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BEE4223 Power Electronics & DC TO AC Drives Systems CONVERTER Mohd Shawal Bin Jadin Faculty of

BEE4223

Power Electronics &

DC TO AC

Drives Systems

CONVERTER

Mohd Shawal Bin Jadin Faculty of Electrical & Electronic Engineering shawal@ump.edu.my

OVERVIEW

  • 1. Introduction

  • 2. Principle of operation

  • 3. Performance parameter

  • 4. The half-bridge inverter

  • 5. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)

  • 6. PWM Generation

  • 7. PWM Harmonics

OVERVIEW 1. Introduction 2. Principle of operation 3. Performance parameter 4. The half-bridge inverter 5. Pulse
OVERVIEW 1. Introduction 2. Principle of operation 3. Performance parameter 4. The half-bridge inverter 5. Pulse
  • 8. Current Source Inverter

  • 9. Introduction to three-phase inverter

10.Conclusions

LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the end of the lecture, student should be able to:

1. State the operation and characteristics of Inverter.

2. Discuss the performance parameters and use different technique for analyzing and designing of DC to AC Converter.

LEARNING OUTCOMES At the end of the lecture, student should be able to: 1. State the
LEARNING OUTCOMES At the end of the lecture, student should be able to: 1. State the

INTRODUCTION

Inverters are circuits that converts dc input voltage to a symmetric ac output voltage by which both magnitude and frequency can be controlled.

Applications :

adjustable speed ac motor drives, uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), and ac appliances run from an automobile battery.

INTRODUCTION • Inverters are circuits that converts dc input voltage to a symmetric ac output voltage

TYPES OF INVERTER

Voltage Source Inverter (VSI):

TYPES OF INVERTER • Voltage Source Inverter (VSI): • Current Source Inverter (CSI)

Current Source Inverter (CSI)

TYPES OF INVERTER • Voltage Source Inverter (VSI): • Current Source Inverter (CSI)

VOLTAGE SOURCE INVERTER (VSI) WITH VARIABLE DC LINK

DC link voltage is varied by a DC-to DC converter or controlled rectifier.

Generate square waveoutput voltage.

Output voltage amplitude is varied as DC link is varied.

VOLTAGE SOURCE INVERTER (VSI) WITH VARIABLE DC LINK • DC link voltage is varied by a

Frequency of output voltage is varied by changing the frequency of the square wave pulses.

VOLTAGE SOURCE INVERTER (VSI) WITH VARIABLE DC LINK

Advantages:

simple waveform generation Reliable

Disadvantages:

Extra conversion stage Poor harmonics

VSI WITH FIXED DC LINK

DC voltage is held constant.

Output voltage amplitude and frequency are varied

simultaneously using PWM technique.

VSI WITH FIXED DC LINK • DC voltage is held constant . • Output voltage amplitude

Good harmonic control, but at the

SQUARE WAVE INVERTER

Square wave inverter can be simplifying justified with a switching scheme of full bridge converter.

An square wave ac output voltage is synthesized from a dc input by closing and opening the switches in an appropriate sequence.

The output voltage can be

OPERATION OF SIMPLE SQUARE-WAVE INVERTER

OPERATION OF SIMPLE SQUARE-WAVE INVERTER SQUARE-WAVE INVERTERS EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT • Parallel diode is used when the

SQUARE-WAVE

INVERTERS

OPERATION OF SIMPLE SQUARE-WAVE INVERTER SQUARE-WAVE INVERTERS EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT • Parallel diode is used when the

EQUIVALENT

CIRCUIT

Parallel diode is used when the current in the switch is negative

Diode will reverse-biased when current is ositive in the switch

WHEN S1-S2 TURN ON & S3- S4 OFF FOR T 1 < T < T 2

WHEN S1-S2 TURN ON & S3- S4 OFF FOR T < T < T

WHEN S1-S2 TURN OFF& S3- S4 ON FOR T 2 < T < T 3

WHEN S1-S2 TURN OFF& S3- S4 ON FOR T < T < T

PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS

 V t T  dc dc       I - min
 V
t
T
dc
dc
  
I
-
min
R
V   e
R
0
 t 
2
I
( t ) 
o
 
t 
T  
2
V
T
dc
dc
R
  I
min
V   e
R
 t  T
2
T
V
1
e
2
 
 
dc
I
 
I
min
max
T
R
1
e
2
P
V I
dc
dc s

EXAMPLE

A square-wave inverter has a dc source of 125V, an output frequency of 60 Hz, and R-L series load with R = 20 Ohm and L = 20 mH. Determine

  • a) An expression for load current

  • b) Rms load current and

  • c) Average source current

FOURIER SERIES ANALYSIS FOR SQUARE WAVE INVERTER

Fourier series method is often the most practical way to analyze load current and to compute power absorbed by load.

V

o

4 V

dc

 
 

I

n odd

,

  • V n

 

n

4 V

n

dc

 

n

Z

n

2 2 R   n  L  o
2
2
R
n
L
o
 

P

I

  • 2 R

 

n

I

rms

n rms

,

 2  I n rms , n  1
2
I
n rms
,
n
1

2   I   n   2   n  1
2
I
n
2 
n
1

FOURIER SERIES ANALYSIS FOR SQUARE WAVE INVERTER

The quality of ac output voltage or current can be expressed by total Harmonic Distortion (THD)

THD

v

 2  V n rms , n  2
2
V
n rms
,
n  2
V 1, rms 2 2 V  V rms 1, rms
V
1, rms
2
2
V
 V
rms
1,
rms

THD

I

 2  I n rms , n  2 I 1, rms
2
I
n rms
,
n  2
I
1, rms
  • V 1, rms

 4 V  2 dc V dc    n    
4 V
2
dc
V
dc
  
n
 
4 V
dc
 
n
 
FOURIER SERIES ANALYSIS FOR SQUARE WAVE INVERTER • The quality of ac output voltage or current

EXAMPLE 1

Consider a square wave inverter with V dc =100V, R=10, L=25mH, and f=60Hz. Determine

  • i. Fundamental output voltage

ii. THD for output voltage and current and power absorbed by load

EXAMPLE 2

i. Fundamental output voltage

4 V

dc

n

4

(1)

100

127.3

V

i

V

1

ii.THD v and THD I

V n
V
n

4 V

dc

n

4 100

n

127.3

n

....

Z

n

2 2 R   2  fnL  2 2  10   2
2
2
R
2
fnL
2
2
10
2
n
60

 3
25
10
 
 
2
100
9.43
n
....
ii
V 127.3 n I   ....... ( iii ) n Z 2 n n 100
V
127.3
n
I
.......
(
iii
)
n
Z
2
n
n
100
9.43
n

EXAMPLE 2

n f n (Hz) V n (V) Z n () I n (A) P n (W)
n
f n (Hz)
V n (V)
Z n ()
I n (A)
P n (W)
1
60
127.3
13.7
9.27
429.3
3
180
42.3
30
1.42
10
5
300
25.5
48.2
0.53
1.4
7
420
18.2
66.7
0.27
0.37
9
540
14.1
85.4
0.17
0.14

EXAMPLE 1 (CONT)

THD

v

2  4 100    2  100  2  1  
2
4 100
2
100
2
1
   
  
4 100
2
1
  
  
10000
8106

90.03

0.484

48.4%

EXAMPLE 1 (CONT) THD  v  2  4 100    2 
 2  I n rms , n  2 THD  I I 1, rms
2
I
n rms
,
n  2
THD 
I
I
1, rms
2
2
2
2
1.42
0.53
0.27
0.17
2
2
2
2
9.27
2
 0.167
 16.7%
2
I 
2
n
P
I
R
R
n
n rms
,
 
2
P
P
n
429.3
10
1.40
0.37
0.14
 441 W

AMPLITUDE & HARMONIC CONTROL

The amplitude of the fundamental frequency for a square-wave output from the full- bridge inverter is determined by the dc input voltage.

A controlled output can be produced by modifying the switching scheme.

This output voltage can be controlled by

  • 90 o

n

AMPLITUDE & HARMONIC CONTROL • The amplitude of the fundamental frequency for a square-wave output from

V

1

  • I n

I Z

1

1

  • V n

Z

n

   
  

4 V

 

 

cos

2

4 V

1

n

n

o

dc

2 R L 
2
R
L

EXAMPLE 2

Design an inverter that will supply the series R-L load of R=10, L=25mH with a fundamental frequency of 60Hz and current amplitude of 9.27A and THD less than 10%. A variable source is available.

EXAMPLE 2 (CONT)

The dominant harmonic

V

1

current is for n = 3 (third harmonic), so the switching scheme must eliminate the third

I Z

1

1

harmonic.

2 2   L 
2
2
L

I R

1

n

o

2     1  2   60  0.025   
2
  
1

2

60

0.025
 

2

(9.27) 10

127 V

EXAMPLE 2 (CONT) • The dominant harmonic V 1 current is for n = 3 (third

eliminate the 3

rd

harmonic,

  • 90 o

3

30

o

EXAMPLE 2 (CONT) • The dominant harmonic V 1 current is for n = 3 (third

V

dc

 

V

1

4cos

 

 

127

4cos30

o

116 V

EXAMPLE 2 (CONT) • The dominant harmonic V 1 current is for n = 3 (third

EXAMPLE 1 (CONT)

Z

n

 

I

n

2 2 R   2  fnL  2 2  10   2
2
2
R
2
fnL
2
2
10
2
n
60

 3
25
10
 
 
2
100
9.43
n
....
ii

V

n

Z

n

127 2 n 100   9.43 n 
127
2
n
100
9.43
n

.......

( iii

)

EXAMPLE 1 (CONT)

n f n (Hz) V n (V) Z n () I n (A) 1 60 127.3
n
f n (Hz)
V n (V)
Z n ()
I n (A)
1
60
127.3
13.7
9.27
3
180
0
30
0
5
300
25.5
48.2
0.53
7
420
18.2
66.7
0.27
9
540
0
85.4
0
2
2
0.53
0.27
2
2
THD 
I
9.27
2
 0.067
6.7%
 than
10%

TRY THIS………

For the full-bridge inverter:

Given :

– Dc source = 125 V;

- Load (R-L in series) R = 10 Ω and L = 20 mH

- - switching frequency = 60 Hz.

(a)Determine α to produce output with an

amplitude 100V at fundamental frequency.

(b)Determine the THD of the load current.

PULSE-WIDTH MODULATED OUTPUT

In square wave inverters, maximum output voltage is achievable.

However there in NO control in harmonics and output voltage magnitude.

i.e the harmonics are always at three, five, seven etc times the fundamental frequency.

Hence the cut-off frequency of the low pass filter is somewhat fixed. The filter size is dictated by the VA ratings of the inverter.

To

reduce filter size, the PWM switching scheme

can be utilized.

In this technique, the harmonics are “pushed” to higher frequencies. Thus the cut-off frequency of the filter is increased. Hence the filter components (i.e. L and C) sizes are reduced.

The trade off for this flexibility is complexity in the switching waveforms.

PULSE WIDTH MODULATION (PWM)

PULSE WIDTH MODULATION (PWM)
PULSE WIDTH MODULATION (PWM)

PULSE WIDTH MODULATION (PWM)

Triangulation method (Natural sampling)

Amplitudes of the triangular wave (carrier)

and sine wave (modulating) are compared to

obtain PWM waveform. Simple analogue

comparator can be used.

Basically an analogue method. Its digital

version, known as REGULAR sampling is

widely used in industry.

PULSE WIDTH MODULATION (PWM)

• Production of PWM waveform using reference sinewave: • Comparator determines instants at which waveforms cross
• Production of PWM waveform using
reference sinewave:
• Comparator determines instants at which
waveforms cross in order to produce
switching waveform
• PWM output waveform tracks amplitude

and fre uenc

of reference sinewave

PULSE WIDTH MODULATION (PWM)

As switching frequency is increased, switching loss becomes issue

Implementation by ICs which essentially contain tables of pre-calculated values of switching angles covering range of output frequencies

As computational speeds of ICs increase, it is now possible to calculate required firing angles in real time in order to optimise strategy for harmonic elimination, and control, further improving inverter performance

PULSE WIDTH MODULATION (PWM) TYPES

Natural (sinusoidal) sampling (as shown on previous slide)

Problems with analogue circuitry, e.g. Drift, sensitivity etc. Regular sampling - simplified version of natural

sampling that results in simple digital implementation Optimised PWM - PWM waveform are constructed based on certain performance criteria, e.g. THD.

Harmonic elimination/minimisation PWM

PWM waveforms are constructed to eliminate some undesirable harmonics from the output waveform spectra.

Highly mathematical in nature

Space-vector modulation (SVM)

A simple technique based on volt-second that is normally used with three-phase inverter motordrive

BIPOLAR SWITCHING

BIPOLAR SWITCHING
BIPOLAR SWITCHING

UNIPOLAR SWITCHING

UNIPOLAR SWITCHING
UNIPOLAR SWITCHING

PULSE WIDTH MODULATION IN UNIPOLAR INVERTERS

The square

wave output

can be

produced using

a comparator

to compare the

triangle wave

with the sine

wave.

PULSE WIDTH MODULATION IN UNIPOLAR INVERTERS The square wave output can be produced using a comparator

HALF-BRIDGE INVERTER

HALF-BRIDGE INVERTER • Also known as the “inverter leg”. • Basic building block for full bridge,

Also known as the “inverter leg”.

Basic building block for full bridge, three phase and

higher order inverters.

G is the “centre point”.

Both capacitors have the same value. Thus the DC

link is equally “spilt” into two.

The top and bottom switch has to be

SHOOT THROUGH FAULT AND“DEAD-TIME”

• In practical, a dead time as shown below is required to avoid “shoot-through” faults, i.e.
• In practical, a dead time as shown below is required
to avoid “shoot-through” faults, i.e. short circuit
across the DC rail.
• Dead time creates “low frequency envelope”. Low
frequency harmonics emerged.
• This is the main source of distortion for high-quality
sine wave inverter.

INTRODUCTION TO THREE- PHASE INVERTER

• Each leg (Red, Yellow, Blue) is delayed by 120 degrees. • A three-phase inverter with
• Each leg (Red, Yellow, Blue) is delayed by 120
degrees.
• A three-phase inverter with star connected load is
shown below

THREE PHASE INVERTER WAVEFORMS

SUMMARY

Have examined operation of inverters as means of producing variable-frequency, variable voltage AC source from DC supply

PWM provides amplitude control of the fundamental output frequency although the harmonics have large amplitudes, they occur at high frequency and are filtered easily.

Considered voltage-sourced and current- sourced inverters which operate from DC supplies which approximate constant lt