Resistivity _ = (10 - 100)

Cu

Bs = 1 - 1.8 T (T = tesla = 10 4 oe)


METGLASS materials available only as
tapes of various widths and thickness.

Various compositions - iron oxides,


Fe-Ni-Mn oxides
Important properties
Resistivity very large (insulator) no ohmic losses and hence skin
effect problems at high
frequencies.
Bs = 0.3 T (T = tesla = 10 4 oe)

Other iron alloys available as laminations


of various shapes.
Powdered iron can be sintered into
various core shapes. Powdered iron cores
have larger effective resistivities.
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

Magnetics9

HysteresisLossinMagneticMaterials
B
Bs
Minor
hystersis
loop

Bac
t

Bac

Bdc
- Bs

Areaencompassedbyhysteresis
loopequalsworkdoneonmaterial
duringonecycleofappliedac
magneticfield.Areatimesfrequency
equalspowerdissipatedperunit
volume.
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

B(t)

Typicalwaveformsoffluxdensity,
B(t)versustime,inaninductor.
OnlyBaccontributestohysteresis
loss.
Magnetics10

QuantitativeDescriptionofCoreLosses
Eddy current loss plus hysteresis loss =
core loss.

3F3 core losses in graphical form.

d
Empirical equation - Pm,sp = k f a [Bac]
.
f = frequency of applied field. Bac =
base-to-peak value of applied ac field. k,
a, and d are constants which vary from
material to material
Pm,sp = 1.5x10 -6 f 1.3 [Bac] 2.5
mW/c m3 for 3F3 ferrite. (f in kHz and
B in mT)
2
Pm,sp = 3.2x10 -6 f 1.8 [Bac]
mW/c m3 METGLAS 2705 M (f in kHz
and B in mT)
Example: 3F3 ferrite with f = 100 kHz
and Bac = 100 mT, Pm,sp = 60
mW/c m3
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

Magnetics11

CoreMaterialPerformanceFactor
Voltamp(VA)ratingoftransformersproportionaltofBac
CorematerialshavedifferentallowablevaluesofBacataspecificfrequency.BaclimtedbyallowablePm,sp.
MostdesirablematerialisonewithlargestBac.
ChoosingbestmaterialaidedbydefininganempericalperformancefactorPF=fB ac.PlotsofPFversus
frequencyforaspecifiedvalueofPm,sppermitrapidselectionofbestmaterialforanapplication.
PlotofPFversusfrequencyatPm,sp=100mW/cm3forseveraldifferentferritesshownbelow.

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

Magnetics12

EddyCurrentLossesinMagneticCores
Eddy current

Bi(r)

Bo
B (r)
i

B (r)
i
B (t)
o

= exp({r - a}/ )

= skin depth =

= 2 f, f = frequency
= magnetic permeability ;
o for magnetic materials.

= conductivity of material.

AC magnetic fields generate eddy


currents in conducting magnetic materials.
Eddy currents dissipate power.
Shield interior of material from
magnetic
field.

Numerical example
= 0.05 cu ; = 10 3 o
f = 100 Hz
= 1 mm

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

Magnetics13

LaminatedCores
Coresmadefromconductivemagnetic
materialsmustbemadeofmanythin
laminations.Laminationthickness<skin
depth.
t
Stackingfactorkstack=t+0.05t

0.5 t

t (typically
0.3 mm)

Insulator
Magnetic steel
lamination

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

Magnetics14

EddyCurrentLossesinLaminatedCores
Flux (t) intercepted by current loop

Average power Pec dissipated in lamination


w Ld 3 2 B2

given by Pec = <p(t)dV>=

24core
Pec
w Ld 3 2 B2 1
d2 2 B2
Pec,sp =
=

V
24core
dwL
24core

of area 2xw given by (t) = 2xwB(t)


Voltage in current loop v(t) = 2xw

dB(t)
dt

= 2wxBcos(t)
2wcore
Current loop resistance r =
; w >> d
L dx
Instantaneous power dissipated in thin loop
[v(t) ] 2
p(t) =
r
Average power Pec dissipated in lamination

w
x
z

w Ld 3 2 B2

given by Pec = <p(t)dV>=

24core
Pec
w Ld 3 2 B2 1
d2 2 B2
Pec,sp =
=

V
24core
dwL
24core

d
y
L

dx

B sin(

t)

-x
Eddy current fow path

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

Magnetics15

PowerDissipationinWindings
bobbin

Averagepowerperunitvolumeofcopperdissipated
incopperwinding=Pcu,sp=cu(Jrms)2where
Jrms=Irms/Acu andcu=copperresistivity.
Averagepowerdissipatedperunitvolumeof
winding=Pw,sp=kcu cu(Jrms)2;Vcu=kcu
VwwhereVcu=totalvolumeofcopperinthe
windingandVw=totalvolumeofthewinding.
NAcu
Copperfillfactorkcu= A <1
w
N=numberofturns;Acu=crosssectionalarea
ofcopperconductorfromwhichwindingismade;
Aw=bwlw=areaofwindingwindow.
kcu=0.3forLeitzwire;kcu=0.6forround
conductors;kcu0.70.8forrectangular
conductors.
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

Winding conductor
airgap

hw

Aw
g

>

g
2

bw

DoubleEcoreexample
kcu<1because:
Insulationonwiretoavoidshorting
outadjacentturnsinwinding.
Geometricrestrictions.(e.g.tightpacked
circlescannotcover100%ofasquare
area.)
Magnetics16

EddyCurrentsIncreaseWindingLosses
ACcurrentsinconductorsgenerateac
magneticfieldswhichinturngenerateeddy
currentsthatcauseanonuniformcurrent
densityintheconductor.Effectiveresistance
ofconductorincreasedoverdcvalue.
Pw,sp>kcucu(Jrms)2ifconductor
dimensionsgreaterthanaskindepth.
J(r)
J =exp({ra}/)
o
2
=skindepth=

=2 f,f=frequencyofaccurrent
=magneticpermeabilityofconductor;
=ofornonmagneticconductors.
=conductivityofconductormaterial.

Numericalexampleusingcopperat100 C
Frequency
Skin
Depth

50
Hz
10.6
mm

5
kHz
1.06
mm

20
kHz
0.53
mm

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

500
kHz
0.106
mm

Eddy currents
H(t)

I(t)
J(t)

J(t)

I(t)

B sin( t)

+
-

+
-

B sin( t)

MnimizeeddycurrentsusingLeitzwire
bundle.Eachconductorinbundlehasa
diameterlessthanaskindepth.
Twistingofparalleledwirescauseseffectsof
interceptedfluxtobecanceledoutbetween
adjacenttwistsoftheconductors.Hencelittleif
anyeddycurrents.
Magnetics17

ProximityEffectFurtherIncreasesWindingLosses
a)

(b)

x
x

x
x

x
x

Proximityeffectlossesduetoeddy
currentgeneratedbythemagnetic
fieldexperiencedbyaparticular
conductorsectionbutgenerated
bythecurrentflowingintherestof
thewinding.

MMF

10

Designmethodsforminimizing
proximityeffectlossesdiscussed
later.

Eddy
Current
Losses

100
30
10
3

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

1
x

Magnetics18

MinimumWindingLoss
Pw=Pdc+Pec;Pec=eddycurrentloss.
Pw={Rdc+Rec}[Irms]2=Rac[Irms]2

Optimumconductorsize
Resistance
R dc

R
ec

Rac=FRRdc=[1+Rec/Rdc]Rdc
Minimumwindinglossatoptimumconductorsize.
Pw=1.5Pdc
Pec=0.5Pdc

d opt

d = conductor
diameter or
thickness

Highfrequenciesrequiresmallconductorsizesminimizeloss.
Pdckeptsmallbyputtingmaysmallsizeconductorsinparallelusing
Litzwireorthinbutwidefoilconductors.

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

Magnetics19

ThermalConsiderationsinMagneticComponents
Losses(windingandcore)raisecore
temperature.Commondesignpracticeto
limitmaximuminteriortemperatureto100125C.
Corelosses(atconstantfluxdensity)increase
withtemperatureincreasesabove100C
SaturationfluxdensityBsdecreaseswithtemp.
Increases
Nearbycomponentssuchaspowersemi
conductordevices,integratedcircuits,
capacitors
havesimilarlimits.
Temperaturelimitationsincopperwindings
Copperresistivityincreaseswithtemperature
increases.Thuslosses,atconstantcurrent
densityincreasewithtemperature.
Reliabilityofinsulatingmaterialsdegradewith
temperatureincreases.

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

Surfacetemperatureofcomponentnearlyequalto
interiortemperature.Minimaltemperaturegradient
betweeninteriorandexteriorsurface.
Powerdissipateduniformlyincomponent
volume.
Largecrosssectionalareaandshortpath
lengthstosurfaceofcomponents.
Coreandwindingmaterialshavelargethermal
conductivity.
. Thermalresistance(surfacetoambient)ofmagnetic
componentdeterminesitstemperature.
TsTa
h
Psp=R (V +V );Rsa=A
sa w
c
s
h=convectiveheattransfercoefficient=
10Cm2/W
As=surfaceareaofinductor(core+winding).
Estimateusingcoredimensionsandsimple
geometricconsiderations.
Uncertainaccuracyinhandotherheattransfer
parametersdonotjustifymoreaccuratethermal
modelingofinductor.
Magnetics20

ScalingofCoreFluxDensityandWindingCurrentDensity
Powerperunitvolume,Psp,dissipatedinmagnetic
componentisPsp=k1/a;k1=constantand

Jrms=

Psp
1
kcurcu=k2 k a;k2=constant
cu

a=corescalingdimension.

TsTa
Pw,spVw+Pm,spVm= R
:
sa
Ta=ambienttemperatureandRsa=
surfacetoambientthermalresistanceofcomponent.
ForoptimaldesignPw,sp=Pc,sp=Psp:
TsTa
HencePsp=R (V +V )
sa w
c
Rsaproportionaltoa2and(Vw+Vc)
proportionaltoa3

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

Pm,sp=Psp=kfb[Bac]d;Hence
d P
k3
sp
Bac=
=
wherek3=constant
kfb
d
fba

PlotsofJrms,Bac,andPspversuscoresize
(scalefactora)foraspecificcorematerial,geometry,
frequency,andTsTavalueveryusefulforpicking
appropriatecoresizeandwindingconductorsize.

Magnetics21

ExampleofPowerDensityandCurrentDensityScaling
J rms

P
sp

mW/cm 3

A/mm 2

Assumptions
1. DoubleEcoremadefrom3F3ferrite
2. Ts=100CandTa=40C.

400

350

300

250

200

J rms

3. WindingmadewithLeitzwirekcu=
0.3

150

100

Psp
1

50

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

Core scaling parameter a [cm]

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

Magnetics22

AnalysisofaSpecificInductorDesign
Inductor specifications
Maximum current = 4 ams rms at 100 kHz
Double-E core with a = 1 cm using 3F3 ferrite.
Distributed air-gap with four gaps, two in series in each leg;
total gap length g = 3 mm.
Winding - 66 t urns of Leitz wire with A cu = 0.64 mm2
Inductor surface black with emissivity = 0.9
T a,max = 40 C

Find; inductance L, T s,max ; effect of a 25 % overcurrent on Ts

Power dissipation in winding, Pw = V w kcu cu (J rms) 2 = 3.2 Watt s


V w = 12.3 cm3 (table of core characteristics)
kcu = 0.3 (L eitz wire)
cuat 100 C (approx. max. T s) = 2.2x10 -8 ohm-m
J rms = 4/ (.64) = 6.25 A/mm 2

Power dissipation in 3F3 ferrite core,


Pcore = V c1.5x10 -6 f 1.3 (Bac) 2.5 = 3.3 W
A g o N 2I rms
Bac
= 0.18 mT; assumes Hg >>Hcore
A c g
A g = (a + g)(d + g) = 1.71 cm2 ; g = 3mm/4 = .075 mm
A c = 1.5 cm2 ( table of core characteristics
V c = 13.5 cm3 (table of core characteristics)
f = 100 kHz

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

fringing
flux

g
g
d

A core

Ag

Magnetics23

AnalysisofaSpecificInductorDesign(cont.)
L =

N
= 310 H
I

= Bac A c = (0.18 T )(1.5x10 -4 m2 ) = 2.6x10 -5 Wb

Surface temperature Ts = T a + Rsa (P w + Pcore) = 104 C


Rsa = R,rad || R,conv = 9.8 C/W
R,rad =

60

373 4

- 313 4
(5.1)(0 .006)
100

100

1
R,conv =
(1.34)(0.006)

0.035
60

= 20.1 [C/W ]
fringing
flux

= 19.3 [C/W ]

g
g

Overcurrent of 25 % (I= 5 amp rms) makes T s = 146 C

A core

Pw = (3.2 W)(1.25) 2 = 5 W ; Pcore = (3.3 W)(1.25) 2.5 = 5.8 W


T s = ( 9.8 C/W )(10.8 W) + 40 C = 146 C

Ag
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

Magnetics24

StoredEnergyRelationBasisofInductorDesign
Inputspecificationsforinductordesign
InductancevalueL.
RatedpeakcurrentI
RatedrmscurrentIrms.
Rateddccurrent(ifany)Idc.

Designprocedurestartingpointstoredenergyrelation
[LI]Irms=[NIrms
kcuAw
N= A

cu

Operatingfrequencyf.

=BAcore;Irms=JrmsAcu

MaximuminductorsurfacetemperatureTs
andmaximumambienttemperatureTa.

LIIrms=kcuJrmsBAwAcore

Designconsistsofthefollowing:
Selectionofcoregeometricshapeandsize

Equationrelatesinputspecifications(lefthandside)to
neededcoreandwindingparameters(righthandside)

Corematerial
Windingconductorgeometricshapeandsize
Numberofturnsinwinding

Agooddesignprocedurewillconsistsofasystematic,
singlepassmethodofselectingkcu,Jrms,B,Aw,andAcore.

Goal:Minimizeinductorsize,weight,andcost.
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

Magnetics25

CoreDatabaseBasicInductorDesignTool
Interactive core database (spreadsheet-based) key to a single pass inductor design procedure.
User enters input specifications from converter design requirements. Type of conductor for windings
(round wire, Leitz wire, or rectangular wire or foil) must be made so that copper fill factor kcu is
known.
Spreadsheet calculates capability of all cores in database and displays smallest size core of each
type
that meets stored energy specification.
Also can be designed to calculate (and display as desired) design output parameters including J rms,
B,
Acu, N, and air-gap length.
Multiple iterations of core material and winding conductor choices can be quickly done to aid in
selection of most appropriate inductor design.
Information on all core types, sizes, and materials must be stored on spreadsheet. Info includes
dimensions, Aw, Acore, surface area of assembled inductor, and loss data for all materials of interest.

Pre-stored information combined with user inputs to produce performance data for each core in
spreadsheet. Sample of partial output shown below.

CoreNo. Material

3F3

AP=
R
Psp@
Jrms@
AwAcore T=60C T=60C T=60C
&Psp

9.8C/W
2.1
237
3.3/ kcu
4
3
cm
mW/cm

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

Bac@
T=60C
&100kHz

^
kcuJrmsB

170mT

AwAcore

.0125 kcu

Magnetics26

DetailsofInteractiveInductorCoreDatabaseCalculations
Userinputs:L,I,Irms,Idc,f,Ts,Ta,andkcu

Storedinformation(static,independentofconverterrequirements)
Coredimensions,Aw, Acore, Vc,Vw, surfacearea, meanturnlength,meanmagneticpathlength,etc.
Quantitativecorelossformulasforallmaterialsofinterestincludingapproximatetemperaturedependence.
Calculationofcorecapabilities(storedenergyvalue)
1. Computeconverterrequiredstoredenergyvalue:LIIrms.
2. ComputeallowablespecificpowerdissipationP sp=[TsTa]/{Rsa[Vc+Vw]}.Rsa=h/Asorcalculated
interactivelyusinginputtemperaturesandformulasforconvectiveandradiativeheattransferfromHeatSink
chapter.
3. ComputeallowablefluxdensityPsp=kfb[Bac]dandcurrentdensityPsp=kcucu{Jrms}2.
4. ComputecorecapabilitieskcuAw Acore B Jrms
Calculationofinductordesignparameters.
1.AreaofwindingconductorAcu=I/Jrms.
2. Calculateskindepthinwinding.IfAcu>2attheoperatingfrequency,thensingleroundconductorcannot
beusedforwinding.
ConstructwindingusingLeitzwire,thinfoils,orparalleledsmalldia.()roundwires.

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

Magnetics27

DetailsofInteractiveCoreDatabaseCalculations(cont.)
3. CalculatenumberturnsofNinwinding:N=kcuAw/Acu.
4. CalculateairgaplengthLg.Airgaplengthdeterminedonbasisthatwheninductorcurrent
equalspeakvalueI,fluxdensityequalspeakvalueB.
Formulasforairgaplengthdifferentfordifferentcoretypes.ExamplefordoubleEcore
giveninnextslide.
5. CalculatemaximuminductanceLmaxthatcorecansupport.Lmax=NAcoreBpeak/Ipeak.
IfLmax>requiredLvalue,reduceLmaxbyremovingwindingturns.
Saveoncoppercosts,weight,andvolume.
PwcanbekeptconstantbyincreasingPw,sp
KeepfluxdensityBpeakconstantbyadjustinggaplengthLg.
6. AlternativeLmaxreductionprocedure,increasingthevalueofLg,keepingeverythingelse
constant,isapoorapproach.Wouldnotreducecopperweightandvolumeandthusachieve
costsavings.Fullcapabilityofcorewouldnotbeutilized.

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

Magnetics28

SettingDoubleECoreAirgapLength

Set total airgap length Lg so that Bpeak generated at the peak


current Ipeak.

Lg = Ng g ; Ng = number of distributed gaps each of length g.


Distributed gaps used to minimize amount of flux fringing into
winding and thus causing additional eddy current losses.
N Ipeak
Lg
Rm =
= Rm,core + Rm,gap Rm,gap =
A c Bpeak
oA g
N Ipeak o A g
Lg =
A c Bpeak
Lg
Lg
For a double-E core, A g = (a +
) (d +
)
Ng
Ng
Lg
Lg
A g ad + (a + d)
;
<< a
Ng
Ng
Insertion of expression for A g(Lg) into expression for Lg(A g)

and solving for Lg yields


Lg =

a
Bpeak A c
a+ d

-
d o N Ipeak
dN g

Above expression for Lg only valid for double-E core, but


similar expressions can be developed for other core shapes.

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

fringing
flux

g
g
d

A core

Ag
Magnetics29

SinglePassInductorDesignProcedure
Start
Enter design inputs
into core database

Examine database
outputs & select core

Neglect skin,
proximity effects?
No

Yes

Iterative selection of
conductor type/size.

Select wires

No

Estimate L
max.
Too large?

Yes

Remove turns and


readjust airgap

Finish

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

Magnetics30

InductorDesignExample
Assembledesigninputs
L=300microhenries
Peakcurrent=5.6A,
sinewavecurrent,Irms=4A
Frequency=100kHz
Ts=100C;Ta=40C

StoredenergyLIIrms=(3x104)(5.6)(4)
=0.00068Jm3
Corematerialandgeometricshape
Highfrequencyoperationdictatesferrite
material.3F3materialhashighest
performancefactorPFat100kHz.
DoubleEcorechosenforcoreshape.
DoubleEcorewitha=1cmmeetsrequirements.
^ A A
kcuJrmsB
w core0.0125 kcu0.0068
forkcu>0.3
Databaseoutput:R=9.8C/Wand
Psp=237mW/cm3
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

CorefluxdensityB=170mTfromdatabase.
NoIdc,Bpeak=170mT.
Windingparameters.

Litzwireused,sokcu=0.3.Jrms=6A/mm2
Acu=(4A)/(6A/mm2)=0.67mm2
N=(140mm2)((0.3)/(0.67mm2)=63turns.

(63)(170mT)(1.5x104m2)
Lmax=

5.6A
290microhenries
102
Lg=
(0.17)(1.5x104)
2.5x102

(1.5x102)(4x10 7)(63)(5.6) (4)(1.5x102)


Lg 3mm

LmaxL sonoadjustmentofinductancevalue
isneeded.

Magnetics31

IterativeInductorDesignProcedure
Start
Assemble design inputs

Design winding (k

Compute L I I rms
No

,J, A cu
, N)
cu

Corrected inductancecurrent product greater


than L I I rms ?

Yes

Choose core size using initial


values of J and B

Iterativedesignprocedureessentially
consistsofconstructingthecore
databaseuntilasuitablecoreisfound.
Choosecorematerialandshapeand
conductortypeasusual.
Usestoredenergyrelationtofindan
initialareaproductAwAcandthusan
initialcoresize.

Select larger core size


Find allowable power
dissipation density P
sp
Find maximum inductance
Find corrected core fux
density B
ac
Design airgap length g
Find corrected peak core fux
density B
Set L to design value

UseinitialvaluesofJrms=24A/mm2
andBac=50100mT.
Useinitialcoresizeestimate(valueofain
doubleEcoreexample)tofindcorrected
valuesofJrmsandBacandthuscorrectedvalue
^ A A
ofkcuJrmsB
w core.

^ A A
ComparekcuJrmsB
w corewith
LIIrmsanditerateasneededintoproper
sizeisfound.

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

Magnetics32

Simple,NonoptimalInductorDesignMethod
AssembledesigninputsandcomputerequiredLIIrms

Start
Assemble design inputs

Choosecoregeometryandcorematerialbasedon
considerationsdiscussedpreviously.

Compute L I I rms

AssumeJrms=24A/mm2andBac=50100mTanduse
LIIrms=kcuJrmsBacAwAcoretofindtherequiredarea
productAwAcoreandthusthecoresize.

Determine core size using


assumed values of J and B

AssumedvaluesofJrmsandBacbasedonexperience.
Design winding (k cu,J, A cu
, N)

Completedesignofinductorasindicated.
Set airgap length g to
obtain desired inductance L

No

Check power dissipation


and surface temperature.
Excessive?.

Select
larger
core size
Yes

Done

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

Checkpowerdissipationandsurfacetemperatureusing
assumedvaluesofJrmsandBac.Ifdissipationor
temperatureareexcessive,selectalargercoresizeandrepeat
designstepsuntildissipation/temperatureareacceptable.
Procedureissocalledareaproductmethod.Usefulin
situationswhereonlyoneoretwoinductorsaretobebuilt
andsize/weightconsiderationsaresecondarytorapid
constructionandtesting..

Magnetics33

AnalysisofSpecificTransformerDesign
Transformerspecifications
WoundondoubleEcorewith
a=1cmusing3F3ferrite.
Ipri=4Arms,sinusoidalwaveform;
Vpri=300Vrms.
Frequency=100kHz
TurnsratioNpri/Nsec=4and
Npri=32.
Windingwindowsplitevenlybetween
primaryandsecondaryandwound
withLitzwire.
Transformersurfaceblack(E=0.9)
andTa40C.
Find:corefluxdensity,leakageinductance,
andmaximumsurfacetemperatureTs,and
effectof25%overcurrentonTs.

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

Areasofprimaryandsecondaryconductors,
Acu,priandAcu,sec.
NpriAcu,pri
NsecAcu,sec
Aw,pri= k
;Aw,sec= k
cu,pri
cu,sec
NpriAcu,pri
NsecAcu,sec
Aw,pri+Aw,sec=Aw=
+
kcu
kcu
wherekcu,pri=kcu,sec=kcusinceweassumeprimaryand
secondaryarewoundwithsametypeofconductor.

Equalpowerdissipationdensityinprimaryandsecondarygives
Ipri
Acu,pri
Nsec
Isec=Acu,sec= Npri
kcuAw
UsingaboveequationsyieldsAcu,pri= 2N and
pri
kcuAw
Acu,sec= 2N
sec

(0.3)(140mm2)
Numericalvalues:Acu,pri=
=0.64mm2
(2)(32)
(0.3)(140mm2)
andAcu,sec=
=2.6mm2
(2)(8)
Magnetics34

AnalysisofSpecificTransformerDesign(cont.)
Power dissipation in winding Pw = kcu cu(J rms) 2 V w

Mean turn length l w


Top view
of bobbin

radi us = b / 2
w

J rms = (4 A)/ (0.64 mm2 ) = (16 A)/ (2.6 mm2 ) = 6.2 A/ mm2
Pw = (0 .3)(2 .2x10 -8 ohm-m) (6 .2x10 6 A/ m2 ) 2 (1.23x10 -5 m3 )
Pw = 3.1 watts

1.9 a
1.4 a

Flux density and core loss


V pri,max = Npri A c Bac = (1.414)(300 ) = 425 V
Bac =

425
= 0.140 T
(32) (1.5x10 -4 m 2 )(2 )(10 5 Hz)

Pcore = (13 .5 cm3 )(1 .5x10 -6 )(100 kHz) 1.3 (140 mT) 2.5 = 1.9 W

o(Npri) 2 b w lw
Leakage inductance Lleak =
3 hw
lw = 8 a = 8 cm
(4 x10-7 )(32 ) 2 (0.7)(10 -2 )(8 x10 -2 )
Lleak =
(3) (2x10 -2 )

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

12 microhenries

b w = 0.7a
l w = (2)(1.4a) + (2)(1.9a) + 2 (0.35bw ) = 8 a

Surface temperature Ts.


Assume R,sa 9.8 C/ W.
Same geometry as inductor.
Ts = (9 .8)(3 .1 + 1.9) + 40 = 89 C
Effect of 25% overcurrent.
No change in core fux density.
Constant voltage applied to
primary keeps fux density constant.
Pw = (3.1)(1 .25) 2 = 4.8 watts
` Ts = (9 .8)(4 .8 + 1.9) + 40 = 106 C

Magnetics35

SectioningofTransformerWindingstoReduceWindingLosses
x

x
x

x
x
x

x
x

Primary

Reducewindinglossesbyreducingmagnetic
field(orequiventlythemmf)seenby
conductorsinwinding.Notpossibleinan
inductor.

Secondary

MMF
N pri I pri = N sec I sec

P
2

bw

MMF

MMF

N pri

I pri
2

Simpletwosectiontransformerwinding
situation.

0
I pri
2

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

N pri

I pri
4

Divisionintomultiple
sectionsreducesMMFand
henceeddycurrentlosses.

x
N pri

x
N pri

I pri
4

Magnetics36

OptimizationofSolidConductorWindings

Nomalized power dissipation =


Pw
FRRdc
=
Rdc,h=
Rdc,h=(Irms) 2

500

m = 20
m = 18
m = 16
100

Fl h

m = 14

Conductor height/ diameter

m = 12

Fl = copper layer factor


Fl = b/b o for rectangular conductors

m = 10
m=9
m=8

Fl = d/ do for round conductors


h = effective conductor height

m=7
m=6

d for round conductors


4
m = number of layers
h=

m=5
10

m=4

hw

m=3
h

m=2

1
0.6
0.1

b
bo

Locus of
minimum total loss
= 1.5 dc loss

dc loss

turns per layer =

hw
bo

m=1
1

h/

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

10

do
hw
N

turns per layer =

hw
do

Magnetics37

TransformerLeakageInductance
Linear variation of mmf in winding window indicates
spatial variation of magnetic fux in the window and thus
incomplete fux linkage of primary and secondary windings.

Transformer leakage inductance causes


overvoltages across power switches at t urn-off.
Leakage inductance caused by magnetic
flux which does not completely link primary
and secondary windings.

Hwindow = Hleak =

Direction and relative


magnitude of leakage
magnetic field.

Hleak =

x
x
h

x
x
x

x
x
x

x
x
x

o(Hleak) 2dV
2
Vw
Volume element dV = hw lw(x)dx ; lw(x) equals the

x = current
into page

= current
out of page

x
bw

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

length of the conductor turn located at position x.


Assume a mean turn length lw 8a for double-E

Secondary

MMF

; 0 < x < bw/ 2

2 NpriI pri
(1 - x/ bw) ; bw/ 2 < x < bw
hw

Lleak( Ipri) 2

Primary

Npri I pri = Nsec I sec

2 NpriI prix
hwb w

core independent of x.
bw/ 2

Lleak( Ipri) 2
2 NpriI prix

1
o[

= (2)
] 2 hw lwdx
2
2
h
b

w w
0
o( Npri) 2 lwb w
Lleak =
3 p2 hw
If winding is split into p+1 sections, with p > 1,
leakage inductance is greatly reduced.
Magnetics38

VoltAmp(Power)RatingBasisofTransformerDesign
Inputdesignspecifications

DesignproceedurestartingpointtransformerVAratingS

RatedrmsprimaryvoltageVpri

S=VpriIpri+VsecIsec=2VpriIpri

RatedrmsprimarycurrentIpri

NpriAcoreBac
d
Vpri=Npri dt =
;Ipri=JrmsAcu,pri
2

TurnsratioNpri/Nsec
Operatingfrequencyf
MaximumtemperaturesTsandTa
Designconsistsofthefollowing:
Selectionofcoregeometricshapeandsize
Corematerial

NpriAcoreBac
S=2VpriIpri=2
JrmsAcu,pri
2
kcuAw
Acu,pri= 2N
pri
NpriAcoreBac
kcuAw
S=2VpriIpri=2
Jrms 2N
2
pri
S=VpriIpri=4.4kcufAcoreAwJrmsBac

Windingconductorgeometricshapeandsize
Numberofturnsinprimaryandsecondary
windings.

Equationrelatesinputspecifications(lefthandside)tocore
andwindingparameters(righthandside).
Desireddesignprocedurewillconsistofasystematic,
singlepassmethodofselectingkcu,Acore,Aw,Jrms,andBac.

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

Magnetics39

CoreDatabaseBasicTransformerDesignTool
Interactive core database (spreadsheet-based) key to a single pass tramsformer design procedure.
User enters input specifications from converter design requirements. Type of conductor for windings
(round wire, Leitz wire, or rectangular wire or foil) must be made so that copper fill factor kcu is
known.
Spreadsheet calculates capability of all cores in database and displays smallest size core of each
type
that meets V- I specification.
Also can be designed to calculate (and display as desired) design output parameters including J rms,
B,
Acu,pri, Acu,sec, Npri, Nsec, and leakage inductance..
Multiple iterations of core material and winding conductor choices can be quickly done to aid in
selection of most appropriate tranformer design.
Information on all core types, sizes, and materials must be stored on spreadsheet. Info includes
dimensions, Aw, Acore, surface area of assembled transformer , and loss data for all materials of interest.
Pre-stored information combined with user inputs to produce performance data for each core in
spreadsheet. Sample of partial output shown below.
Core
No.

Material

3F3

AP=
AwAc

2.1
4
cm

R
T=60C

9.8C/W

Psp@
Ts=100C

Jrms@
Ts=100C

237

3
mW/cm

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

^ AP
2.22kcufJrmsB
(f=100kHz)

&100kHz

(3.3/
)

&Psp

^
B
rated@
Ts=100C

kcu

170mT

kcuRdc
Rac

Rdc
Rac

A/mm2

2.6x103

[VA]

Magnetics40

DetailsofInteractiveTransformerCoreDatabaseCalculations
Userinputs:Vpri,Ipri,turnsratioNdc/Nsec,f,Ts,Ta,andkcu

Storedinformation(static,independentofconverterrequirements)
Coredimensions,Aw, Acore, Vc,Vw, surfacearea, meanturnlength,meanmagneticpathlength,etc.
Quantitativecorelossformulasforallmaterialsofinterestincludingapproximatetemperaturedependence.
Calculationofcorecapabilities
1. Computeconverterrequiredstoredenergyvalue:S=2V priIpri
2. ComputeallowablespecificpowerdissipationP sp=[TsTa]/{Rsa[Vc+Vw]}.Rsa=h/Asorcalculated
interactivelyusinginputtemperaturesandformulasforconvectiveandradiativeheattransferfromHeatSink
chapter.
3. ComputeallowablefluxdensityPsp=kfb[Bac]dandcurrentdensityPsp=kcucu{Jrms}2.
4. Computecorecapabilities4.4fkcuAw Acore Bac Jrms
Calculationtransformerparameters.
1. CalculatenumberofprimaryturnsNpri=Vpri/{2fAcpreBac}andsecondaryturnsNsec=Vsec/{2fAcpreBac}
2. CalculatewindingconductorareasassuminglowfrequenciesoruseofLeitzwire
Acu,pri=[kcuAw]/[2Npri]andAcu,sec=[kcuAw]/[2Nsec]
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

Magnetics41

DetailsofInteractiveTransformerCoreDatabaseCalculations(cont.)
3.Calculatewindingareasassumingeddycurrent/proximityeffectisimportant
Onlysolidconductors,roundwiresorrectangularwires(foils),used.J rms=[{PspRdc}/{Rackcurcu}]1/2
Conductordimensionsmustsimultaneouslysatisfyarearequirementsandrequirementsofnormalized
powerdissipationversusnormalizedconductordimensions.
Mayrequirechangeinchoiceofconductorshape.Mostlikelywillrequirechoiceoffoils(rectangular
shapes).
Severaliterationsmaybeneededtofindpropercombinationsofdimensions,numberofturnsperlayer,
andnumberoflayersandsections.
Bestillustratedbyaspecificdesignexample.
4. EstimateleakageinductanceLleak={o{Npri}2lwbw}/{3p2hw}
5. EstimateSmax=4.4kcufAcoreAwJrmsBac
6. IfSmax>S=2VpriIprireduceSmaxandsaveoncoppercost,weight,andvolume.
IfNpriwAcBac>Vpri,reduceSmaxbyreducingNpriandNsec.
IfJrmsAcu,pri>Irms,reduceAcu,priandAcu,sec.
IfS>Smaxbyonlyamoderateamount(1020%)andsmallerthanS maxofnextcoresize,increaseSmaxof
presentcoresize.
IncreaseIrms(andthuswindingpowerdissipation)asneeded.TemperatureTswillincreaseamodest
amount
abovedesignlimit,butmaybepreferabletogoingtolargercoresize.

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

Magnetics42

SinglePassTransformerDesignProcedure
Start
Enter design inputs
into core database

Examine database
outputs & select core

Neglect skin,
proximity effects?
No

Yes

Iterative selection of
conductor type/size.

Select w ires

No

Estimate S max
.
Too large?

Yes

Remove turns

Finish

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

Magnetics43

TransformerDesignExample
Designinputs
Vpri=300Vrms;Irms=4Arms
Turnsration=4
Operatingfrequencyf=100kHz
Ts=100CandTa=40C

VIratingS=(300Vrms)(4Arms)
=1200watts
Corematerial,shape,andsize.
Use3F3ferritebecauseithaslargest
performancefactorat100kHz.
UsedoubleEcore.Relativelyeasyto
fabricatewinding.
Rdc
Corevoltamprating=2,600 kcu
Rac
Usesolidrectangularconductorfor
windingsbecauseofhighfrequency.
Thuskcu=0.6andRac/Rdc=1.5.
0.6
Corevoltampcapability=2,600 1.5
=1644watts.>1200watttransformerrating.
Sizeisadequate.
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

Usingcoredatabase,R=9.8C/W
andPsp=240mW/cm3.
Fluxdensityandnumberofprimary
andsecondaryturns.
Fromcoredatabase,Bac=170mT.
300 2
Npri=
(1.5x104m2)(2) (105Hz)(0.17T)
=26.524. Roundeddownto24toincrease
flexibilityindesigningsectionalized
transformerwinding.
24
Nsec= 6 =6.
3.3
FromcoredatabaseJrms=

(0.6)(1.5)
=3.5A/mm2.
4Arms
Acu,pri=
=1.15mm2
2
3.5Arms/mm
Acu,sec=(4)(1.15mm2)=4.6mm2

Magnetics44

TransformerDesignExample(cont.)
Primaryandsecondaryconductorareas
proximityeffect/eddycurrentsincluded.
Assumerectangular(foil)conductorswith
kcu=0.6andlayerfactorFl=0.9.
Iteratetofindcompatiblefoilthicknesses
andnumberofwinding sections.
1stiterationassumeasingleprimarysection
andasingle secondarysectionandeachsection
havingsingleturnperlayer.Primaryhas24
layersandsecondaryhas6layers.
Acu,pri
Primarylayerheighthpri= F h
l w
1.15mm2
=(0.9)(20mm)=0.064mm
Normalizedprimaryconductorheight
Flhpri
0.9(0.064mm)
=
=
d
(0.24mm) =0.25;
=0.24mmincopperat100kHzand100C.
Optimumnormalizedprimaryconductorheight
=0.3soprimarywindingdesignissatisfactory.
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

Acu,sec
Secondarylayerheighthsec= F h
l w
4.6mm2
=(0.9)(20mm) 0.26mm.
Normalizedsecondaryconductorheight
Flhsec
0.9(0.26mm)
=
=
d
(0.24mm) =1
Howeverasixlayersectionhasanoptimum
=0.6.Atwolayersectionhasanoptimum
=1.2nditerationneeded.
2nditerationsectionalizethewindings.
Useasecondaryof3sections,eachhavingtwo
layers,ofheighthsec=0.26mm.
Secondarymusthavesingleturnperlayer.
Twoturnsperlayerwouldrequirehsec=0.52mm
andthus=2.Examinationofnormalizedpower
dissipationcurvesshowsnooptimum=2.

Magnetics45

TransformerDesignExample(cont.)
P
6

S
3

P
3

S
3

Threesecondarysectionsrequiresfourprimarysections.
Twoouterprimarysectionswouldhave24/6=4
turnseachandtheinnertwosectionswouldhave
24/3=8turnseach.
Needtodeterminenumberofturnsperlayerand
hencenumberoflayerspersection.
Turns/
layer

hpri

No.of
Layers

1
2
4

0.064mm
0.128mm
0.26mm

8
4
2

0.25
0.5
1

Optimum

0.45
0.6
1

Usefourturnsperlayer.Twointeriorprimary
sectionshavetwolayersandoptimumvalueof
Twooutersectionshaveonelayereachandnot
optimum,butonlyresultsinslightincreaseinloss
abovetheminimum.
CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

P
3

S
3

P
6

LeakageinductanceLleak
(4 x109)(24)2(8)(0.7)(1)
=
=0.2H
(3)(6)2(2)
Sectionalizingincreasescapacitance
betweenwindingsandthuslowersthe
transformerselfresonantfrequency.
Smax=1644watts
RatedvalueofS=1200wattsonly
marginallysmallerthanSmax.Littleto

begainedinreducingSmaxtoSunlessa

largenumberoftransformerofthisdesign
aretobefabricated.

Magnetics46

IterativeTransformerDesignProcedure
Start
Assemble design inputs

Compute 2 V I
pri pri

Design windings (A cu,pri, N pri,


A cu,sec , N
sec )

Corrected V-I rating greater


than 2 V pri I pri ?
No

Yes

Choose core size using initial


values of J and B
Select larger core size
Find allowable power
dissipation density P
sp
Find maximum V - I rating
Find corrected core fux
density B
ac

Find corrected current


density J rms

Set S maxto desired S

Estimate leakage inductance

Iterativedesignprocedureessentially
consistsofconstructingthecore
databaseuntilasuitablecoreisfound.
Choosecorematerialandshapeand
conductortypeasusual.
UseVIratingtofindaninitialarea
productAwAcandthusaninitialcoresize.
UseinitialvaluesofJrms=24A/mm2
andBac=50100mT.
Useinitialcoresizeestimate(valueofain
doubleEcoreexample)tofindcorrected
valuesofJrmsandBacandthuscorrected
^ A A
valueof4.4fkcuJrmsB
w core.

^ A A
Compare4.4fkcuJrmsB
w corewith
2VpriIprianditerateasneededintoproper
sizeisfound.

End

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

Magnetics47

Simple,NonoptimalTransformerDesignMethod
Assembledesigninputsandcomputerequired2VpriIpri

Start
Assemble design inputs

Choosecoregeometryandcorematerialbasedon
considerationsdiscussedpreviously.

Compute 2 Vpri I pri

AssumeJrms=24A/mm2andBac=50100mTanduse
2VpriIpri=4.4fkcuJrmsBacAwAcoretofindtherequiredarea
productAwAcoreandthusthecoresize.

Determine core size using


assumed values of J and B

AssumedvaluesofJrmsandBacbasedonexperience.
,
,N
Design winding (A
cu,pri pri
A cu,sec , N sec )

Set S maxto desired S

No

Check power dissipation


and surface temperature.
Excessive?.

Completedesignoftransformerasindicated.
Select
larger
core size
Yes

Done

CopyrightbyJohnWiley&Sons2003
Forclarifications:anoopmathew@ieee.org

Checkpowerdissipationandsurfacetemperatureusing
assumedvaluesofJrmsandBac.Ifdissipationor
temperatureareexcessive,selectalargercoresizeandrepeat
designstepsuntildissipation/temperatureareacceptable.
Procedureissocalledareaproductmethod.Usefulin
situationswhereonlyoneoretwotransformersaretobebuilt
andsize/weightconsiderationsaresecondarytorapid
constructionandtesting..

Magnetics48