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Fourth Generation Cellular Systems:

Spectrum Requirements
Joseph M. Nowack
Member of the Technical Staff
Communication Systems and Technologies Labs
December 6, 2000

What is 4G?

The simple answer: 4G is the next major generation of mobile cellular


systems, to be deployed around the year 2010
The multiple choice answer: The twelve views of 4G*
Higher
Higher
bit
bitrates
rates

Wireles
s
Internet

Cost
Cost
reductio
reduction
n

User
User
service
services
s

White
space
Strict
generatio
n

Is that your final


answer?
Service
provider
s
Technolog
y trends

New
network
*

New air
interfac
e

source: CSTL 4G white paper

4G will
not
exist

Wireles
s
wireline

A View of 4G
Domain of 4G extends beyond 1G, 2G, and 3G
> 2 Mbps in a wide-area mobile system (> 20 Mbps peak)

Could coexist with 2G and 3G


4G is not necessarily defined by the bit rate, but by a significant
advance in system capability beyond what can be achieved with 3G
Coverage
Area,
Mobility
Macrocell,
High Mobility
Microcell,
Limited Mobility

2G

3G

4G
WLAN

Fixed Access

64kbps

2Mbps

P-MP (LMDS)
Milli-wave LAN

200Mbps

Data Rate
3

Some Key Challenges


Coverage
Transmit power limitations and higher frequencies limit the
achievable cell size

Capacity
Current air interfaces have limited peak data rate, capacity,
and packet data capability

Spectrum
Location and availability are key issues
Lower carrier frequencies (< 5 GHz) are best for wide-area
coverage and mobility

The Coverage Problem - Carrier Frequency and Data Rate

Increase in the number of cells needed to cover a fixed


geographic area due to an increase in either the system
data rate or carrier frequency.

1000

Carrier Frequency
100
Assumptions: Constant EIRP, constant Rx
antenna gain, no change in diffraction,
absorption or other propagation
characteristics. Path loss exponent = 4

Data Rate
10

10

100

1000

Data Rate or Carrier Frequency Increase Factor

Spectrum

Carrier frequency has a larger impact on cell size than data rate
In order to enable wide-area coverage, 4G needs mobile
friendly spectrum (ideally less than 5 GHz)
Mobile devices have low transmit power, limited antenna gain, and
predominately non-line-of-sight propagation

Fixed wireless systems are more easily able to take advantage


of higher carrier frequencies

No movement -> low Doppler


Higher transmit power
Power consumption/heat dissipation less critical
Line-of-sight more likely
High-gain, high-elevation antenna

Broadband Wireless Content

Successful wireless services are preceded by growth of wired demand


POTS
Dial-up Internet

Mobile Telephony
WAP, Cellular Data

DSL, Cable Data

4G Broadband Wireless

Content is rapidly expanding to serve the Cable/DSL connected


consumer
Many sites focused on video delivery of Broadband video (typically 300
kbps and faster)
MovieFlix, VideoSeeker, QTV, Quokka Sports

Combinations of existing content may be valuable to mobile


information consumers
Expressway Travel Information real time web cameras, traffic status and
advisories
Entertainment Selections movie trailers, ticket reservation, TV guide,
video-on-demand
Business Guide Stock market information, real-time video briefings,
breaking news

18000

Web browsing session (TCP)

16000
14000
12000
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0
2800 2820 2840 2860 2880 2900 2920 2940 2960 2980 3000
Time during Session (seconds)

Packet Data Rate (bytes per second)

Packet Data Rate (bytes per second)

User Session Traffic Characterization

2250
2000
1750
1500
1250
1000
750
500
250
0
500 520 540 560 580 600 620 640 660 680 700
Time during Session (seconds)

Video Download (UDP)

7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
500 520 540 560 580 600 620 640 660 680 700
Time during Session (seconds)

Internet Telephony Audio to Client

Packet Data Rate (bytes per second)

Packet Data Rate (bytes per second)

Internet Telephony Audio from Client

2500

8000

2500
2250
2000
1750
1500
1250
1000
750
500
250

0
500 520 540 560 580 600 620 640 660 680 700
Time during Session (seconds)

Typical Observations

200-second sections of sessions using three applications


Packet data traffic rates are provided in bytes per second

Browsing the World Wide Web 0


average = 2059
( TCP & HTTP )
Bursty data traffic

16472

Peak-to-Average Bit Rate Ratio 8.0


Acquisition of various sources for a single site
Ratio of Download Byte Volume
Long pauses by user
To Upstream 8.8
TCP upstream packet traffic volume moderate

Video + Audio Download


( UDP & VXtreme )

2853

average = 5232

7166

UDP data uses fewer upstream packets than TCP


Peak-to-Average data rate ratio low in this trace
Peak-to-Average Bit Rate Ratio 1.37 Mainly due to embedded constant bit rate
(CBR) audio stream of the downloaded sample
Ratio of Download Byte Volume
Variable bit rates (VBR) are more common
To Upstream 394.8
for most video applications

Interactive Internet Telephony 0


average = 1362
2474
( UDP & Internet Phone ) Packet data rates reflect telephone speech patterns

Peak-to-Average Bit Rate Ratio 1.85


Ratio of Download Byte Volume
To Upstream 1.27

Remote participant responsible for more speech


and packet traffic than client in this trace
Byte volumes generally comparable
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4G Concept System

A demonstration of broadband mobile systems in Schaumburg, Illinois

A one-directional broadband downlink carrier on DVB-T (WA9XHI)


A narrowband uplink via a cellular data connection (Sprint CDMA data)

Proving ground for asymmetric mobile broadband


Develop application understanding to apply to broadband air interface designs
Platform to demonstrate custom applications
Increasing levels of integration

Intranet/
Internet
Server

Phase 1 Vehicular mobility with a larger off-the-air receiver May 2000


Phase 2 Personal mobility with an integrated laptop receiver Progressing
Proxy &
Router

Sprint PCS

10

4G System Research Areas

Adaptive
Antennas for
Broadband

Broadband
Air Interface
Research

Broadband
Implementations

4G System Design

11

Potential Coverage and Capacity Solutions


Primary Benefit
Improved Coverage

Higher Capacity

Asymmetric Data
Rate
High Power BTS

Lower Frequency

Small Cells

Adaptive Antennas

Advanced Air
Interface and Link
Adaptation

12

4G Air Interface Characteristics

Higher bit rates than 3G (20 Mbps < peak < 200 Mbps)
Higher spectral efficiency and lower cost per bit than 3G
Air interface and MAC optimized for IP traffic (IPv6, QoS)
Adaptive modulation/coding with power control, hybrid ARQ

Smaller cells, on average, than 3G


However, cell size will be made as large as possible via:
Asymmetry - used to boost uplink range when necessary
Adaptive antennas (4 to 8 elements at base station, 2 elements at
terminal)

Higher frequency band than 3G (below 5 GHz preferred)

RF channel bandwidths of 20-100 MHz


OFDM is promising (especially for downlink), but also
investigating other methods

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Closing

4G still in a formative stage (commercial 2010)


Frequency bands less than 5 GHz preferred for wide-area,
mobile services
4G system bandwidth between 20 and 100 MHz (paired or
unpaired)
ITU Working Group 8F beginning to consider the requirements
and spectrum needs
International 4G spectrum harmonization

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