BEE4223
Power Electronics &
DC TO AC
Drives Systems
CONVERTER
Mohd Shawal Bin Jadin Faculty of Electrical & Electronic Engineering shawal@ump.edu.my
LEARNING OUTCOMES
At the end of the lecture, student should be able to:
1. State the operation and characteristics of Inverter.
2. Discuss the performance parameters and use different technique for analyzing and designing of DC to AC Converter.
INTRODUCTION
• Inverters are circuits that converts dc input voltage to a symmetric ac output voltage by which both magnitude and frequency can be controlled.
• Applications :
– adjustable speed ac motor drives, uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), and ac appliances run from an automobile battery.
TYPES OF INVERTER
• Voltage Source Inverter (VSI):
• Current Source Inverter (CSI)
VOLTAGE SOURCE INVERTER (VSI) WITH VARIABLE DC LINK
•
DC link voltage is varied by a DCto DC converter or controlled rectifier.
• Generate “square wave” output voltage.
• Output voltage amplitude is varied as DC link is varied.
• Frequency of output voltage is varied by changing the frequency of the square wave pulses.
VOLTAGE SOURCE INVERTER (VSI) WITH VARIABLE DC LINK
• Advantages:
– simple waveform generation – Reliable
• Disadvantages:
– Extra conversion stage – Poor harmonics
VSI WITH FIXED DC LINK
• DC voltage is held constant.
• Output voltage amplitude and frequency are varied
simultaneously using PWM technique.
• Good harmonic control, but at the
SQUARE WAVE INVERTER
• Square wave inverter can be simplifying justified with a switching scheme of full bridge converter.
• An square wave ac output voltage is synthesized from a dc input by closing and opening the switches in an appropriate sequence.
•
The output voltage can be
OPERATION OF SIMPLE SQUAREWAVE INVERTER
SQUAREWAVE
INVERTERS
EQUIVALENT
CIRCUIT
• Parallel diode is used when the current in the switch is negative
• Diode will reversebiased when current is ositive in the switch
WHEN S1S2 TURN ON & S3 S4 OFF FOR T _{1} < T < T _{2}
WHEN S1S2 TURN OFF& S3 S4 ON FOR T _{2} < T < T _{3}
EXAMPLE
• A squarewave inverter has a dc source of 125V, an output frequency of 60 Hz, and RL series load with R = 20 Ohm and L = 20 mH. Determine
FOURIER SERIES ANALYSIS FOR SQUARE WAVE INVERTER
• Fourier series method is often the most practical way to analyze load current and to compute power absorbed by load.
V
o



4 V
dc



I

n odd
,


n


4 V
n
dc




n

Z

n



P


I


n
I
rms

n rms
,

2
I
n
2
n
1

FOURIER SERIES ANALYSIS FOR SQUARE WAVE INVERTER
• The quality of ac output voltage or current can be expressed by total Harmonic Distortion (THD)
THD
V
1, rms
2
2
V
V
rms
1,
rms
THD
I
2
I
n rms
,
n 2
I
1, rms
4 V
2
dc
V
dc
n
4 V
dc
n
EXAMPLE 1
• Consider a square wave inverter with V _{d}_{c} =100V, R=10, L=25mH, and f=60Hz. Determine
ii. THD for output voltage and current and power absorbed by load
i. Fundamental output voltage
4 V
n
4
(1)
100
127.3
V
i
V
ii.THD _{v} and THD _{I}
4 V
dc
n
4 100
n
127.3
n
....
Z
n
2
2
R
2
fnL
2
2
10
2
n
60
3
25
10
2
100
9.43
n
....
ii
V
127.3
n
I
.......
(
iii
)
n
Z
2
n
n
100
9.43
n
AMPLITUDE & HARMONIC CONTROL
• The amplitude of the fundamental frequency for a squarewave output from the full bridge inverter is determined by the dc input voltage.
•A controlled output can be produced by modifying the switching scheme.
• This output voltage can be controlled by
n
V
I Z
Z
4 V



cos


4 V
n
n

EXAMPLE 2
• Design an inverter that will supply the series RL load of R=10, L=25mH with a fundamental frequency of 60Hz and current amplitude of 9.27A and THD less than 10%. A variable source is available.
EXAMPLE 2 (CONT)
• The dominant harmonic
V
current is for n = 3 (third harmonic), so the switching scheme must eliminate the third
I Z
harmonic.
I R
n
2
1
2
60
0.025
(9.27) 10
127 V
eliminate the 3
rd
harmonic,
3
30
o
V
^{}
V
4cos
127
4cos30
116 V
PULSEWIDTH MODULATED OUTPUT
•In square wave inverters, maximum output voltage is achievable.
•However there in NO control in harmonics and output voltage magnitude.
i.e the harmonics are always at three, five, seven etc times the fundamental frequency.
•Hence the cutoff frequency of the low pass filter is somewhat fixed. The filter size is dictated by the VA ratings of the inverter.
•To
reduce filter size, the PWM switching scheme
can be utilized.
•In this technique, the harmonics are “pushed” to higher frequencies. Thus the cutoff frequency of the filter is increased. Hence the filter components (i.e. L and C) sizes are reduced.
•The trade off for this flexibility is complexity in the switching waveforms.
PULSE WIDTH MODULATION (PWM)
PULSE WIDTH MODULATION (PWM)
• Triangulation method (Natural sampling)
– Amplitudes of the triangular wave (carrier)
and sine wave (modulating) are compared to
obtain PWM waveform. Simple analogue
comparator can be used.
– Basically an analogue method. Its digital
version, known as REGULAR sampling is
widely used in industry.
PULSE WIDTH MODULATION (PWM)
• Production of PWM waveform using
reference sinewave:
• Comparator determines instants at which
waveforms cross in order to produce
switching waveform
• PWM output waveform tracks amplitude
and fre uenc
of reference sinewave
PULSE WIDTH MODULATION (PWM)
• As switching frequency is increased, switching loss becomes issue
•

Implementation by ICs which essentially contain tables of precalculated values of switching angles covering range of output frequencies

•

As computational speeds of ICs increase, it is now possible to calculate required firing angles in real time in order to optimise strategy for harmonic elimination, and control, further improving inverter performance

PULSE WIDTH MODULATION (PWM) TYPES
• Natural (sinusoidal) sampling (as shown on previous slide)
•

– Problems with analogue circuitry, e.g. Drift, sensitivity etc. Regular sampling  simplified version of natural

•

sampling that results in simple digital implementation Optimised PWM  PWM waveform are constructed based on certain performance criteria, e.g. THD.

• Harmonic elimination/minimisation PWM
– PWM waveforms are constructed to eliminate some undesirable harmonics from the output waveform spectra.
– Highly mathematical in nature
• Spacevector modulation (SVM)
– A simple technique based on voltsecond that is normally used with threephase inverter motordrive
PULSE WIDTH MODULATION IN UNIPOLAR INVERTERS
The square
wave output
can be
produced using
a comparator
to compare the
triangle wave
with the sine
wave.
HALFBRIDGE INVERTER
• Also known as the “inverter leg”.
• Basic building block for full bridge, three phase and
higher order inverters.
• G is the “centre point”.
• Both capacitors have the same value. Thus the DC
link is equally “spilt” into two.
• The top and bottom switch has to be
SHOOT THROUGH FAULT AND“DEADTIME”
• In practical, a dead time as shown below is required
to avoid “shootthrough” faults, i.e. short circuit
across the DC rail.
• Dead time creates “low frequency envelope”. Low
frequency harmonics emerged.
• This is the main source of distortion for highquality
sine wave inverter.
INTRODUCTION TO THREE PHASE INVERTER
• Each leg (Red, Yellow, Blue) is delayed by 120
degrees.
• A threephase inverter with star connected load is
shown below
THREE PHASE INVERTER WAVEFORMS
SUMMARY
• Have examined operation of inverters as means of producing variablefrequency, variable voltage AC source from DC supply
•

PWM provides amplitude control of the fundamental output frequency although the harmonics have large amplitudes, they occur at high frequency and are filtered easily.

•

Considered voltagesourced and current sourced inverters which operate from DC supplies which approximate constant lt
