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# Power Dividers and

Directional Couplers
Divider or
coupler

Divider or
coupler

 0
 S    S12
 S13
2

Power combining

Power division

S12
0
S 23

2

S13 
S 23 

0 

,
2

S S  *T

 Identity matrix 

2

2

2

S12  S13  1 , S12  S 23  1 , S13  S 23  1
S13* S 23  0

*
, S 23
S12  0 , S12* S13  0

 At least two of the three parameters(S12 , S13 , S 23 ) must be zero.
A three port cannot be lossless, reciprocal, and matched at all ports.
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Four-Port Network (Directional Couplers)
Assume all ports are matched
 0 S12 S13 S14 
 S

0
S
S
23
24 
 S    12
 S13 S 23 0 S 34 

S
S
S
0
24
34
 14

*
*
*
Lossless  S13
S 23  S14* S 24  0 , S14
S13  S 24
S 23  0
*
14

S

S

2

13

 S 24

2

0

*
*
*
S12
S 23  S14* S 34  0 , S14
S12  S 34
S 23  0 

2

S 23 S12  S 34

2

0

S14  S 23 which results in a directional coupler

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

S12  S13  1 , S12  S24  1
2

2

S13  S34  1 , S24  S34  1
S13  S24   , S12  S34  
S12  S34   , S13  e j , S24  e j
*
*
S12
S13  S24
S34  0        2n

2   2 1
 0
 
S  
 j

 0
 0

S  
 

 0

0
0
j

j
0
0

  0
0 0 

0 0 

  0

0
j 



0

(The symmetrical Coupler)

(The Antisymmetrical Coupler
3

Input
Isolated

1

4

2

3

Through or
direct
Coupled

Directional Coupler

P1
Coupling  C  10log  20 log  dB
P3
Directivity  D  10log

P3

 20 log
dB
P4
S14

P1
Isolation  I  10log  20 log S14 dB
P4
I  D  C dB

4

1   . where the coupling factor is 3 dB.race has a 180o phase differnce between ports 2 and 3 when fed at port 4. 0 1  1 1 0 S  21 0   0 1 1 0 0  1  0 1  1 0 5 .  0 1 j 0   1  1 0 0 j S  2  j 0 0 1   0 j 1 0   The magic T hybrid or rat . The quadrature hybrid has a 900 phase shift between 2 ports 2 and 3 when fed at port 1.Hybrid couplers are special cases of Directional coupler.

Directional Couplers 4 3 Pf Pb Pi Pt 1 2 The coupling C is : Pi C  10 log Pf The directivity D is : Pf D  10 log Pb 6 .

For ideal coupler S14  S 23  0 S11  S 22  0  0  S  S    12  S13   0 S12 0 0 S 24 S13 0 S33 S34  S   S *t  U * S13 S33 0 . 0  S 24  S34   S 44  * S 24 S 44 0 S33  0  S 44  0  S  S    12  S13   0 S12 0 0 S 24 S13 0 0 S34 0  S 24  S34   0  7 .

* * S12 S 24  S13 S34 0 . * S12 S13*  S 24 S34 0 S12 S 24  S13 S34 S12 S13  S 24 S34 S13  S 24 S12  S34 2 2 2 2 S12  S13  1 S12  S 24  1 S12  C1 S   0  C  1  jC2   0 . S13  jC2 C1 jC2 0 0 0 jC2 0 C1 0  jC2  C1   0  8 .

Directional Couplers Two-hole Waveguide Couplers Port 4 P b b4 Kf a1 Kb a1 Port 3 0 -2L L Port 1 a1 0 Pf Kf a1 -L Kf a1 -L b3 b2 a1 -L Pi Port 2 Pt Kf and Kr are the forward and reverse aperture coupling coeffiecients 9 .

10 .The coupling C is : C  -20 log 2 K f The directivity D is : D  20 log  20 log 2Kf Kr 1 e Kf Kr  2 jL  20 log Kf K r cos L  20 log sec L The directivity is the sum of the directivity of the single aperture plus a directivity associated with the array.

couplers With many apertures may be used. Isolated Bb A Input Coupled B0 A F0 A B1 A F1 A n=1 n=0 d Bf Through Let the aperture coupling in the forward direction be Cn And the reverse coupling in the reverse direction be Dn At the position of the Nth aperture the total forward wave in the upper waveguide is : F  Ae  jNd N F n 0 n 11 .Multi-element Couplers To achieve good directivity over a band of frequencies.

At the plane of the first aperture the total backward wave in the upper waveguide is : N B  A Bn e  j 2 nd n 0 The coupling and directivity are : F C  2  log  -20log A N F n 0 N B D  20 log  20 log F  j 2 nd B e  n n 0 N  Fn N  C  20 log  Bn e  j 2 nd n 0 n 0 12 n .

Assume that the apertures are round holes with identical position relative to the edge of the guide. CnN is binomial coefficien ts. K f . A maximally flat passband characteri stic can be achieved by choosing rn3  KCnN . K is constant. K b are constant for the forward and backward coupling coefficien ts that are the same for all aperture. Fn  K f rn3 . Bn  K b rn3 . N D  C  20 log K b  20 log  rn3e  j 2 nd  C  20 log K b  20 log S dB n 0 N C  20 log K f  20 log  rn3 n 0 S N 3  j 2 nd r : Array factor ( same as the expression for the  ne n 0 reflection coefficien t from N . with rn being the radius of the nth aperture. 13 .section quarter wave transformer.

Choose r0  rN .Chebyshev Response In order to obtain an equal-ripple characteristics in the pass band The array factor F is made proportional to Chebyshev polynomial.. then 3  2 jn n S r e M   2rn cos( N  2n ) d n 0 M  ( N  1) / 2 for N odd M  ( N ) / 2 for N even Choose S  M  2r n 0 n cos( N  2n )  K TN (sec mcos  )   d and sec  m is the value at the upper and lower edges of the passband. r1  rN 1 .. 14 . Choose K such that it gives the desired coupling C in the center of the band where   /2..

then  m can be determined (bandwidth) 15 . Dmin  20 log TN (sec  m ) dB Given D min . the minimum value of D min in the passband .D  C .20log K b  20 log S  0 TN (sec m) Kf  -20log  20 log dB Kb TN (sec mcos  ) The smallest value of D will occur when TN (sec mcos  )  1. since TN (sec m)  TN (sec mcos  . Kf Kb is very small . contributed by the array factor occurs when TN (sec  m cos  )  1.

A  B C  D Z02 Z0 b2 Port 2 l Z01 l Port 3 Z02 Z0 b3 a1 b2  (Te  To ) 2 a1 b4  (e  o ) 2 2 T A  B C  D 16 .Branch-Line Coupler Even-mode Odd-mode pair pair a1/2 a1/2 Port 1 b1 a1/2 -a1/2 Z0 Port 4 Z01 Z0 b4 a1 b1  (e  o ) . 2 a1 b3  (Te  To ) . 2 A  B C  D  .

  /4 17 .Short circuits Open circuits Even-mode excitation  A  C B  1 j    D  Z 02   0  0  j  1    Z 01      Odd-mode excitation Z 01 Z 02 jZ 01   1   j  0     Z 02 0 1  is for even mode   jZ 01  1  1   jZ 01  Z 2  Z 2  02   01  Z 01   Z 02   .

Te  (1  j ) for even mode 2 1 o  0 .90o phase shift from port 1 to 2) 2 1 b3   (half power.If we choose the Impedance Z02  Z 01 / 2 1 Then e  0 . . .180 o phase shift from port 1 to 3) 2 b 4  0 (no power to port 4) 18 . To  (1  j ) for odd mode 2 b1  0 port 1 is matched j b2   (half power.

Parallel-Coupled Lines Directional Coupler Input Port 1 L Isolated Port 4 Coupled Port 3 a1/2 Input Port 1 Direct Port 2 L Direct Port 2 H wall a1/2 Coupled Port 3 Isolated Port 4 Even Mode excitation 19 .

V1e  V e in Z in  Z o Z in  Z o V I  o Z in  Z o o 1 V .Z0 I3 3 Z0e I1 Z0o I2 4 2 1 Z0 Z0 I4 Z0 V V1 V1e  V1o Z in   e I1 I 1  I 1o Z 0  jZ 0 e tan  Z Z Z 0 e  jZ 0 tan  e in e 0 . Z 0  jZ 0o tan  Z Z Z 0o  jZ 0 tan  o in o 0 o e Z Z V1o  V o in . I  e Z in  Z o e 1 20 .

Z ino ( Z ine  Z o )  Z ine ( Z ino  Z o ) Z in  Z ine  Z ino  2 Z o Let Z ein Z ino  Z oe Z 0o  Z o2 . Z 0o  Z o 1 C 1 C 21 . Z 0 e  Z 0o Define C  Z 0 e  Z 0o V4  V4e  V4o  V2e  V2o  0 . 1 C2 1  C 2 cos   j sin  V3 V2 For    2 Then C . then Z in  Z o j ( Z 0 e  Z 0o ) tan  V3  V 2 Z 0  j ( Z 0 e  Z 0o ) tan  jC tan  V3  V 1  C 2  j tan  V2  V  V  V e 2 o 2 .   j 1 C2 V V 1 C 1 C Z 0e  Z o .

Hybrid Junctions Magic T  0  S  S    12  S12   0 S12 0 0 S 24 0 1 1 0 S   1 0   0 1 S12 0 0  S 24 0  S 24    S 24   0  1 0 0  1  0 1  1 0 22 .

ports 2 and 4 are uncoupled 23 .Microstrip Hybrid Ring Even 1/2 Odd 1/2 Vb+ 2 Even a 3 Odd + Vb1/2  -1/2 or -Vb+   Va+ 1 Zc 4V+ a or -Va+ Z1  a The hybrid ring (rat-race) Ports 1 and 3 are uncoupled.

1 Va+ Yc jB1 Y1 jB2 Yc Vb+ Equivalent circuit for one half of Hybrid ring For even excitation :  V1   S11oc S12oc   Va       oc   oc   V2   S 21 S 22   Vb  For odd excitation :  V1   S11sc      sc  V2   S 21 S12sc   Va    sc  S 22   Vb  .  V4   S11oc      0c  V3   S 21  V4   S11sc      sc  V3   S 21 S12oc   Va    oc  S 22   Vb  S12sc    Va    sc  S 22    Vb  24 . .

V2  2Vb V3  V4  0 oc sc  V1  1  S11  S11      oc sc 2 V S  S 21  2  21 S12oc  S12sc   V1  oc sc    S 22  S 22   V2  oc sc oc sc   V4  1  S11  S11 S12  S12   V1       oc sc oc sc    2  V3   S 21  S 21 S 22  S 22   V2  1 oc 1 1 oc 1 sc sc S11  ( S11  S11 )  ( e  o ) . S12  ( S12  S12 )  (Te  To ) 2 2 2 2 1 oc 1 oc sc S 21  ( S12  S12 ) .Use superposition V1  2Va . S34  S 21 . S33  S 22 . S 22  ( S 22  S 22sc ) 2 2 1 oc 1 1 oc 1 sc sc S 31  ( S12  S12 )  ( e  o ) . S 42  ( S12  S12sc ) 2 2 25 S 44  S11 . S32  ( S 22  S 22 )  (Te  To ) 2 2 2 2 1 oc 1 oc sc S 41  ( S11  S11 ) .

S31  0 26 .C  1 j 2  1  A B  A B .C Even Mode  2 j 2  1  .C Odd Mode O.e. o  . port 1 is matched. To  2 2 2 2 S11  o i.     C D    1    e  j 2  C D o  j 2 j j j j e  . Te  .C 2  3 S. S31  j 2 Port 1 2 2 3 O. S 21  j 2 .Port 2 1/2 2 Te   1 2 2 2  Port 2 1/2 Port 1 To  1 S.

 0  1 j S  2 0   1 1 0  1 0 1 0  1 0 1  0 1 0 27 .

Power Dividers P2 Z2 P1 Z1 Z3 P3 A lossless three port juntion 1 1  2  2 P1  Y2 V1  Y3 V1 2 2 P2  P1 . 28 . P3  (1   ) P1 Y1  Y2  Y3 for impedance matching Y2   Y3 1   .

there is no current in the resistor. Z  Zc 2 R Z3 ZL2 ZL3 29 . the reflected power at port 2 does not couple into port 3. When the output ports are terminated in correct load impedance. the reflected power from the output port is absorbed by by the resistor. If we connect resistor between port 2 and port 3. It is desired to have S 23  0 . S 23  0. no islolation between the output ports.This type of losselss power divider will not have matched outputs ports .

Z2 Yin.P3  K 2 P2 and maintain zero current in R when port 2 and 3 are terminated in the matched load Z L2 and Z L 3 Then V2  V3 .3 Z L3  2 .2 Z L2  2 . Z3 30 . In order to obtain the power ratio we require : 2 K V  2 2 Z L2   2 3 V Z L3  K 2 Z L3  Z L 2 For matched load at port 1 Yin  Yc Z L 2 Z L3 Yin  2  2  Yc Z2 Z3 ( K 2 Z 32  Z 22 ) Z L 3 Z 22 Z 32  Zc At port 1: Yin.

1 2 2 1  2 V1 Yin . 2  2 2 Z2  K 2Z3 At any frequency Yin.3  K V1 Yin . 31 . 2 Y3  jYL 3 tan  VL 2 I L 2 Z L 2 I L2 Z L2   2 1 VL3 I L3 Z L3 K I L 2 Z L3 There is no current in R at any frequency as long as port 2 and 3 are teminated in their matched load impedances.3 YL 2  jY2 tan  Y2  jYL 2 tan  YL 3  jY3 tan   Y3  K 2Yin .2  Y2 Yin.

2  Yin. 2 Yc  Yin Yc2  (1  K 2 ) 2 Y22 in   2 Yc  Yin Y c (1  K 2 ) 2 Y22  2 j (1  K 2 )Yc Y2 tan  Choose Yc2  (1  K 2 ) 2 Y22  in  0 In order to analyze the coupling between 2 and 3. terminate 1 in a load impedance Yc Port 2 and 3 are uncoupled if G  Y23 32 .Yin.3  (1  K 2 )Yin .

 I 2   Y22 Y23   V2   I   Y  V Y  3   23 33   3  I3 Y23  V2 V3  0 G I3 V3 -Y23 -Y33+Y23 -Y22+Y23 z3 I2 V2 I3 Yc sc Y3  Equivalent circuit with port 2 and 3 excited z2 V2 Y2  Equivalent circuit between Port 2&3 with port 3 sc and R removed 33 .

2Y2Y3 Y23  Yc (1  cos 2 )  j (Y2  Y3 ) sin 2 Y2Y3 When   /2 Y23  Yc Z2Z3 R . Z3  K RZ c R  2 K 1 34 . Z L3 1 . Zc Z L2 K 2R  2 K 1 Z 2  K RZ c .

Passive Microwave Devices Attenuators R1 Zc Vg R1 R2 Zc R2 T section R2 ( R1  Z c ) Rin  R1  R1  R2  Z c R1 R1 section For Rin  Z c  R1 ( R1  2 R2 )  Z c2 VTH  R2    R1  R2  Z c    V g 35 .

R2  Zc 2 1 K 1 K For 3 .The power delivered to the load is : 2  R2 1 VTH PL  Z c   2 2Z c  R1  R2  Z c   2   Vg 2 8Z c K 2 Vg 2 8Z c 2  R2  Power attenuation. and R 2  141.dB attenuator R 1  8.58. R in  Z c   R1  R2  Z c  1 K 2K R1  Zc . K   2 PIN diode can be used in parallel with R 2 in the  .section configuration to switch it in and out of the circuit 36 .4.

OC Phase shifters   ( 2  1 ) / v p  ( 2  1 )  /   Bias Current Input  input output l1  Bias Circuit Ground  Length l2 Bias Circuit Ground  Bias Current Input  oc Incremental-line-type phase shifter 37 .

l= V+1 V+2 V+3 V+4 V-1 V-2 V-3 V-4  Bias Current Input jB jB  OC A phase shifter using switched reactive elements 38 .

Transmission matrix of a normalized shunt suceptance jB:  _ _  B   1 j B j 2 2   A1    _ _    j B 1 j B  2 2  Transmission matrix of a section of transmission line of Electrical length :  e j  A2     0 0  e  j   39 .

14 0 40 .   /2 For B  1  1. T14  1   (   )      2 For B  2.107.Relationship among wave amplitudes:  V3   V1   V2   V4       A1       A1  A2       A1  A2  A3      V1   V2   V4   V3   A11 A12   V4      A A 22   V4   21 Choose V-4 = 0.   /4 .   53. then V+4 = V+1 /A11 Thus T14 = 1/ A11 1 2 _ _    2 B  j B  j   T14    1  j  e  e  2 4     If tanthen : T14  e j  e  j (  ) .

92 0  large mismatch.4  22.2    . This phase shifter is limited o small phase shifts between states in order to keep the input VSWR small 41 . T14 2  B    j  1  jB   2   2 1  (1  B 2 ) 1  1 Phase of T14   / 2  tan 1 B   / 2  B The change in phase when B  B1 and B  -B1is 2B1 A value of B1 as large as 0.Choose the two stubs such that jB2   jB1   _  2 _ 2  1 B B  j / 2  j / 2 1 j  e  e  2 4   T14         j (1  jB ) 1 When B  1.

42 . P d1 P’ d A phase shifter using open circuited stubs spaced  Apart. P and P’ are switched into the circuit when the Diodes are off and on. respectively.

since P3  b32 and P1  a12 43 . then B  C or : Z 02  1 T AB b4   jZ 01a1 Z 01 1  Z 01 2 2 2 . b2  0 port 2 is decoupled e  o  0  A  B  C  D .b1  0 port 1 is matched . Te   1  Z 01  jZ 01 and T0  1  Z 01  jZ 01 and  1   Coupling  10 log 2   1  Z 01  2 b3   1  Z 01 a1 . A  D for both even and odd modes.