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Timeline of Major 17thCentury Historical

Events
1603 Elizabeth I dies. James VI of Scotland, now James I of England, accedes.
1620 First emigration of the Pilgrims to the New World
1625 James I dies. His son Charles I accedes
1641 The English Revolution and Civil War. Oliver Cromwell - Chief Protector
1645 the Royal Society
1649 Charles I is executed. The Interregnum
1651 Thomas Hobbes’ Leviathan
1660 Charles II - the Restoration
1664–1666 The Great Plague and Fire of London
1685 Charles II dies. James II accedes
1687 Newton’s Principia, John Locke’s An Essay Concerning Human
Understanding
1688–1689 James II abdicates. The Glorious Revolution
1690 John Locke’ Two Treatises of Government

James I of England
Anne of Denmark

Anthony van Dyck.
Equestrian Portrait of
Charles I, King of
England with
Seignior de St.
Antoine. 1633

Charles I

Jacobean & Caroline Drama
1601 TO THE CLOSURE OF THE THEATRES, 1642
Jacobean: (1603-25) < Latin Jacobus
Caroline: (1625-1642)
the King James Bible (1611)
first FOLIO edition of Shakespeare's plays (1623)



MASQUES
COMEDIES OF HUMOURS
REVENGE TRAGEDIES

Ben Jonson as writer & Inigo Jones as stage designer (1605 – 1631) George Chapman. Thomas Middleton Composers  Thomas Campion.height of popularity quarrelsome collaboration .short masque scene in The Tempest (1611) at the courts of James I and Charles I . Henry Lawes. & Henry Purcell . William Byrd.Court Masques theatrical form .reigns of the Tudor & Stuart monarchs almost immediately obsolete during the British Civil War Shakespeare .

The Fairy Prince Love Freed from Ignorance & Folly Love Restored Mercury Vindicated from the Alchemists at Court The Golden Age Restored Christmas His Masque The Vision of Delight Lovers Made Men Pleasure Reconciled to Virtue The News from the New World Discovered in the Moon Pan's Anniversary The Gypsies Metamorphosed The Masque of Augurs Time Vindicated to Himself & to his Honours Neptune's Triumph for the Return of Albion The Masque of Owls The Fortunate Isles & Their Union Love's Triumph through Callipolis Chloridia .SELECT CHRONOLOGY OF STUART MASQUES Ben Jonson 1605 1608 1609 1610 1611 1611 1612 1615 1616 1616 1617 1617 1618 1620 1620 1621 1622 1623 1624 1624 1625 1631 1631 The Masque of Blackness The Masque of Beauty The Masque of Queens Prince Henry's Barriers Oberon.

Thomas Campion 1607 1613 1613 1613 The Lord Hay's Masque The Lords' Masque The Caversham Entertainment The Somerset Masque .

Thomas Middleton 1619 The Masque of Heroes John Marston 1607 The Entertainment at Ashby George Chapman 1613 The Memorable Masque Thomas Carew 1634 Coelum Britannicum .

William Davenant 1635 The Temple of Love 1638 Britannia Triumphans 1638 Luminalia 1640 Salmacida Spolia Aurelian Townshend 1632 Albion's Triumph 1632 Tempe Restored .

ORIGINS forms of court entertainment ▪ court pageants ▪ mimed tournaments ▪ allegorical dialogues 2. popular form of entertainment  morris dance  popular pageants  tableaux .

Morris dance .

royal birthdays.OCCASIONAL Court art-form religious festivals. Chapman’s Memorable Masque political purposes.g. "diplomatic occasions" e. weddings e. inaugurations.g. Milton's A Maske .

elaborately.acted indoors PERFORMERS: amateurs – aristocratic masquers.PRIVATE aristocratic elite ≠ public theatres held in private royal halls (Banqueting Hall in Whitehall) performed at court / manor of a member of the nobility -. extravagantly costumed .

disguise. intensely – to defeat time . masquerade. heavily ornate or bombastic Counterreformation (age of the Baroque .masque. 'rough or imperfectly shaped pearl' >> art -extravagant. carpe diem paradox: experience the moment to its fullest. time’s swift flight – tempus irreparabile fugit.Baroque illusionism < Portuguese barroco. momentary. dissimulation Life = dream appearances = illusion irreconcilable conflict • flesh & spirit • worldly & celestial • transitory & eternal time: fleeting.synonymous with the Catholic abhorrence of Protestantism) 17th century . vanitas vanitatum.

Mask thin & fragile screen : ignorant illusion & revelation of the truth baroque mentality .infatuation with concealment & disguise metaphor of the stage life is precarious .certainty of death carefree masquerade of a privileged society .

coextensive space – trompe l’oeil – dissolves the barrier between: • real space of the observer • perspective space of the painting. theatre stage infinite prolongation of space (micro & macrocosmos) illusionistic ceiling paintings psychological effect integration of real & fictive space transferring the mind of the viewer from material to eternal things . sculpture.Spatial illusionism (consciousness of infinity) .

Rubens’s ceiling panels to Jones’s Whitehall Banqueting House .

Rubens’s ceiling panels to Jones’s Whitehall Banqueting House .

more opulent & splendid than the ordinary world could offer .Light complex solar symbolism: glorifies royalty. serves autocratic regimes sun as the source of universal light (the Roi Soleil) doctrine of divine right unlimited magnificence and splendour baroque imagination delighted above all -creation of an illusory reality -.

lavish costumes.Baroque performance synchretic indoor performance combining • poetic drama. dance. song. music. elaborate stage designs & machinery transitory and ephemeral art spectacular & musical elements predominated over plot & character . spectacular stage effects.

epilogue dance .STRUCTURE poetic induction / prologue antimasque(s) main masque revels .

performance & reality heighten allegory & symbolism removal of masks .world of the masque .Revels complex choreographed dances by masqued performers "taking out" audience members – form geometrical shapes & intricate patterns [late Tudor & early Stuart period -.dissolved .barrier .line .root in Italian balletto] breakdown .stage & spectator blurs .end of the dramatic entertainment -.

Inigo Jones (1573-1652) .

illusionist setting to the English theatre cancel the separation of stage & audience – brings them together – participate in the glorification of the monarch .Inigo Jones principal British exponent of an essentially baroque phenomenon illusionistic stage settings animated by spectacular machinery – stage architect elaborate set designs. scenery & costumes for plays & masques machina versatilis or 'turning machine' proscenium arch introduces perspective.

Haven with a Citadel .

Stage machinery .

Proscenium .

.

Courtly dancers .

Sketch by Inigo Jones for first scene of Britannia Triumphans .

Sketch by Inigo Jones for final scene of Britannia Triumphans .

Ben Jonson the masque as a literary form unify the various elements of the masque (literary/dramatic & spectacular/theatrical) into a cohesive whole • 17th c critics -. occasional. and wasteful spectacles -unrealistic and shameful flattery of the monarch • Jonson considered them important enough to publish his texts poet's vision = soul of the masque sought to counter the ephemerality of performance. to "borrow a life of posteritie" for them .dismissed masques -.ephemeral and expensive entertainments. extravagant.

a BURLESQUE of the main action.Anti-masque comic or grotesque characters & plot material -. grotesque monsters – world of darkness & evil temporary submergence into chaos ..as foils to the main masque • • • • • preceded the performance of a MASQUE (antemasque) Jonson -.central theme .masque . satyrs. highlight by contrast .political & social harmony witches.antimasque noble ladies & gentlemen .a "foyle. or false-Masque" antic masque farcical prelude .disfigurement of the underlying order of nature professional actors & singers .

A Turkey .

Stage fury Giant .

design for Henrietta Maria as ‘Divine Beauty’ in Tempe Restored (1632) .Inigo Jones.

design for Henrietta Maria.Inigo Jones. Luminalia 1638 .

Inigo Jones – Lady masquer in Amazonian dress – Salmacida Spolia 1640 .

A Knight of Apollo .

who wished the masquers to be disguised as Africans Anne was one of the performers in the masque along with her court ladies.Inigo Jones. design for Masque of Blackness 1605 first performed at the Stuart Court in the Banqueting Hall of Whitehall Palace written by Ben Jonson at the request of Anne of Denmark. and appeared in blackface makeup .

design for Neptune’s Triumph for the Return of Albion masque intended as the major entertainment of the 1623–24 Christmas holiday season .Inigo Jones.

design for Oberon the Fairy King 1608 .Inigo Jones.

Torch-bearer: An Indian .

.

.

Headdress of Queen Saba .

masque gigantic allegory celebrating the triumph of Peace. Concord. Wisdom. no room for tension or conflict characters are symbolic rather than realistic antimasque drama is possible only here grotesque world of vice or comic disorder which is subdued or displaced by the courtly masque . Virtue. Eternity (symbolised by the Royal Presence at whose feet the masquers ended their dance & ritual) essentially nondramatic.

praise was obligatory Masque: mouthpiece of absolutist ideology • tributes to James's pacific wisdom • mutual love of Charles & Henrietta Maria Antimasque : covert criticism of royal policy  dramatize abuses .masques were major political events. glorifying the court or a particular aristocrat • exalted conception of the divine right of kings .monarch encouraged to correct  complex negotiation between court & sovereign /different political factions within the court .Political significance vehicle for celebrating the monarch.Stuart monarchs -17 th century court hierarchy • political overtones . displays of liberality and magnanimity sycophantic panegyric rules of flattery'--.

Mary. & masque designs Elizabeth I .prophetic themes drawn in particular from Golden Age mythology • Elizabeth .cast as Astraea • Virgin Queen .Tudor monarchs Henry VIII often took part in the revels.gold .symbol . the queen of heaven alchemical emblematics .

king figure . & Christian prince .Stuart period alchemical or Platonic Golden Age was to be realised through the enactment of masques e. Court artists laboured to legitimate the new ruler & the union of Scotland with England & Wales cultivated .threefold roles British Solomon Augustus Constantine • imperial archetypes of Jewish king. pagan emperor.g. Jonson’s The Golden Age Restor’d (1615) After the succession of James I in 1603.

Stuart monarchs .establishment of an empire separate from. & to the tale of an Albion of magical virtue which would one day be restored . that of Rome imperial mission served to emphasise their established Protestant role as the ‘Defenders of the Faith’ Stuart expectations of a Golden Age claims to Protestant imperial destiny reference to British legend. but equal to.

Historia Regum Britanniae .masque .1130 • The British . .described as the heirs to a lost antiquity comprising the Trojan & later Arthurian land of Albion • ancient British kings . Brute had conquered the island of Albion & founded London as the New Troy articulation of this mythology . the grandson of Aeneas of Troy • fulfilling Diana’s prophecy.descended from Brute.Stuart aspiration to restore Albion both physically & spiritually Geoffrey of Monmouth.

the Fairy Prince (1611) Neptune’s Triumph for the Return of Albion (1624) Albion’s Triumph (1632) Coelum Britannicum (1634) Britannia Triumphans (1638) .Oberon.

& changeable perspective scenery belief that complex occult correspondences controlled the cosmos Stuart Court as a model of Platonic harmony revelation of the divine Ideas— justice.animated by Neoplatonic philosophy allegories which harmonised music. religion. virtue. emblematic costume.the Stuart masque . peace . dance.

the masque celebrated the monarch’s supposed magical powers over nature herself . hell as a disharmonious collection of supernatural forces.the Court as a paradigm of order contrasted & emphasised by its opposite. witches & popular magicians—all ultimately banished by the king turning winter into spring & drawing down favourable spirits.

Charles I & Henrietta-Maria .

a Neoplatonic cult of love centred on the royal pair ‘Carlo-Maria’ union . male & female Caroline Court -.Hermaphrodite Jonson’s Love’s Welcome at Bolsover (1634) Jonson’s Love’s Triumph through Callipolis (1631) -.king was cast emblematically as Heroic Love & the queen as Beauty .Celebrations of royal marriages Platonic theme of harmony alchemical pairing of opposites.

Vaughan (1994) Art & Magic in the Court of the Stuarts London & New York: Routledge Donaldson.Bibliographical Sources Lindley. Ian Grant (1997) Jonson's Magic Houses: Essays in Interpretation Oxford: Clarendon Press . Jacobean & Caroline Entertainments 1605-1640 Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press Hart. David (ed) (1995) Court Masques.