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Turboprop Engines

Propulsion Devices (Engines)
Use atmospheric air
(+ some fuel) as
main propellant

Carry entire propellant
(liquid/solid fuel + oxygen)

Piston, Gas Turbine and Ramjet

Gas Turbine Engines (most aircraft jet engines):
• Use high-temperature gases to power a propeller or produce
direct thrust by expanding and accelerating the exhaust gases
through a nozzle.
• Three main types: Turboprop , Turbofan and Turbojet

Jet-engine.ppt, 10-7-01

Jet Engines – Basic Operation
• Air enters the trough the intake duct (cowl).
• Air compressed by passage through the compressor.
• Mixed with fuel in the combustion chamber.
• Fuel is ignited, Pressure and Temperature raised
• Some of the pressure used to turn a turbine;
• Turbine shaft drives the compressor.
• Hot, high pressure air forced through a nozzle.
• The reaction force is the engine thrust.

Schematic of a Turboprop engine


20 to 25% of Thrust produced by Nozzle
75 to 80% of Thrust produced by Propeller
Operating Mach No: 0.4 to 0.65
Subsonic Aircraft (0.1 to 0.8)

Super Hercules C-130J
• Engine: 4 × Rolls-Royce AE 2100D3

turboprop, 3,458 kW each
Propellers: Dowty R391 6-blade composite
propeller, 1 per engine
Maximum speed: 362 knots (417 mph, 671
Service ceiling: 28,000 ft (8,615 m) with
19,090 kilograms payload


20 to 40% of Thrust produced by Nozzle
60 to 80% of Thrust produced by Fan
Operating Mach No: 0.4 to 0.8
High Subsonic Aircraft (0.3 to 0.8)

Airbus A380

Boeing 777


Chemical energy is converted into mechanical energy
100% Thrust produced by Nozzle
Operating Mach No: 1 to 2
Supersonic Aircraft (1 to 5)


• Engine: 2 × Lyulka AL-31FP turbofans with
thrust vectoring, 123 kN
• Maximum speed : Mach 1.9 (2,100 km/h or
1,300 mph)
• Service ceiling: 17,300 m (56,800 ft)
• Max. takeoff weight: 38,800 kg

LCA Tejas Mark-II
• Engine :1 × F404-GE-IN20 turbofan thrust
89.8 kN
• Maximum speed : Mach 1.6 (1,350 km/h)
• Service ceiling: 15,240m or (50,000 ft)
• Max. takeoff weight: 13,200 kg

• A Turboprop engine differs from a turbofan and turbojet
as it produces the thrust required for the aircraft by
using a propeller rather than the exhaust gases of the
turbine itself.
• The exhaust gases itself cannot provide enough thrust
for the aircraft as most of the power is directed towards
the propeller.
• The propeller is coupled to the turbine through
a reduction gear that converts the high RPM,
low torque output to low RPM, high torque.
• Turboprop engines are mostly used in subsonic aircrafts
and work most efficiently at speeds under 450 mph
(390 knots)
• They are mostly used when there is a requirement of a

Turboprop engines usually contain at least one stage of centrifugal
compression. Centrifugal compressors have the advantage of being
simple and lightweight, at the expense of a streamlined shape.

Advantages of Turboprop

Greater power and reliability compared to reciprocating engines.

Turboprop airliners operate at near the same speed as small turbofan-powered aircraft but burn two-thirds of the fuel per

 It can use shorter runways for take off and landing

Disadvantages of Turboprop engines

Compared to a turbojet(which can fly at high altitude for enhanced speed and fuel efficiency) a propeller aircraft has a
much lower ceiling. 

Lower thrust-to-weight ratio when compared to a Turbojet engine.