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TOPIC 1

INTRODUCTION TO
CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT

Introduction

Topic 1 focuses on the concept of Classroom


Management and the role of teachers and pupils in
effective classroom management. These include:

brief description of classroom management


the function and nature of classrooms

the role of instruction as a central classroom activity


classroom instructions and management practices.
It also looks at teacher and pupil:
responsibility
accountability
expectation
consistency and objectivity in effective classroom
management

The Concept of Classroom


Management
The following are research findings on classroom management
and instruction:

poor classroom management skills and disruptive pupils were


major reasons for teachers to perform badly.

a safe and orderly classroom is essential for academic success.


classroom management is the most important variable for pupil
achievement.
planning instructional strategies to facilitate learning and using
classroom management techniques effectively is vital for
effective instruction.
(Marzano and Marzano, 2003)

In

their definition of classroom management Manning &


Bucher (2013) included

strategies to provide physical and psychological


safety in the classroom;

techniques for changing pupil misbehaviours and


instruction self-discipline;

methods of assuring an orderly progression of


events during the school day; and

instructional techniques that contribute to pupils


positive behaviours.

The Function and Nature of Classrooms

According to Steele (cited in Ellen, 2002), to


be an ideal place for maximizing instruction
and learning, the classroom has to provide:

security and shelter

opportunities for social contact

symbolic
task

identification

instrumentality

pleasure

The Role of Instruction as a Central


Classroom Activity
The fundamental purpose of classrooms is to
provide an environment for the process of
instruction and learning. Instruction is the
academic process of carrying out activities
that induce learning among pupils. Effective
instruction activities can motivate pupils to
learn in ways that make a sustained,
substantial, and positive influence on how
they think, act, and feel.

Classroom Instruction and Management Practices

Instruction and classroom management are not two


separate entities (Manning & Bucher, 2013). A
classroom that is well managed can act as a suitable
setting for effective instruction and a well planned
lesson which engages pupils in purposeful and
meaningful tasks will support good behaviours in
the classroom. Conversely, poor classroom
management will not be supportive toward
instruction even though a wide range of effective
instruction strategies are used. Similarly, instruction
with weak strategies may not work as expected
even if the classroom is effectively managed.

Effective Classroom Instructions


The primary role of teachers is to plan and deliver instructions
effectively and efficiently. To be able to do so teachers need to
make wise choices about the most effective instruction
strategies to employ, which are:

selecting appropriate teaching materials and devise suitable


activities to facilitate pupil learning; and

making effective use of classroom management techniques


to ensure a conducive environment for learning with minimal
disruptive behaviours.
(Marzano,

Pickering, & Pollock, 2001)

Thus effective classroom instructions thus


constitute having:

a wide array of instructional strategies at your


disposal;

being skillful at identifying and articulating the


proper sequence and pacing of your content; and

being highly skilled in classroom management


techniques.

Instructional Strategies
considering pupils attention span when planning
instructional activities;
alternating teacher-centered activities such as
presentation and teacher modeling, and pupilcentered activities like practice sheets and
independent reading; and

familiarising pupils with transition times and


procedures between activities like from small
group activities to whole group instruction.

Effective Classroom Management Practices

According to Brophy, (1983 in Regina & Daniel 2007)


a good classroom manager adheres to three
principles:
be

willing to accept responsibility for classroom


control;
advocate to long-term, solution-oriented approaches
to problems and abstain from short-term, control
responses; and

endeavour to discover underlying personal problems


(impulsivity, lack of awareness, home problems, etc.)

Brophy also cited the following theoretical teacher


orientations:
the

self-concept/personal adjustment orientated teacher


encourages discouraged pupils, builds self-esteem by
arranging for and calling attention to success and improving
peer relationships;
the insight (cognitive) orientated teacher spends time with
problem pupils individually, getting to know them personally,
attempting to instruct and inform them; and

the

behaviouristic teacher offers incentives, negotiates


contracts, calls attention to and reinforces desirable
behaviour.

Teachers and Pupil Roles in Effective Classroom


Management

Teachers and pupils have specific roles in effective


classroom management. This topic will discuss the
roles of teachers and pupils in terms of:
responsibility
accountability
expectations
consistency
objectivity

Responsibility
It

is the teachers responsibility to:


formulate a classroom management plan to
facilitate the development of an effective learning
environment.
Teachers need to provide quality instruction which
is an engaging and interactive learning experience
for pupils;
organise classroom activities to meet pupils need
for survival, belonging, power, fun and freedom.
This can be done by involving pupils in class
matters like:

deciding
taking

charge of classroom duties and responsibilities;

making

classroom rules and procedures;

responsible choices regarding the lesson content; and

demonstrating their accomplishments.

It

is also the teachers responsibility to

manage and control pupil behaviours;

develop positive relationships with pupils; and

conduct

activities that foster friendship and cooperation among

pupils
(Glasser & Dotson, 1989 in Charles, 2002).

Another

vital duty is to communicate with parents and


administrators of ongoing problems within the classroom
before a situation gets out of control. This builds an
atmosphere of trust and respect that motivates all parties to
work together for the benefit of the pupils.
Pupils

too have an obligation in the development of a quality


learning environment. A quality educational environment will
exist only if all pupils:

obey disciplinary guidelines,

be fully engaged in classroom activities; and

meet

all behavioural and academic expectations.

Accountability

Accountability is a crucial element for the


effectiveness of classroom management. To
maintain a positive environment in the classroom at
all times, teachers and pupils have to be
accountable for every action or behaviour that does
not contribute to that environment

Teachers

are accountable if teachers hold pupils


responsible for their work. If teachers give pupils work
and do not check their work it demonstrates a lack of
accountability. Checking pupils progress and providing
pupils with timely feedback is the key to teacher
accountability. Frequent feedback encourages pupils to
persevere, whereas absence of feedback causes pupils
to surmise that their work is not valued (Henley, 2006).

Pupils are accountable for:


communicating

appropriately with peers and teachers, be it verbal or non-

verbal
paying

attention in class and on task

preparing

materials they would need for classroom participation

asking

permission and procedures for various activities, including leaving


the room when necessary
behaving
keeping
being
not

appropriately toward teacher requests and directions

the classroom clean and orderly

respectful at all times, and

being tardy

(Seganti, 2008 in Charles et al, 2011)

Expectation
Research

shows that teacher expectancies on


pupils behaviour and academic performance can
strongly affect the academic achievement of the
pupils. Teachers can form inaccurate expectations
of their pupils and behave differently to various
pupils. This may lead to them behaving just as the
teachers have expected. In other words, pupils
tend to conform to teacher erroneous expectations
of their behaviour and academic performance.
(Tsiplakides & Keramida, 2010).

Some factors and sources that affect the formation of


teachers expectations:

Teachers

beliefs about pupils ability and intelligence based on


their performance
Pupils

socioeconomic background, gender, ethnicity and social

class

Pupils conduct in the school and classroom conduct

Pupils test scores, and/or previous academic achievement

An older sibling's performance on a younger sibling's performance

(Carolyn and Weinstein, 2006)

Consistency
One

of the most important traits that teachers need


to have to be effective is consistency. Teachers
have to make the policy and then be consistent
about applying it throughout the entire duration of
the semester or year. Pupils will perform at their
best if the rules, procedures and routines are kept
consistent as they will become familiar to them.
Lack of consistency on the teachers part will
promote a sense of uncertainty among pupils and
this often leads to a higher incidence of disruptive
behaviour.

Objectivity
Teachers have the professional responsibility to practice effective classroom
management and instruction which includes:
managing

pupil behaviour;

establishing

safe classrooms; and

providing

learning experiences for a diverse pupil population in an orderly and


pupil-friendly manner.
In

doing all these teachers need to have specific goals so that teachers do not
falter or change policy as situation gets difficult for them to control or make
decisions. It is vital that in implementing the policy there should be
neutrality,
fairness
no

at all times, and

prejudice whatsoever.

THE END