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OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH & SAFETY

MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
AUDITOR TRAINING COURSE
IRCA REG. NO. A16834

1:

Introduction

1.1 Background Development

During the Industrial Revolution, technological advances


introduced and increased the use of machinery and toxic
materials in the workplace. As a result, workers in factories
faced health and safety risks that were previously unheard
of.
Health and safety problems and hazards that workers face
include the following:

Poor working conditions

Exposure to toxic materials or chemicals

Long working hours

Work-induced stress

Excessive noise levels

Risks to life, eyes, and limb while working with machinery

In 1970, (OSHA) was established as a comprehensive


occupational safety and health law to assure so far as
possible for every working man and woman in the nation
safe and healthful working conditions and to preserve
human resources [1].
In addition, OHSAS 18001 specification and the
accompanying OHSAS 18002 guidelines have been
developed
OH&S management system to enable organization to
control its OH&S risks and improve its performance.

1.2 Concepts of Occupational Health


Defined as
"that science and art devoted to the anticipation,
recognition, evaluation, and control of those
environmental factors or stresses arising in or from the
workplace, which may cause sickness, impaired health
and well-being, or significant discomfort among workers
or among the citizens of the community."[i]

1.3

Concepts of Safety Engineering

Interdisciplinary in nature & ought to be applied early in


system development.
Control monetary and physical loses
Safety costs should be justified like other forces
competing for limited organizational resources.
Safety should be considered a long-term investment.
Figure 1.1 shows that its application requires integration
with many other functions

Operations

Engineering

Environmental
Security

Medical
Training

SAFETY
Industrial Hygiene
Legal

Test & Evaluation

Transportation

Information Systems

Facilities

Figure 1.1: Safety Interactions

1.4 Philosophy Supporting OH&S


Management System Standards
safety denotes concern for physical injuries that might be
experienced by the worker

Health denotes concern for physiological injuries

welfare refers to concern for a range of psychological


conditions.
this type of approach promotes a holistic appreciation of a
workers well being as well as a comprehensive
understanding of the contribution of workplace conditions to it.

The basic principles of a holistic approach to


workplace health and safety are thus:
The health and safety of a worker is influenced by
conditions of the workplace and by non- work related
factors that can be potentiated by the workplace.
Workplace effects on human health and safety are not
restricted to only the on- site workplace or the worker

Environment
Products & Processes
Attributes

Environmental Quality
Workplace
Raw Materials & Energy
Labor
Processing

Environmental Health & Safety

Community
Occupational Health & Safety
Groups

Persons
Institutions

Product

Worker
Waste

Occupational Health & Safety

Occupational Health & Safety

Figure 1.2: Holistic Overview of the Workplace, Environmental Quality & Human Community
[i]

1.5 Modern OH&S Legislation


At both national and international levels, the modern
corporation is perceived as having both a moral and a legal
responsibility to protect its employees from:
Workplace sources of injury and;
Workplace insults to a workers pre- existing debilitation[i].

By ensuring proper responsibilities, common problems


such as those stated below can be avoided.
Lack of sufficient authority to implement safety Isolation from higher decision makers who must bear the potential
liability associated with workplace injury
Isolation from production- level personnel have primary
responsibility for production but they play a crucial role in the
implementation of an effective safety program.

1.6 Scope of OH&S Management


Systems
The scope of an OH&S management system, applicable to
any organization, includes:
Establishing an OH&S management system to eliminate
or minimize risk to employees and other interested
parties who may be exposed to OH&S risks associated
with its activities;
Implementing, maintaining and continually improving an
OH&S management system;
Assuring itself of its conformance with its stated OH&S
policy;
Demonstrating such conformance to others;

1.7 Definitions & Terminology


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

The terms and definitions used in the OHSAS


18001 specifications are:
Accident
Audit
Continual Improvement
Hazard
Hazard identification
Incident

NOTE: An accident where no ill heath, injury, damage, or other loss is also
referred to as a near miss. The term Incident includes near-misses.

7.
8.

Interested parties
Non-conformance

9.
10.
11.
12.

Objectives
Occupational health and safety
OH&S management system
Organization

NOTE: For organizations with more than one operating unit, a single operation
unit may be defined as an organization.

13. Performance
NOTE: Performance measurement includes of OH&S management activities
and results.

14.
15.
16.
17.

Risk
Risk assessment
Safety
Tolerable risk

Chapter 2
Introduction to OH&S
Standards
&
Applications
2.1
Influence of the Working Environment
There are various kinds of positive and negative factors in the
working environments
Physical demands may refer to manual lifting loads and
extended working hours.
For mental demand, it appears to be dependent on the level of
mental work pressure and the experience of the worker
involved.
Use of ear protection will be in order as excessive noise levels
(>85 to 90 dB) can cause hearing loss.
Proper illumination is necessary to avoid having workers
headaches and fatigue as a result of eyestrain.
Working temperature can cause great discomfort if it is too high
or too low.

mental and emotional factors to consider:

Lifting the morale of workers can do wonders to


improve productivity.

A pleasant working place with convenient facilities will


increase the workers morale, resulting in worker
efficiency.

2.2

OH&S Management System Model

The first three clauses of the OHSAS 18001: 1999


specifications follow the ISO 14001 approach closely. The
three common clauses are:
Scope
Informative references
Definitions

Organizations using the ISO 14001 approach should use the


OHSAS 18002 guidelines in carrying out the respective
approach for clause 4.
Figure 2.1 illustrate the order of flow of OHSAS elements.

Continual Improvement

OH&S
OH&SPolicy
Policy

ManagementReview
Review
Management

Checking&&Corrective
CorrectiveAction
Action
Checking
PerformanceMeasurement
Measurement&&Monitoring
Monitoring
Performance
Accidents, Incidents, NCs & Corrective &
Accidents, Incidents, NCs & Corrective &
PreventiveAction
Action
Preventive
Records&&Records
RecordsManagement
Management
Records
Audit
Audit

Planning
Planning
Hazard Identification, Risk
Hazard Identification, Risk
Assessment
Assessment&&Risk
RiskControl
Control
Legal
Legal&&other
otherRequirements
Requirements
Objectives
Objectives
OH&S
OH&SManagement
Management
programme(s)
programme(s)

Implementation
Implementation&&Operation
Operation
Structure
&
Responsibility
Structure & Responsibility
Training, Awareness & Competence
Training, Awareness & Competence
Consultation
Consultation&&Communication
Communication
Documentation
Documentation
Document
Control
Document&&Data
Data Control
Operational
OperationalControl
Control
Emergency
Preparedness
and
Emergency
Preparedness
and
Response
Response

Figure 2.1: OH&S Management System Model for OHSAS 18001 System Elements

2.3 OH&S Management System Elements


The six elements for occupational health & safety
management system are based on:

Initial Status Review


OH&S Policy
Planning
Implementation and Operation
Checking and Corrective Action
Management Review

2.3.1 Initial Status Review


An initial review of a companys existing arrangements
for managing OH&S should be carried out prior to
implementation.
Performing an initial status review also provides
information on the scope, adequacy and current status of
the OH&S management system.

2.3.2 OH&S Policy


The OH&S policy should be defined and authorized by the
organizations top management.

Such a policy establishes an overall sense of direction and


sets up the principles of action for an organization.[i]

It demonstrates formal commitment of an organization


towards good OH&S management, particularly that of the
organizations top management.[ii]

2.3.3 Planning
Plans must be formulated to fulfill the OH&S policy.
Hazard identification should be performed with risk
assessment.
Control measures should be implemented if necessary.
The legal requirements that are applicable to OH&S
should be identified
The goals and objectives of the OH&S system
established.
After identifying problematic areas, appropriate
corrective actions should be implemented.

2.3.4 Implementation and Operation


responsibility of a person at the most senior management
level.
Necessary training should be carried out, to ensure
workers understand their safety and health
responsibilities
Updates should be spread throughout the organization
effectively through an efficient communication system.
In addition, a system of documentation should be
established.
OH&S should be fully integrated where each employee
appreciates the implications of OH&S.
In the case of foreseeable emergencies, contingency
plans should be prepared in advance.

2.3.5 Checking and Corrective Action


Monitoring and measurement of performance ought to
be performed on a regular basis.
The measurement of performance of the OH&S
management system will give an indication of its
effectiveness.
Areas that need improvement can be identified and
followed up by taking necessary actions.
Corrective actions should be taken as soon as any
deficiencies are found.
Relevant records of OH&S actions taken should be
made to meet legal requirements.
Periodically, audits conducted by independent personnel
will give a more in-depth look at the system.

2.3.6 Management Review


Involve the making of several decisions, based on the
organizations structure and size.
Matters such as frequency of audits and the
effectiveness of the OH&S system as a whole and in its
individual elements are considered frequently.
Following an audit, a management review decides on
what should be done about identified problems.
In any management programs, the system has to be
reviewed constantly to ensure its continuing suitability,
adequacy and effectiveness.

CHAPTER 3 INTERPRETATION OF THE


OHSAS 18001: 1999 SPECIFICATIONS
3.1

Overview of the OHSAS 18001: 1999

OHSAS 18001: 1999 is developed together with the


OHSAS 18002, Guidelines for the implementation of
OHSAS 18001
OHSAS 18001 is developed such that it is compatible
with the ISO 9001: 1994 (Quality) and ISO 14001: 1996
(Environmental) management systems standards.
to facilitate the easy integration of quality, environmental and
occupational health and safety management systems
Nevertheless, it is not a pre- requisite that an organization has to
comply to ISO 9000 or ISO 14000 requirements for the operation
of OHSAS 18001.

An OH&S management system must meets both the


OHSAS 18001 specification and all local legal
requirements as well.
Relevant procedures and documentation, which relates
to records and periodic reviews, should be added
where necessary
The elements of an effective OH&S approach are
presented in Figure 3.1.

Continual
Improvement
Management
Management
Review
Review

OH&S
OH&SPolicy
Policy
Planning
Planning

Checking
Checkingand
and
Corrective
CorrectiveAction
Action

Implementation
Implementation&
&
Operation
Operation

Figure 3.1: Elements of an OH&S management system[i]

3.2 Clauses in OHSAS 18001


clauses and requirements in the OHSAS 18001: 1999
Clause 4.1 General Requirements
states that the organization shall establish and maintain an OH&S
management system,
Depending on the size of the organization and the nature of its
activities, the extent of documentation and the resources devoted to it
have to be developed and adapted to fit into the organization under
review.

Clause 4.2 OH&S Policy


states overall health and safety objectives and a commitment to
improving health and safety performance.
an indication of the organizations overall sense of direction and
principles of action.

Management Review

Audit

Policy
Policy

Planning

Figure 3.2: OH&S Policy[i]

Feedback from Measuring


Performance

In planning the policy, the management


shall ensure that:
It is appropriate to the nature and scale of the organizations
OH&S risks.
There is a commitment to continual improvement
There is a commitment to at least comply with current
applicable OH&S legislation and other requirements
It is documented, implemented and maintained as called for
by the OHSAS Standards.
All employees are educated on their individual OH&S
obligations.
It can be made available to interested parties.
Itis reviewed periodically to ensure its relevance and
suitability to the organization.

Clause 4.3 Planning


Policy

Audit

Planning
Planning

Implementation and
Operation
Figure 3.3: Planning[i]

Feedback from
Measuring Performance

OHSAS 18001 specifies planning requirements based on four categories


before any implementation is to be carried out. They are addressed as follows:

Clause 4.3.1
Planning for Hazard Identification, Risk
Assessment & Risk Control
control measures to include routine and non-routine activities, activities of
all personnel (including subcontractors and visitors) having access to the
workplace, and facilities at the workplace.
defined with respect to the scope, nature and timing to ensure that it is
proactive rather than reactive
Is consistent with operating experience and the capabilities of risk control
measures used
Provide ways to classify and identify risks to be eliminated, or controlled by
measures defined in clauses 4.3.3 and 4.3.4.
Provide input to determine the facility requirements, training needs and
operational controls,
Monitoring mechanisms to ensure the effectiveness and timeliness of their
implementation.

The purpose of this requirement is to provide for total


appreciation of all significant OH&S hazards in the
organizations domain using the process of risk
assessment.
The following elements of decision-making shall be
reflected in the risk assessment.
Identification of risks.
Evaluation of risks within the existing control measures in
place.
Decision on the tolerability of this residual risk.
Identification of any additional control measures
considered necessary.
Evaluation of whether these are sufficient to reduce the
risks to tolerable levels.

Clause 4.3.2 Legal and other requirements


organization aware of all applicable OH&S regulations and how they
can affect its activities.
legal and other OH&S requirements applicable to the organization
identified and up to date.
organization able to access these legal documents conveniently, and
communicate the information to other parties who have an interest in it.
Clause 4.3.3 Objectives
take into account legal and other requirements
reasonable, achievable and communicated to the employees
efficiently.
Suitable indicators shall be established so that objectives can be
reviewed and monitored regularly.

Clause 4.3.4 OH&S Management Programs


has to be established so as to achieve the OH&S objectives
important to include the documentation of the responsibility
and authority for achievement of the objectives at relevant
functions and levels of the organization, and the means and
time scale by which the objectives are to be obtained.
individuals and tasks responsible for the deliverance of the
objectives at relevant levels can be identified.
It aids the organization in allocating suitable talents,
responsibilities and time- frames for jobs to be done.
The OH&S management programs shall be reviewed at
regular and planned intervals in order to keep up with
changes.

Clause 4.4 Implementation and Documentation


Planning

Audit

Implementation
Implementation
and
andOperation
Operation

Checking and
Corrective Action
Figure 3.4: Implementation and Operation[i]

Feedback from
Measuring
Performance

Clause 4.4.1
Structure and Responsibility

The roles, responsibilities and authorities of all personnel


who are involved in the running of OH&S risks of the
organization shall be defined, documented and made known

The top management holds the greatest responsibility of


ensuring the proper implementation of the OH&S
management system.

The management representative or appointee shall :


a)

b)

Ensure the OH&S management system requirements are established,


implemented and maintained in accordance with the OH&S
specification,
Ensure reports on the performance of the OH&S management
system are presented to the top management for the review and
making of improved adjustments

Clause 4.4.2 Training, Awareness and Competence


Employee awareness in the following areas is important and
procedures shall be established and maintained :
The importance of conformance to the OH&S policy and procedures,
and the requirements of the management system;
Both actual and potential OH&S consequences, their work activities and
the OH&S benefits of improved personnel performance;
Their roles and responsibilities in conforming to the OH&S policy and
requirements of the management system.
Potential consequences of straying from specified operating procedures.

Employees need to be educated on their specific responsibilities


and the roles expected of them to maintain the OH&S
management system.
Appropriate records of individuals training and competency
shall be maintained.

Clause 4.4.3
Consultation and Communication
the management has to establish and document proper
procedures for easy and accurate communication.
The freedom of employee involvement and consultation
arrangements shall be established so that there is an effective
and open communication of OH&S information. There shall
also be arrangements to:

Involve employees in the development and review of policies, and


procedures to manage risks, including the carrying out or review of
risk assessments relevant to their own activities.
Consult employees over changes affecting the workplace OH&S such
as the introduction of new equipment, new working procedures or
work patterns.
Represent employees on health and safety matters.
Inform employees their OH&S representative to the management and
the selected management appointee.

Clause 4.4.4
Documentation
The organization shall document all important and essential
information and maintain up to date sufficient documentation
to ensure that its OH&S system can be adequately understood
and efficiently operated.
it shall describe the core elements of the management system
and their interaction, as well as provide direction to the related
documentation at the same time.
It may be more convenient and effective instead, to establish
an overview document describing the inter-relation between
the existing procedures and overall OHSAS requirements

Clause 4.4.5 Document and Data Control


This clause calls for the organization to establish and maintain proper
procedures for controlling all the important documents and data
required by this OHSAS 18001 specification.
There shall be a written procedure to define the controls for the
approval, issue and removal of safety documentation, together with
the control of safety records and data. Arrangements must be made
ensure that specified documents and data:
a) Can be located.
b) Are periodically reviewed, revised as necessary and approved for adequacy by
authorized personnel.
c) Are current and up-dated, and available at all locations where operations
essential to the effective functioning of the OH&S system are performed.
d) Are removed from all points of issue and points of use or otherwise assured
against unintended use once they are obsolete.
e) Are suitably identified, particularly for archival documents and data retained for
legal or knowledge preservation purposes or both.

Clause 4.4.6
Operational Control
Control measures shall be applied to those operations and
activities associated with identified risks.
The organization can carry out the preparations by:
a) Establishing and maintaining documented procedures to cover situations
where their absence could lead to deviations from the OH&S policy and
their objectives.
b) Stipulating operating criteria in the procedures.
c) Establishing and maintaining procedures related to the identified OH&S
risks of goods, equipment and services purchased and/ or used by the
organization and communicating relevant procedures and requirements
to suppliers and contractors.
d) Establishing and maintaining procedures for the design of workplace,
process, installations, machinery, operating procedure and work
organization, including their adaptation to human capabilities in order to
eliminate or reduce OH&S risks at their source.

Clause 4.4.7
Emergency Preparedness and Response
The organization shall have to establish and maintain plans
and procedures to identify the potential for, and responses to
such incidents and emergency situations and for preventing the
likely illnesses, injuries or hazards associated with them.
The organization shall develop an emergency plan and identify
and provide appropriate emergency equipment.

The emergency preparedness and response plans and


procedures shall be reviewed frequently, especially after the
occurrence of any incidents and emergencies.
The response capability of the emergency plan needs to be
tested for feasibility and rehearsed where viable for employee
awareness.

Clause 4.5

Checking and Corrective Action


Implementation and
Operation

Audit

Checking
Checkingand
and
Corrective
CorrectiveAction
Action

Management
Review
Figure 3.5: Checking and Corrective Action[i]

Feedback
from
Measuring
Performance

Clause 4.5.1 Performance Measurement and Monitoring


These procedures shall provide for:

Both qualitative and quantitative measures, appropriate to the needs


of the organization.
Monitoring the extent to which the organizations OH&S objectives
are met.
Proactive measures of performance to monitor compliance with the
OH&S management program, operational criteria and applicable
legislation and regulatory requirements.
Reactive measures of performance to monitor accidents, ill health,
incidents (including near misses) and other historical evidence of
deficient OH&S performance.
Recording of data and results of monitoring and measurement
sufficient to facilitate subsequent corrective and preventative action
analysis.

Performance management proposes to determine whether


OH&S plans and risk controls have been implemented and
achieved,
to learn from any system failures including hazardous events,
and to promote implementation by providing feedback and
information for continual review and improvement.
Monitoring equipment, if required for any performance
measurement and monitoring, have to be calibrated and
maintained.
Proper procedures and records for the calibration and
maintenance process shall have to be retained.

Clause 4.5.2
Accidents, Incidents, Non- conformances
and Corrective & Preventive Action
The organization shall establish and maintain procedures to define
responsibility and authority for:
a.The handling and investigation of accidents, incidents or nonconformances.
b.Taking action to mitigate any consequences arising from accidents,
incidents or non- conformances.
c.The initiation and completion of corrective and preventive action.
d.Confirmation of the effectiveness of corrective and preventive actions
that have been taken.

Report and evaluation of these occurrences are necessary so


that suitable corrective and preventive actions can be
implemented.
The investigation process and results and subsequent corrective
or preventive actions have to be documented for future
reference or analysis.

Clause 4.5.3 Records and Records Management


Records shall be kept to demonstrate that the OH&S system
operates effectively, and that processes have been carried out
under safe conditions.
Safety records that document the management system and
conformance to the requirements shall be legible, identifiable
and traceable to the activities involved.
These records have to be maintained and stored properly so
that they are readily retrievable and protected against damage,
deterioration or loss.
Their retention times before disposal have to be established
and recorded as appropriate to the system and the
organizations rules.

Clause 4.5.4 Audit


An audit program and its procedures shall have to be established
and maintained. Periodic OH&S audits have to be conducted to:
a.

b.
c.

Determine whether the OH&S management system conforms to


planned arrangements for OH&S management including the
requirements of this OH&S specification, has been properly
implemented and maintained and is effective in meeting the
organizations policy and objectives.
Review the results of previous audits.
Provide information of the audits results to management.

Audit program, including its schedule, has to be based on the


results of previous audits and that of the risk assessments
conducted.
The results of all audits shall be fed back to all relevant parties
as soon as possible to allow corrective actions to be taken.

Clause 4.6 Management Review


Checking and Conductive
Action

Internal Factors

Management
Management
Review
Review

Policy
Figure 3.6: Management Review[i]

External Factors

it is essential that the system is reviewed and evaluated


periodically to ensure its continuity, suitability, adequacy and
effectiveness.
During the review, the management will evaluate the policy,
objectives and other elements of the OH&S management
system for possible changes in view of the management
system audit results, with changes in circumstances and
commitment to continual improvement.
Changing circumstances may include changes in legislation,
varying expectations of interested parties, changes in the
organizations products or activities, technological advances,
marketing information, and feedback from OH&S incidents.
the management review needs to be documented.

CHAPTER 4 ENSURING EFFECTIVE


IMPLEMENTATION & OPERATION
4.1 Organizational Structure, Responsibility &
Accountability
Ultimate responsibility for occupational health and safety rests with the top
management.
The management plays a central role in implementing the occupational
health and safety (OH&S) program and determining its effectiveness.
Accidents will decrease profits, as additional money has to be dealt out for
workers compensation, damages and other hidden costs.
While organizing an OH&S safety program, the management has to bear in
mind that conflicts between staff, departments or management are inevitable

The management shall always be aware of the latest


changes to health and safety requirements, legal OH&S
issues and policies.
Managers shall also provide visible demonstration of their
commitment to their staff, by visiting sites, being involved
in accident investigation, and attending safety awareness
courses and meetings.

4.1.1 The Health and Safety Committee


A committee drawn from various departments has
many advantages, allowing greater committee
scope and reach.
In all cases, the committee shall be chaired by the
person of highest authority to ensures the
committee is empowered to perform its tasks
without facing too much resistance.

The health and safety committee will have various tasks at


hand. To begin with, methods for obtaining feedback from
all levels within the organization shall be established.
Other tasks that the committee can organize are as follows:
1.
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.

Inspections conducted on workplaces to detect hazards.


Hold regular meetings to discuss accident and illness prevention
methods, hazards discovered in the workplace, and injury and illness
records and so on.
Investigate accidents that occurred, and devise plans to prevent
recurrence.
Provide information to all employees on safe working practices.
Recommend changes to present equipment to improve health and
safety standards.
Develop new or revise existing rules to comply with current
standards.

4.1.2 Task Groups


Within a health and safety committee, several task groups may
be formed. Each task group and their responsibilities are
described as follows [2]:
Safety Activities: To ensure the effectiveness of the OH&S program in
reducing injuries and illness, and to diffuse information pertaining to
OH&S matters.
Rules & Procedures: Prepare, maintain and review new or existing
general safety rules and procedures, and to ensure that rules are being
followed.
Inspection & Audit: Identify unsafe work area conditions and
practices, and to increase safety awareness and participation.
Fire & Emergency: Develop effective management programs to
protect people, property and environment in emergencies.
Education & Training: Manage, coordinate and review safety
training programs.

Health & Environment:


Recommend measures to
protect people, property and environment from hazardous
substances, and to keep and eye on employees health and
overall wellness.
Accident Investigation:
Determine cause of
accidents and to prevent recurrence; to eliminate and
minimize hazards.
Housekeeping:Improve employee morale, quality,
productivity and safety and health by maintaining proper
workplace housekeeping and orderliness.

4.2 Importance of the OH&S Policy


It shall be defined in respect of the health, safety
and welfare obligation to all employees.
In order to fulfill this OH&S policy, plan(s) shall
be formulated and capabilities and support
mechanism shall be developed.

4.3 Planning and Implementation


The management shall take note to define, prioritize and
quantify the organizations objectives clearly.
Proper plans for any programs shall be developed in detail,
and the availability of financial and other resources must be
looked into before confirming any decisions.
plans and policies that have been implemented shall be
measured and reviewed all the time.
organizations have to be pro- active in order to encourage
continual improvement.
An important part of OH&S planning is the management of
change.
Internal standards policies, procedures and safe systems of
work shall be available.

Draw
Drawup
uplist
listofofOH&S
OH&SOBJECTIVES
OBJECTIVES

Select
Selectkey
keyOBJECTIVES
OBJECTIVES
Quantify
Quantifykey
keyOBJECTIVE
OBJECTIVE(If(Ifpossible).
possible).Select
SelectOUTCOME
OUTCOME
Indicators
Indicators

Prepare
PreparePLANPLAN-totoachieve
achievekey
keyOBJECTIVE.
OBJECTIVE.
Draw up TARGETS.
Draw up TARGETS.

Implement
ImplementPLAN
PLAN

Measure
MeasureOUTCOME
OUTCOMEindicators.
indicators.
Has
key
OBJECTIVE
been
Has key OBJECTIVE beenachieved?
achieved?

Have
HaveTARGETS
TARGETSbeen
beenmet?
met?
Has
PLAN
been
fully
Has PLAN been fully
implemented?
implemented?

REVIEW
REVIEW

Figure 4.1: A Procedure for OH&S Planning and Implementing

4.3.1

Risk Assessment

Risk assessment shall be used when occupational hazards in a


workplace appear to pose a significant threat and it is
uncertain whether planned controls are adequate in practice.
Organizations shall carry out risk assessment as part of their
efforts for continual improvement.
The intent of risk assessments is to control risks before harm
could occur.
A risk assessment based on a participative approach also
provides an opportunity for the management and the work
force to agree on the organizations procedures with shared
perceptions of hazards and risks.
Several risk analysis of hazards have been developed for use
such as the fault- tree analysis or the criticality analysis.

4.3.2 Emergency Preparedness and Response


The basic steps in developing an effective program are

identifying the need for procedures

implementing written procedures,

conducting periodic tests,

continual improvement through review and revision.

4.4 Importance of Documentation and Record


Keeping
documentation shall not be voluminous as it lowers
effectiveness and efficiency.
Accurate and complete documented records are
necessary because
the law calls for it
they can be made accessible at the point of use.
determining the validity of claims in a lawsuit
objective evidence to show that activities related to the
requirements of an OH&S system have been
satisfactorily performed.
reference purposes in the future.

The following is a list of records that ought to be kept by an


organization:
Occupational injuries and illnesses.
Fire Protection
Materials Handling/ Storage
Machinery and Machine Guarding
Welding, Cutting, Brazing Equipment
Training
Medical Records.
Not all injuries and illnesses have to be recorded. They shall
be classified according to work-related or non-work related
first before it can be decided whether it is necessary to note the
details of these job injuries and occupational illnesses.

Injury or Illness

Non-work Related

Work-Related

Fatality

RECORD

Non- Fatal
Lost Workday

Non-Fatal
Non-Lost
Workday

First Aid

DO NOT RECORD

Figure 4.2: Recording of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses

4.5 OH&S Management System Audits & Verification


In order to ensure effective implementation, organization shall
conduct periodically OH&S management system audits and
verification of its on-site implementation.
4.5.1 Inspections
There are in general four types of inspection that may be conducted.
Periodic : Conducted at regular scheduled intervals.
Intermittent : Unannounced or surprise inspections.
Continuous : Part of a day-to-day operation.
Special : One-off inspections conducted for especially hazardous
situations.
The area being inspected will thus determine the kind of inspection to
be performed. Proper documentation of data is to be done to ensure
that employees are kept on their toes.

4.5.2 Audits
Audits are commonly conducted at the organizations by
corporate personnel, external professional consultants, and
selected local authorities, professional or ad-hoc associations.
Basically, the organization has to perform a cost-benefit
analysis and identify if the audit is an on-going process or on
an ad-hoc basis, among others.
4.6 Periodic Status Review
The management shall demonstrate commitment to the
effective implementation of the OH&S management system
and shall undertake periodic status review to ensure
maintenance and suitability of the OH&S policy as well as to
ensure continual improvement.

CHAPTER 5 HAZARD AND RISK


ASSESSMENT
5.1Introduction to Risk Assessment
Risk assessment is essentially
an integration of the findings provided by a hazard assessment
and an exposure assessment
determines the adequacy of controls with respect to risks.
The elements of a risk assessment can be defined by using a
multi- or n- dimensional matrix.
A matrix example of a risk assessment done on a construction
sector is presented in Table 5.1.
Severity and Probability of Occurrence (Frequency) of each
hazard is rated.

Classify Work Activities


Identify Hazards

Determine Risk

Decide if Risk is Tolerable


Prepare Risk Control Plan

Review Adequacy of Action Plan


Figure 5.1 Risk Assessment Procedures

IMPACT (Rating = Severity X Frequency)


Types of
Hazards

Work Activity

Operating
compressed
Jackhammer

a
air

Loud noises
&
long
exposures

Inspection of steel
girder alignment &
deflection in bridges
& buildings using
lasers

Exposures
to lasers

Working
at
elevated
heights
without proper fall
protection system

Falls

Working over or
near water without
wearing life jackets
or buoyant work

Drowning

Handling flammable
liquids

Fire

Hearing
Problems

Eye Injury
(possibility of
loss of sight)

Limbs
Injury

General
Illness
(eg.
Cough,
flu, fever,
etc.)

Physical
Injuries
(possibilit
y of
death)

2x2

Total

Rank

2x2

3 x2

2x2

2x2

2x2

3x2

12

3x2

10

2x2

12

IMPACT (Rating = Severity X Frequency)

Work Activity

Types of
Hazards

Handling
Powderactuated tools

Electrocution
&
Mechanical
injuries

Transportation
of
explosive materials
used in blasting

Explosion
& Fire

Heavy vehicles &


equipments
in
operation

Fatality
to
drivers
(caused
by
rollovers) or
to co-drivers
(caused
by
runovers)

Hearing
Problems

Eye Injury
(possibility
of loss of
sight)

Limbs
Injury

General
Illness
(eg.
Cough,
flu, fever,
etc.)

Physical
Injuries
(possibilit
y of
death)

Total

2x2

2x2

2x2

12

1x1

1x1

2x2

2x2

10

2x2

1x2

2x2

3x2

16

Table 5.1: An Example of a Risk Assessment Matrix

Rank

5.2

Differences between Hazards and Risks

The word hazard always denotes a possibility or potential.


Risk is however, defined as the combination of the likelihood
and consequences of a specified hazardous event occurring.
The difference between hazard and risk lies in that a hazard is
a possible (or potential) harm or injury, whereas a risk is the
probability that a person will actually experience a specific
hazard.
5.2.1 Hazard & Risk Reduction Strategies
Product reformulation or chemical substitutions are two ways
of replacing a hazardous chemical component in a product with
a less hazardous or totally harmless material.
In order to reduce the risks associated with a hazard that cannot
be removed or reduced, it is necessary to reduce exposure.

This is possible by implementing three exposure control approaches in the


following order:
a)
b)
c)

Management Control through proper supervision of assignments, procedures, etc;


Engineering Control
Personal protective clothing and equipment

5.3 Hazards Identification


5.3.1 Agents of Hazards

Physical, chemical and biological agents can pose human health and
safety hazards.

Heat, noise and vibration are some common physical agents

chemical agents are made up of naturally occurring and human made


inorganic and organic chemicals.

Biological agents include viruses and bacteria.

They can be identified and described without reference to the human


subjected to the associated hazard[i].

A.

Physical Agents
Acoutistic
Radiation

Sonic and ultrasonic sound, including continuous and intermittent (impact) noise

Temperature

Heat and cold stress

Magnetic
Radiation

Magnetic flux densities, including those having influence on implanted medical


devices and ferromagnetic tools

Electromagnetic
Radiation

Visible light, lasers, radio frequency/ microwave radiation, ultraviolet radiation,


and x-rays

Radioactivity

Radionuclides and radiation (alpha, beta and gamma) associated with unstable
atomic nuclei or nuclear reactions

Ergonomic
Stress

Physical Impact

Stress associated with mechanical tensions in musculo-skeletal system

Mechanical impact that exerts physical force on body

Figure 5.2: Examples of Hazardous Agents in the Workplace[i] (Page 1 of 3)

Chemical Agents
Agents Presenting Physical Risk
Asphyxiant
Combustible
Corrosive

Vapors displace air and thereby cause suffocation


Burns when subjected to a temperature greater than 100oF and below 200oF
Chemically burns living tissue on contact

Explosive

Suddenly releases pressure, gas and heat when ignited

Flammable

Burns when subjected to a temperature less than 100oF

Irritant

Pyrophoric
Organic
Peroxide

A non-corrosive material that causes itching, soreness or inflammation of exposed skin, eyes or
mucous membranes
Ignites spontaneously in air at temperature of 130oF or lower
Spontaneously explodes due to the formation of unstable peroxides

Oxidizer

Promotes or initiates the burning of combustible or flammable material

Water
Reactive

Reacts with water to form a flammable or toxic gas

Unstable/
Reactive

Spontaneously explodes with production of pressure, gas, heat and possibly toxic fumes

Figure 5.2: Examples of Hazardous Agents in the Workplace[i] (Page 2 of 3)

B.

Chemical
Agents
Agents Presenting Health Risk

Carcinogen

Causes cancer

Mutagen

Causes changes in genetic information that is inherited from generation to generation


Causes life-threatening damage to tissues or internal organs in very small amounts (e.g. several teaspoons or less)

Poison
Sensitizer

Causes allergic reactions after repeated exposures, with possibly severe or even life-threatening consequences

Teratogen

Causes malfunction of the developing fetus

Toxic

Causes life-threatening damage to tissues or internal organs, but in amounts greater than a poison

Biological
Agents
Bloodborne Pathogens

Other pathogens

Disease causing organisms that may be transmitted through blood and other blood-related bodily
fluids of infected persons
Infectious diseases that may be transmitted by means other than bodily fluids of infected persons
(e.g. water, air, food)

Figure 5.2: Examples of Hazardous Agents in the Workplace[i] (Page 3 of 3)

5.3.2 Classifications of Hazards


There are two types of hazards
one that is described in terms of the time interval between exposure
to the hazard
another that is defined based on the manifestation of consequent
harm or injury.
Hazard Types

Classification

Acute

Manifests in a few seconds, hours or a few days after exposure to the hazardous agent.

Chronic

Develop only years or decades after exposure to hazardous agent.

Target- Organ

Manifests only in specific organs or tissues, e.g. in nerves of hands.

Systematic

Manifests in overall condition of the whole body, e.g. blood poisoning or breakdown
of central nervous system.

Table 5.2: Classification of Hazard Types

5.4 Quantifying Exposure


As the essential link between hazard (a possibility) and risk (a
probability), exposure must be examined in detail, with
specific attention given to the following aspects[i]:
1.

2.
3.

4.
5.

Quantitative measure (e.g. concentration of chemical inhaled) which


includes the measures of the amount or the nature of the hazardous
agent, as well as the measures of the duration and frequency of
exposure.
Pathways by which the hazard comes into contact with human tissue
(e.g. inhalation).
Mechanism(s) by which a hazardous agent is transformed or
propagated from its source to a human. Often referred to as
environmental transport or fate.
Mechanism(s) by which a hazardous agent might be transformed
during its transport or propagation.
Individual humans or populations that might come into contact with
the hazard.

As a more holistic, integrated approach to workplace health and safety


becomes established, it can be expected that such quantification of
community exposures to the hazards of individual worksites will
become more common.
Any competent exposure analysis of industrial hazards includes a
detailed description of the various specific pathways or routes by
which a hazardous agent comes into contact with living tissue.
Generic categories of environmental dynamics include:
Introduction of materials and energies into major environmental compartments;
Transformation of materials and energies within environmental compartments;
Translocation of materials and energies from compartment to compartment;
Concentration of materials and energies within compartments;
Dissipation of materials and energies within compartments;
Elimination of materials and energies within compartments.

Introduction

Translocation

Dissipation

Concentration

Transformation

Elimination

Figure 5.3: Generic Environmental Processes that influence the dynamic flows and transformation of materials and energies in
environmental compartments[i]

5.5Hazards Analysis
Checklists are usually drawn up to help in identifying hazards
and hazardous operation relationships systematically.
The hazard matrix is made up of rows and columns
rows are made up of different items or function hazards.
columns store progressive information about hazardous events, causes,
effects and severities, probability of occurrence, controls, verifications
of controls, and remarks.

Item/
Functions

Hazardous
conditions

CAUSE(s)

effects

sev.

prob.

recommendations/
verifications

1.
Natural
Gas Supply

1. Leak

1.1 Valve
Faults

Fire/
Explosion

Cat.

E10-3

Qualified Valve Design,


Installation,
Pressure
Testing, Inspection

1.2 Line
Integrity
Faults

Fire/
Explosion

Cat

E10-4

Qualified
Line/
Connector
Design,
Installation,
Pressure
Testing, Inspection

1.3
High
Supply
Pressure

Fire/
Explosion

Cat

Remote
E10-5

Pressure Relief

Table 5.3: An Example PHA Matrix Checklist Format Using A Hot Water Heater[i]

5.5.1 Severity Rating


Severity of hazardous effects is also known as hazard level or
criticality category.
It is a rating indicating the seriousness of an effect of a hazard
on a worker or employee, and it can be defined into different
categories with different values.
There is a direct correlation between effect and severity,
therefore severity is ranked according to the hazard effect.
Severity rating shall be ranked based on the worst effects of a
hazard mode.

Description

Severity Ranking

Mishap Definition

Catastrophic

8- 10

Any condition which may cause a permanent disabling or fatal


personnel injury, or loss of one of the following: the launch or
servicing vehicle; manned base; any NSTS cargo element, the loss of
which could result in the manned base; major ground facility or critical
support equipment.

Critical

4- 7

Any condition which may cause a serious personnel injury; severe


occupational illness; loss of safety monitoring, emergency control
function or an emergency system, or requires use of emergency
procedures; or involves major damage to one of the following: the
launch or servicing vehicle; manned base; any NSTS cargo element,
which could result in the loss of, or major damage to, a major SSF
element; an on- orbit life- sustaining function; a ground facility; or any
critical support equipment.

Marginal

1- 3

Any condition which may cause major damage to a safety monitoring,


emergency system, mishap of a minor nature inflicting first aid injury
to personnel, or minor nature inflicting first aid injury to personnel, or
minor damage to one of the following: a launch or servicing vehicle;
the manned base; any NSTS cargo element, which could result in
minor damage to a major SSF element; an on- orbit life- sustaining
function; a ground facility; or any critical equipment.

Table 5.4: Severity of the Hazardous Effect[i]

5.5.2 Probability of Occurrence


Occurrence is the ranking of likelihood that a specific cause
will occur with existing controls.
The probability of occurrence, like severity, can be defined
into different categories with different values; and has to be
calculated for every cause of the hazards.
Description

Occurrence Ranking

Hazard Probability

Most Likely

9-10

Expected to happen in the life of the program.

Probable

6-8

Could Happen in the life of the program. Controls have


significant limitations or uncertainties.

Remote

2-5

Could happen in the life of the program, but not expected.


Controls have minor limitations or uncertainties.

Improbable

Extremely remote possibility that it will happen in the life


of the program. Strong controls are in place.

Table 5.5: Probability of Occurrence of the Hazardous Effects

5.5.3 Risk Ratings


Severity and Probability factors are used to represent risk
ratings
The risks are then rated according to different levels of trivial,
tolerable, moderate, substantial and intolerable.
Risk ratings, such as risk index categories or risk assessment
categories are used to guide management actions.
Marginal

Critical

Catastrophic

Improbable

Tolerable Risk

Tolerable Risk

Tolerable Risk

Remote

Tolerable Risk

Moderate Risk

Moderate Risk

Probable

Moderate Risk

Substantial Risk

Substantial Risk

Most Likely

Substantial Risk

Intolerable Risk

Intolerable Risk

Table 5.6: Risk Rating Table

RISK LEVEL
Trivial (5)

ACTION AND TIMESCALE


No action is required and no documentary records need to be kept.

Tolerable (4)

No additional controls are required. Consideration may be given to a more cost-effective


solution or improvement that imposes no additional cost burden. Monitoring is required to
ensure that the controls are maintained.

Moderate (3)

Efforts should be made to reduce the risk, but the costs of prevention should be carefully
measured and limited.
Where moderate risk is associated with extremely harmful consequences, further
assessment may be necessary to establish more precisely the likelihood of harm as a basis
for determining the need for improved control measures.

Substantial (2)

Work should not be started until the risk has been reduced. Considerable resources may
have to be allocated to reduce risk. Where the risk involves work in progress, urgent action
should be taken.

Intolerable Risk (1)

Work should not be started or continued until the risk has been reduced. If it is not possible
to reduce risk even with unlimited resources, work has to remain prohibited.

Table 5.7: Table showing the Interpretation of Risks

5.6

Logic Tree Analysis


Death from Hot Water Heater

OR

Gas
Explosion
(Closed Area)

Gas Flash

Crushed by Tipover

Fire

AND

Ignition Source
Present

Heater
Unsecured

Heater
Dislodged

O
R

Gas
Leak
(Expt.
Conc.)

Scalding
(Temp >
140C)

AND

(Open Area)

Electro
cu-tion

Figure 5.4: Example of a Fault Tree[i]


Pilot
Light

Auto
Operation

Light Switch
Operation

Fault trees are usually drawn with an undesired event at the time
and ways that the event could happen beneath, connected to the
upper event by basically two types of logic gates- or and and.
The or gate bears the meaning that any of the contributing events would
be sufficient to cause the upper event,
the and gate means all events must be present for the upper event to
occur.

At the same time, the trees are limited by using diamonds to


represent a termination.
Double diamonds, one within one another, are used to mark
insufficient information, to remind analysts to review those
portions later on.
Caution must be given to maintain the correct logic within the
tree. Without correct logic, the tree forms incorrect loops of
circular logic and fails to portray reality.

5.7 Iteration and Expanded Matrix Analyses


PHAs can and ought to be repeated with updated design
information several times.
This is an example of a common iterative system process of
going back and updating or correcting an analysis based upon
newer information[i].
It explains the need to review fault trees.
By changing matrix headings through asking different
questions or more detailed questions, other types of matrices
similar to the PHA are produced; such as, System Hazard
Analysis (SHA) or the Operating and Support Hazard Analysis
(O&SHA).

CHAPTER 6 EMERGENCY RESPONSE


AND PREPAREDNESS

6.1 Importance of Emergency & Contingency Plans


The existence of a sound emergency and disaster response plan in
an organization often makes the difference between life and death.
all efforts in an occupational health and safety program would
come to nothing if the organization is incapable or unprepared if
ever an emergency or disaster were to arise.
The worst possible outcome of such a situation would probably
include a large number of deaths, the total annihilation of a
factory putting it completely out of operation, and the cost of the
damage to the company amounting to millions of dollars.
In essence, emergency pre-planning measures can keep an event
from becoming a disaster in the first place.

6.2 Types of Emergencies and Disasters


A disaster may be defined as a great, sudden misfortune
resulting in loss of life, serious injury, or property damage[i].
Explosion
Fire

Bomb Threat

Tornado/
Weather

Strikes/
Violence
Emergencies

Radiation
Energy
Emergencies

Accidents
Medical
Chemical Spill/
Vapor Release

Figure 6.1: Types of Emergencies and Disasters

6.2.1 Fire
The quick action of the brigade is essential in order to minimize injury and damage, as
well as to evacuate affected employees.
6.2.2 Explosion
It is highly dangerous as it occurs suddenly without warning, and can inflict severe
injuries and damage.
6.2.3 Tornado/ Weather Situations
Employees should be instructed on how to evacuate their workplaces safely without
leaving dangerous tasks unattended.
6.2.4 Sabotage and Terrorism/ Bomb Threats
Internal security measures have to be taken for advanced detection and early
notification of local police and help forces.
6.2.5 Strikes/ Violence
Strikes, especially labour strikes, will affect operations badly.Thus, the company should
be on the alert for any strikes.

6.2.6 Accidents
Accident prevention and investigation procedures should be
present in the event of an accident.
6.2.7 Chemical Spill/ Vapor Release
When a chemical spill or vapor release arise, appropriate actions
and personnel should be engaged for proper disposal of the
hazardous materials.
6.2.8 Radiation
Even small amounts of radioactive material pose a significant
threat to health. Therefore, facilities for showers and eyewash
should be present and easily accessible.
6.2.9 Energy Emergencies
Energy emergencies are usually caused by fuel shortages.

6.3 What is Emergency & Contingency Planning


An effective emergency plan will take into account the following factors:
1. Plans and procedures: Safest and most effective procedures that
people affected by the emergency should follow.
2. Training, testing and practice: Sufficient testing to ascertain the
emergency plans effectiveness should be carried out, perhaps in
conjunction with training and drills.
3. Communications equipment and personnel: To maintain open
lines of communication, there should be adequate communication
equipment and personnel assigned to such tasks.
4. Equipment: Sufficient equipment to deal with emergencies should
be readily available.
5. Response: Immediate response to emergency from the authorities is
of utmost importance.

Regulatory
Agencies
Communities

Media
Public
Affair

Fire
Rescue
Environmental

Operations

Counties

Industrial
Hygiene

Medical

Safety

Security

States
National
Advocacy
Groups

Figure 6.2: Emergency Response Relationships

Public
Health

6.4 Elements of Emergency Plan & Response


Most of the elements stated below are in compliance to the Chemical
Process Safety Regulations 29 CFR 1910.39 (Employee
Emergency Plans).
6.4.1 Policy
The policy defines the attitude of the company towards emergency
planning.

6.4.2 Authority
A chain of command should be established to minimize confusion so that
employees will have no doubt who has the authority for making decisions[i]
.

6.4.3 Emergency Escape Procedures and Routes


Emergency escape procedures and routes should be posted in each work
area.

6.4.4 Personnel who remain to operate critical operations

6.4.5
Employee Accountability Procedures After
Evacuation
Each supervisor should be responsible for his or her assigned employees, to
ensure that the identities and status of well being of all the employees are
established.

6.4.6 Control Center


The function of the control center is to have a place where all instructions are
given out and information is exchanged in case of an emergency.

6.4.7 Rescue and Medical Duties


Emergency teams should be trained in the various types of possible
emergencies and actions to be performed such as first- aid and transportation.

6.4.8 Transportation
Injured people must be evacuated safely out of dangerous areas and the
critically ill must be sent to hospital as soon as possible.

6.4.9 Communications
A method of communications is required to alert employees of the evacuation.

6.4.10 Training/ Practice


Training in the following areas will be useful:

Use of various types of fire extinguishers.


First- aid, including Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation
Shut- down procedures
Evacuation procedures
Chemical spill control procedures
Use of self- contained breathing apparatus
Search and emergency rescue procedures[ii]

6.4.11 Personal Protection and Rescue Equipment


Effective personal protective equipment should be stored in a place that is easily
reached, checked, serviced and cleaned regularly.

6.4.12 Lighting
Back up portable generators are indispensable in providing necessary lighting to
carry out necessary rescue operations.

6.4.13 Security
An off-limits area must be established by cordoning the area with ropes and signs.

6.5 Developing an Emergency Response Plan


The development of a practical and effective emergency response
program is essentially a normative process.
Sources & Types of
Hazards

Persons Exposed

Risk Assessment
Phase

Degree of
Exposure

Regulatory
Standards

Safety Judgement
Phase

Social & Cultural


Values

Alternative
Objective

Making-Safe
Strategy Phase

Alternative Means

Policies & Procedures

Figure 6.3 Three Phases for Devising Emergency Response Policies and Procedures[i]

6.5.1

Factors that are necessary in this phase are the sources and types of
hazards, the degree of exposure and the persons exposed.
Techniques available to the planner include hazard analysis, failure
modes and effects analysis, and fault and event tree analysis.

6.5.2

Risk Assessments Phase

Safety Judgement Phase

This phase seeks to determine the level of protection for each population
under risk, while keeping in mind their social and cultural values and
current regulatory standards.

6.5.3

1.
2.
3.

Making-Safe Strategy Phase

As shown in Figure 6.4, policies and procedures should address three


basic types of emergency response activities:
Preparation Activities: Undertaken immediately upon discovery of a
potential or actual emergency, prior to the initiation of any response.
Response Activities: Include all efforts to control the emergency and
provide assistance to affected persons.
Follow-up Activities: Focus on post emergency actions to bring the
company back to a state of emergency readiness, including revisions to
emergency plans based on experience of past emergencies.

Notify onsite personnel about the incident

P R E P A R A T IO N

Size-up the situation based on available


information

Request aid from outside sources

Allocate personnel & equipment for


response

RESPONSE

Survey and assess


casulaties

- Stabilize victims
- Extricate victims
-Decontaminate victims

Survey and assess hazards

- Evacuate site
personnel
- Evacuate
nearbly public

- Transport & treat


victims

F O L L O W -U P

Replace or rejuvenate damaged or


exhausted equipment

Document the incident

Review and revise site safety and


contingency plans

Figure 6.4 Basic Emergency Response Operations[i]

- Contain hazard
- Extinguish hazard

6.6 First Aid in Emergency Planning


Safety programs must place proper emphasis on life- saving
actions.
General approach in every emergency situation is explained
below.
1.

Survey the scene.


Proper precautions have to be taken, especially in toxic atmospheres. Quick and
decisive actions have to be made sometimes, such as whether to move the casualty
or wait for proper medical personnel to arrive, seeking help from people around.

2.

Do a primary survey of the victim.


The victims breathing rate, heart rate and level of consciousness are noted here.

3.

Phone Emergency Medical Services for help.


. The victim should always be brought to the hospital for a proper
examinationbefore declaring his state of health.

4.

Do a secondary survey of the victim.


Vital conditions such the victims breathing, heart rate, consciousness and any
other injuries have to be monitored frequently.

CHAPTER 7
OH&S Management System Assessment

7.1 Introduction
Auditing is a procedure for periodic, systematic, documented, and
objective evaluation of operations and practices in meeting safety,
health, and environmental requirements[i].
It is also a quality assurance tool that can verify whether
management and technical practices exist, function properly, and
are adequate to meet the organizations goals[ii].
An organization has to plan for annual internal and external safety
audits to be conducted.
The safety audit ought to cover the entire operation that is
subjected to the OH&S management system, and assess
compliance with OHSAS 18001.

7.2 Reasons for Conducting Audits


One important advantage of developing a program to audit
OH & S functions is that it is possible to be proactive.
Audits can complement regulatory oversight activities,
provide an early warning system if problems exist and move
the organization toward compliance with regulatory codes.
OH&S system audits can help increase OH&S awareness, as
well as evaluate whether or not the organization successfully:
Develops organizational OH&S policies that implement regulatory
and legal requirements and provide management guidance for OH&S
hazards not specifically addressed in regulations.
Trains and motivates facility personnel to work in an acceptable
manner and to understand and comply with legal requirements and
the organizations OH&S policy.
Communicates relevant OH&S information externally and internally
within the organization.
Applies best management practices and operating procedures,
including good housekeeping techniques.

Institutes preventive and corrective maintenance systems to


minimize actual and potential OH&S hazards.
Assess OH&S risks and uncertainties.
Substitutes materials or processes to allow use of the least hazardous
substances feasible.
Evaluate causes behind any serious environmental incidents and
establishes procedures to prevent recurrence.

Utilizes best available process and control technologies.

Uses the most effective sampling and monitoring techniques, test


methods, record keeping systems, or reporting protocols.

7.3

Types of Audits

There are three types of audits:


first-party audits,
second-party audits or
third-party audits.

7.4

Elements of an OHSAS Audit

This section will describe the different aspects of an HSE Audit,


namely: physical, material, operational, procedural, human and
informational.
7.4.1 Physical Aspects
Physical Aspects to be considered include all constructed and naturally
occurring structural and physical features of the workplace and its
environment as well as their spatial relationships.
Any location that may become a source of or contribute to an on-site
workplace hazard or experience the risk of hazard due to the workplace can
be considered a geographic area of actual risk.

7.4.2 Material Aspects


Material aspects refer to those physical, chemical or biological substances
or agent that may pose a threat to human health and safety.

7.4.3 Operational Aspects


Plant operations include those activities undertaken as a direct consequence
of production.

7.4.4 Procedural Aspects


Procedural aspects of a comprehensive facility audit include
both procedures for conducting production- oriented
operations and for accomplishing non- production oriented
tasks.

7.4.5 Human Aspects


There is a need to recognize that this does not merely apply
to employees only, but to all people who might be affected
or at risk in one way or another due to the workplace.

7.4.6 Information Aspects


Categories of information essential to design,
implementation and management of a comprehensive
workplace OH&S program includes the following, among
others:
Up-to-date copies of regulation and pertinent OH&S standards
Written documents required by specific regulations (e.g., accident
reports, emergency response procedures, hazardous waste manifests,
etc.)
Proceedings or minutes of meetings convened by the organizations
OH&S committee

Description of all safety-related devices and equipment,


including purpose, type, location, limits, and maintenance
requirements
Description of all personal protective clothing, including
purpose, type, location, limits, and maintenance requirements
Ambient monitoring records (for air and/or water)
Hazard and risk assessments of operations performed by facility
personnel or by external consultants
Inventory of hazardous materials, products, and by-products
Evaluations and recommendations regarding OH&S incidents or
conditions, as well as planned or implemented follow-up actions
Personnel training records regarding any aspect of workplace
OH&S, such as names, dates and subject matter.

7.5

The Audit Process

The audit program and procedures should identify the activities


and areas to be audited, the frequency of the audits, who is
responsible for managing and conducting the audits, how and to
whom audit results will be communicated, and requirements for
auditor competence[ii].
Before an external or internal audit is conducted, it is important
to lay a foundation so that the audit can be conducted in an
atmosphere of mutual respect, co-operation and confidence[iii].
Most of the time, the following protocols for auditing regulatory
compliance and organizational management practices are
followed in an OH & S audit.

Safety and Environmental Protocols for OH&S Audits

Hazardous Materials

Fire Hazards

Electrical Hazards

Operating Process Hazards

Machinery Hazards

Noise Hazards

Illumination Hazards

Ergonomic Hazards

Solid Waste

Air emissions and wastewater

Groundwater and Drinking Water

Hazardous Waste

Natural and Historic Resources


Table 7.1: Safety and Environmental Protocols

7.5.1 Establishing the Audit Objectives

Audit objectives might include:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Management Priorities
Commercial Intentions
Management System Requirements
Statutory, regulatory and contractual requirements
Need for supplier evaluation
Customer requirements
Needs of other interested parties, and
Risks to the organization

7.5.2

Confidentiality of Audit

The confidentiality of whatever information obtained in the course of its


certification activities extends to all levels in the certification body including
committees, external bodies and individuals acting on the certification bodys
behalf.
Information about the auditee organization and findings of the audits shall not be
disclosed to a third party without the written consent of the auditee organization.
The auditor shall follow all documented procedures of the certification body to
safeguard the confidentiality of all information obtained during all phases of the
audit process.

7.6
Stage 1 Audit
7.6.1 Objective of Stage 1 Audit
To provide a focus for planning the stage 2 audit by gaining an
understanding of the OHSMS in the context of the organizations
OH&S policy and objectives, hazards identification, etc.

In particular, the organizations readiness for the audit can be


assessed by reviewing the extent to which:
The OHSMS includes an adequate and effective process for identification of the
organizations hazards and subsequent risk assessment
For any relevant activities of the organization, licenses are in place
The OHSMS is designed to accomplish the organizations OH&S policy
The OHSMS implementation programme justifies proceeding to stage 2 audit
Additional documentation that needs to be reviewed
Knowledge that has to be obtained in advance

7.6.2

Information to be obtained

In this stage of audit, at least the following should be obtained :

OHSMS documentation inclusive of procedures and preferably a


master list showing the cross reference of documentation to the
related requirements of the standard
A description of the organization and its on-site processes
An indication of the hazards and their associated impacts and the
determination of significance
The means by which continual improvement is achieved
An overview of the applicable regulations (including relevant
licences and permits) and agreements with Authorities
Internal audit programmes and reports

7.6.3 Requirements of Stage 1 Audit


In this stage, the certification body should:
Review documents, plan and allocate resources for further
document review where required and for stage 2 audit,
verify that the necessary competence that will be available
within the stage 2 audit team
Collect necessary information and identify those issues
which will need special attention during stage 2 audit
Provide an opportunity for feedback of information to the
organization
Agree, with the organization, the details for stage 2 audit
The following information may be needed for the stage 1
audit and may be required for detailed inspection during the
stage 2 audit:

License / permit requirements


Records (inclusive of records of incidents, breaches of
regulation or legislation and relevant correspondence with
Authorities) on which the organization based its assessment
of compliance with regulatory requirements
Details of internally identified nonconformance with details
of relevant corrective and preventive action taken in the
previous 12 months (or since commencement of the OHSMS
implementation if this is less than 12 months)
Records of management reviews (at least one must be
conducted)
Records of any OHSMS related communications received and
any actions taken in response to them

7.6.4 Document Review


Lead Auditor should review the organizations documentation
such as OH&S policy statements, programmes, records or
manuals for meeting its OHSMS requirements.
If the documentation is judged to be inadequate to conduct
the audit, the client should be informed and additional
resources should not be expended until further instructions
have been received from the client.
When stage 1 is not conducted by a single person, the
certification body should coordinate the activities of the
various team members are.
.

7.6.5 Preparing for the on-site audit activities


The audit team leader should prepare an audit plan to provide the basis
for the agreement among the audit client, audit team and the auditee
regarding the conduct of the audit. The plan should facilitate scheduling
and co-ordination of the audit activities.
The audit plan should cover the following:
1. The audit objectives
2. The audit criteria and any reference documents
3. The audit scope, including identification of the organizational and functional units and
processes to be audited
4. The dates and places where the on-site audit activities are to be conducted
5. The expected time and duration of the on-site activities , including meetings with
auditees management and audit team meetings
6. The roles and responsibilities of the audit team members and accompanying persons
7. The allocation of appropriate resources to critical areas

The audit plan should also cover the following, as appropriate:


1. Identification of the auditees representative for the audit
2. The working and reporting language of the audit where this is different
from the language of the auditor and/or the auditee
3. The audit report topics
4. Logistic arrangements (travel, on-site facilities, etc)
5. Matters related to confidentiality
6. Any audit follow-up actions

The plan should be reviewed and accepted by the audit


client, and presented to the auditee, before the on-site audit
activities begin.

7.7 Stage 2 Audit


On the basis of findings of the stage 1 audit, the certification body
drafts audit plan for the conduct of stage 2.
7.7.1 Objectives for Stage 2 Audit
The objectives are:
To confirm that the organization adheres to its own policies, objectives
and procedures
To confirm that the OHSMS conforms with all the requirements of the
OHSMS standard and is achieving the organizations policy and
objectives

7.7.2

Focus of Stage 2 Audit

To achieve the above objectives, the stage 2 audit should focus on


the organizations
Hazards Identification and subsequent risk assessment
Objectives derived from the evaluation process
Performance monitoring, measuring, reporting and reviewing
against the objectives
Internal auditing and management review
Management responsibility for the OH&S policy
However, the auditor may at his or her discretion include
additional areas which he or she deems necessary based on the
findings of the Stage 1 Audit.

7.8 Roles, Responsibility and Activities


7.8.1 The Lead Auditor
The roles, responsibilities and activities of a Lead Auditor are as follow:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Consulting with the client and the auditee, if appropriate, in determining the
criteria and scope of the audit
Obtain relevant background information necessary to meet the objectives of the
audit
Determining whether the requirements for an audit as given in ISO 14010 have
been met
Forming the audit team giving consideration to potential conflicts of interest, and
agree on its composition with the client
Directing the activities of the audit team according to the guidelines of ISO 14010
and ISO 14011
Preparing the audit plan with appropriate consultation with the client, auditee and
audit team members
Communicating the final audit plan to the audit team, auditee and client

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Coordinating the preparation of working documents and detailed procedures,


and briefing the audit team
Seeking help to resolve any problems that arise during the audit
Recognizing when audit objectives become unattainable and report the
reasons to the client and the auditee
Representing the audit team in discussions with the auditee, prior to, during
and after the audit,
Notifying the auditee without delay, of the audit findings of critical
nonconformance
Reporting to the client on the audit clearly and conclusively within the time
agreed with in the audit plan
Making recommendations for improvements to the management system, if
agreed in the scope of the audit.

The lead auditor must also ensure that all rules and regulations of the
auditee organization, especially those relating to occupational health
and safety issues, made known to the Audit Team are followed.

7.8.2 The Auditor


The roles, responsibilities and activities of an Auditor are as follow:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)

Following the directions of and support the lead auditor


Planning and carrying out the assigned task objectively, effectively and
efficiently within the scope of the audit
Collecting and analyzing relevant and sufficient audit evidence to determine
audit findings and reach audit conclusions
Preparing working documents under the direction of the lead auditor
Documenting individual audit findings
Safeguarding documents pertaining to the audit and return such documents
as required
Assisting in writing the audit report

The auditor must follow all rules and regulations, especially those
relating to occupational health and safety issues, made known to
them.

7.8.3 The Audit Client


ISO 19011 defines the audit client as an organization commissioning the
audit. The client responsibilities and activities are as follow:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)

Determining the need for the audit


Contacting the auditee to obtain its full cooperation and initiating the process
Defining the objectives of the audit
Selecting the Lead auditor or auditing organization and, if appropriate,
approving the composition of the audit team
Providing appropriate authority and resources to enable the audit to be
conducted
Consulting with the lead auditor to determine the scope of the audit
Approving the audit criteria
Approving the audit plan
Receiving the audit report and determining its distribution

7.8.4

The Auditee

ISO 19011 defines the auditee as the organization to be audited. The roles,
responsibilities and activities of the auditee are as follow:
a)
b)
c)

d)
e)
f)

Informing employees about the objectives and scope of the audit as necessary
Providing the facilities needed for the audit team in order to ensure an effective
audit process
Appointing responsible and competent staff to accompany members of the audit
team, to act as guides to the site and to ensure that the audit team is aware of
health, safety and other appropriate requirements.
Providing access to the facilities, personnel, relevant information and records as
requested by the auditors
Cooperating with the Audit Team to permit the audit objectives to be achieved
Receiving a copy of the audit report unless specifically excluded by the client

Pertaining to item 7.8.5 c, in organizations, rules and regulations relating


to any GMP, HACCP and other occupational health and safety issues are
particularly important and shall be followed by the Audit Team.

7.9 Audit Sampling Techniques


The decision on sample size is heavily dependent on the
Auditors
skills, experience, statistical knowledge and time available for the audit.
7.9.1 Determining Sample Size
The following guidelines should be used for determining the sampling size
during an audit:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

The risk associated with the operation or activity


The number of different or similar operations or activities
The number of sites or locations where the activity is performed
Whether the activity has customer or stakeholder specified
requirements, or is governed by legislation or other requirements
Competence of the Auditee performing the activity.

7.9.2 Benefits of Audit Sampling


Some of the benefits of sampling are:
a)
b)
c)
d)

It may be impossible to audit all activities of an organization and sampling offers the only feasible
alternative
Sampling results when carried out with due professional care and adequate statistical knowledge offer a
high level of confidence (accuracy) in the determination of the effectiveness of the audited system
It is proven in many studies that sampling offers reliable results while saving time and money
Minimize disruption to the business and operation of the auditee

7.9.3 Risks of Audit Sampling


Some of the risks of Audit Sampling are:
a)
Sampling may not be appropriate for certain activities such as checking the records of cyanide used in
an electro-plating organization
b)
Lack of knowledge of occupational health and safety, technology, technical and environmental aspects
of facility operation and sampling techniques will result in ineffective sampling plan
c)
Sampling requires the process to be stable and this may be difficult to achieve in certain activities
where abnormal fluctuations can occur

7.10

Use of Audit Checklist

Prepared by the Audit team during the document


review and pre-audit
Serve as an aid to audit planning while on-site.
Assessment investigation should pursue and cover
any other aspects for conclusion.
Clues indicating nonconformities should be noted
and investigated.
Note the outcome (acceptable, nonconformance,
observation or legal compliance) for each audited
item.
Completed checklist support the audit reporting to
ensure its comprehensiveness.

7.10.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Checklists


Advantages:

a)
b)

Checklists help auditors to organize, discuss, plan and


conduct audits, and report audit results.
Checklists facilitate a systematic and effective approach to
auditing and help auditors to:
i.
ii.

ensure that all systems, operational areas and processes


are sufficiently covered.
ensure that the auditing process is systematically done
without sidetracking, thus saving the time and effort of
both the auditees and auditors.

c) Developing a checklist requires the auditor to understand the


documented system in detail. It helps the auditor to establish
a better understanding of the auditees activities during the
audit.
d) Checklists allow the auditor to systematically identify high
risk areas. With a checklist an auditor can identify key
questions relating to this area more easily.
e)Checklists may be sent to a supplier to complete before an
audit is conducted to ascertain facts.
f) Checklists can be a good source of information for future
audits or for designing better and more comprehensive
checklists.

Disadvantages:
a) Checklists may lead to limiting questions that generate yes/no
answers. Further comments are usually useful and necessary.
Effort should be made to avoid this problem.
b) Checklists may breed complacent auditors who just go through
the questions without getting into the details and seeking
objective evidence.
c) Use of a checklist may lead an auditor into using a
predetermined sequence of thought and questions and may
prevent an auditor from using his own discretion.
d) Checklists can lead to a boring and rigid auditing process if the
auditor is not flexible in exercising his judgment.
e) A general checklist may result in a nonfocused audit; details
may be overlooked.

7.10.2
Guide to Checklist Design
In developing a checklist for a particular department or
function, an auditor can start by doing the following:
a) Examining the standard clauses that are relevant to the area of
interest. For example, in auditing the companys occupational
health and safety policy, the primary requirement is expressed in
Clause 4.2.
b) Looking at the specific statutory requirements, for example, in the
control of hygiene for the food industry, and the control of
dangerous chemicals such as cyanide.

c)Reviewing the documented OH&S manual, operational procedures,


internal standards and site emergency plans. It is wrong to assume that
voluminous OH&S documents attest to an effective environmental
management system. Extensive documentation does not ensure that
OH&S is being implemented effectively or at all. Therefore, time and
effort should be spent on this documentation to set questions that will
test the documented system.
d)Performing a task analysis of the process model. By going through the
typical five inputs of a process operators, machines, methods,
materials and environment, auditors would be able to establish
questions such as: Does the operator receive formal OH&S training?,
Are the procedures adequate and documented?; and Are the
emission controlled to the requirements?.
e)Interacting with staff during the pre-audit plant walkthrough. A
preliminary plant visit familiarizes the auditor with the facilities to be
audited. It provides an overview of policies, procedures, standards and
process flow. The impression that an auditor gains in this visit may
help him or her to prioritize the areas of audit and provide a guide for
further examination.

7.11
Conducting the Audit
The following conducts of an audit process are good practices to be
observed by the Audit Team (ref ISO 19011, Clause 6.5 & 6.6,
ISO/IEC Guide 66, EAC/G5, IAF Guidance and IRCA
requirements, where applicable).
7.11.1 Opening Meeting
At an opening meeting (ref ISO 19011 clause 6.5.1) with the
companys senior management, the lead auditor shall perform
the following tasks:
a) Introduce the members of the audit team, including a brief
description of their skills and assigned responsibilities, to the
auditees management
b) Review the audit scope, objectives, audit plan and agree on the
audit timetable

c) Where applicable, confirm the specification standard to be applied


d) Provide a short introduction to the methods and procedures to be
used in the audit
e) Establish the official communication link between auditors and
auditees
f) Confirm that the resources and facilities needed by the audit team
are available
g) Confirm the time and date of the closing meeting
h) Promote the active participation by the auditee
i) Review relevant site safety and emergency procedures for the audit
j) Confirm the time and date of the closing meeting.

7.11.2 Audit Methodologies


The method or a combination of methods to be used in order for the
audit to be effective depends greatly on the auditees system, complexity
of activities and processes, culture of the country, location of sites (for
multi-site audits) and size of the organization.
Horizontal Audit
Horizontal audit focuses on one element of OHSAS 18001 at a time to
audit horizontally across the organization departments for compliance to
the element. Upon completion of an element, say clause 4.3.1, the
auditor moves on to the next applicable requirements, in this case clause
4.3.2. . This method is suitable for small organizations where the access
to all areas, facilities and information are readily available.

Vertical Audit
Vertical audit focuses on each department of the organization to audit all
requirements of OHSAS for conformance by the department. Upon its
completion, the auditor moves on to the next department assigned to him.
This method is suitable for large organizations as well as in multi-sites audit
where the access to all areas, facilities and information are difficult.

7.11.3 Collecting Audit Evidence


OHSAS 18001 defines audit evidence as verifiable information, records or
statements of facts, which can be qualitative or quantitative.
Audit evidence, on a sampling basis, is typically collected through interviews,
examination of documents, observation of activities and conditions, existing
results of measurements and tests or other means within the scope of the audit.

Evidence obtained from interview should be verified by obtaining supporting


information from independent sources such as observation and existing
records.

7.11.4 Recording Audits Findings


OHSAS 18001 defines audit findings as results of the evaluation of the
collected audit evidence compared with the audit criteria. The audit
team
should:
Review all audit evidences to determine where the OHSMS does not conform
to the OHSMS criteria
Document all non-conformances in a clear, concise manner and supported by
audit evidences
Review audit findings with the responsible auditee management in order to
obtain acknowledgement of the factual basis of all findings of
nonconformance.

7.11.5 Audit Team Meeting


The purposes of regular meeting are to:
a) Detect consistent nonconformance across different functions or department
which may indicate major nonconformance or systemic failure
b) Clarify uncertainties regarding audit plan, requirements of applicable standard
or legal compliance issues with the Lead Auditor, Technical or Legal expert

c) Highlight areas for particular attention to other Audit Team members


d) Provide feedback to the Lead Auditor concerning the audit team
performance
and progress so that he can coordinate or make changes to
improve the audit plan
and timetable, where necessary
7.11.6 Reporting Audit Findings
Audit findings should be based on facts obtained during the audit that are
substantiated by objective, verifiable evidence accumulated during the assessment
process.
Auditors should avoid focusing on minor details and system technicalities to the
extent that they lose sight of the audit purpose.
It is essential to focus on the significant deficiencies and nonconformance with the
audit objectives.
The auditor should issue and sign the Non conformance Report (NCR) form and
discuss it at a convenient time with the appropriate management representative (MR).
The MR shall be asked to sign the NCR form to indicate its acceptance and agreement
to resolve the nonconformance.
If at any time the company is able to provide acceptable corrective action against an
NCR, then the action may be verified and the NCR closed out by the lead auditor.

7.11.7 Closing Meeting


The main purpose of this meeting is to present audit findings to the auditee in such a manner
as to obtain their clear understanding and acknowledgement of the factual basis of the audit
findings. The following are normally observed during the closing meeting:
a) Thank the auditee for their assistance and cooperation
b) Circulate an attendance sheet for record purposes
c) Present, discuss and obtain acknowledgement on NCRs. The
responsibility
of
proposing corrective actions should always lie on the auditee and not the
audit team.
d) Resolve disagreements. Final significance and description of the audit
findings
ultimately rest with the Lead Auditor, though the auditee or
client may still disagree
with these findings
e) Present an objective overview of the audit findings and the strength and
weakness of the
organizations OHSMS
f) Arrange a provisional revisit date, if necessary
g) Lead Auditor states his recommendation
h) Inform the company that it will be notified of the results of the audit directly
from
the certification body
i) Close the meeting and leave all NCRs with the company so that it can initiate
corrective actions

7.12 Auditing Skills


7.12.1
Effective Interviewing
Effective interviewing requires an ability to ask appropriate
questions, to listen actively, and to articulate and interpret thoughts.
The following pointers serve as a guide for an effective interview:
a)
Be a participative and not an authoritarian auditor. Create an
encouraging atmosphere for discussion with the auditee. Do not
start to give instructions to the auditee
b)
Be open, trusting and polite. Do not assume negative roles
such as policing, suspicious and accusatory
c)
Set a friendly tone

d)
e)
f)

Be prepared to slow down and allow time for auditee to think, if necessary
Be sensitive to the non-verbal behavior, such as body language and attitude,
of yourself and the auditee
It is useful and constructive to point out that the aim of the audit is to
verify the companys environmental management system for conformance
and not to find fault with individual personnel

7.12.2 Questioning Techniques


1.
2.

3.

Effective questioning techniques can elicit answers, uncover information


and diffuse tension.
In essence, an auditor should know what he is asking, why he is asking it
and how to ask it on the basis of the background of the auditee and the
information required.
A good combination of different questioning techniques is also vital and
paraphrase if necessary, to ensure that the auditee understand your question.

Type of
Question

Open

Description

An open question will lead to a


wide range of answers.
Generally, use it to seek the
auditees opinion, to get an
explanation/description from the
auditee or to allow for reasoning
on certain matters.

Closed/
Direct

A closed question is used to get a


yes or no answer, while a
direct question will invite a short
answer with one or a few words.
These questions are used to get
specific information.

Probing/
Clarifying

These are open questions, but


they aim at getting more or
clarifying information about a
subject by specifying conditions.

Leading

Interrogative
/Antagonistic

Examples

Comments

What is your interpretation of the


result obtained?
Could you tell me how you process
these intermediate results?
How do you implement the waste
management program?

Open questions may sidetrack


your conversation and focus.
It may be difficult for the auditee
to respond.
They may be so open that you will
get general answers.

Do you know that there is a


documented procedure for this?
Whats your responsibility?
Has this specific environmental impact
been monitored?

These questions provide limited


information and if you are in search of
an extended answer, use an open
question.
Be careful of the tone when you
use this type of question.
As a guide, avoid using more than
three consecutive closed or direct
questions.
If
you need to encourage the auditee to
elaborate, use this type of question.
Avoid frequent use as the auditee
may think that you are not listening.

In what way was corrective action


completed?
Could you provide me with some
examples on these?
What do you mean by referring to the
guidelines on the site emergency plan?

A leading question suggests an


answer, as the answer is normally
implied in the question.

You do check for the accuracy of the


equipment every morning, dont you?
You determine your sample size based
on the sampling table, dont you?

This type of questions should be


avoided as it may lead to biased
information.

These questions put the auditee


on the defensive.

Dont you agree with me that you have


not correctly verified the incident reports
according to the internal standards?

Table 7.2: Different Types of Questions

Avoid this type of questions.

7.12.3 Active Listening


Listening skills can be improved by observing the following pointers:
a) Be friendly and support the auditee whenever possible. Indicate that you are
listening by nodding your head, frequent comments such as Yes, That is a good
practice when used appropriately, can demonstrate your receptiveness and
encourage the auditee to give more information

b) The auditing process should be controlled in the most efficient way. When
the information is too lengthy, you may ask the auditee to summarize.
However, when the information provided by the auditee is too brief, you
should ask the auditee to elaborate
c) Be observant and concentrate on what the auditee is saying. You should
ask further questions if you have any doubts or when you detect
inconsistencies in what he has said
d) Avoid any actions that may distract the auditee. Do not talk or interrupt
the auditee while the auditee is speaking
e) Be patient and allow ample time for the auditee to speak
f) It sometimes pays to repeat what the auditee has said to confirm that you
have correctly understood what he or she had said.

7.12.4 Understanding Cultural Diversity


The five different dimensions of culture are the value, belief,
pattern of thought, language and body languages.
Some examples of cultural diversities are:
1.
2.

Japanese prefers greater physical distance than the Americans


Female are not allowed in places of worship in some Islamic
countries

3.

Different semantics of languages in different countries

7.13

Preparation of Audit Reports

After conclusions have been made, a final audit report has to be


submitted to provide feedback to relevant parties, so that corrective
actions can be taken. The final report should include the following
elements:

Audit objectives and scope, and general information on the


auditee.

Particulars of the audit plan, identification of auditors and


audited representatives, as well as the date and areas subject to audit.

Audit findings such as general observations, description of


cases of non- conformity, relevant CARS and recommendations, if any.

Auditors appraisal.

Systems ability to achieve stated OH&S objectives

Audit conclusion

7.14

The Certification Process


Request for
more details

Company seeking registration contacts a


certification body and gives details of
its activities and scope of its system

Application
OK?

N
Sufficient
details?

Reject or Refuse
if the scope is not
within the capability of
the certification body

Scope Review to select audit team

End
OK to Proceed?

N
Surveillance
STAGE 1
Close out NCR

Pre-audit at company premises,


collect information for
planning STAGE 2 audit

NCR

Document Assessment

Non

NCR

Assessment
Recommendation

STAGE 2
Site Assessment Visit

Conformance
N

Written evidence of
corrective actions by
company

Figure 7.1: The Certification Process

Audit Team Formation

Chapter 8
Comparison of OHSAS 18001, BS 8800 and ISO 14001
8.1

Significant Differences between OHSAS 18001 & BS 8800

The publication of BS 8800 in 1996 managed to fulfill part of the


latters requirements, but it only offers guidance on implementing an
OH&S management system, and is not intended for certification
purposes.

Subsequently, OHSAS 18001 was developed to meet the markets


growing demand for a common certification for OH&S
management, which could be recognized worldwide.

8.2 Similarities between OHSAS 18001, BS 8800, ISO 14001


The format and structure of OHSAS 18001 was deliberately based
on ISO 14001 when it was developed. Unlike BS 8800, OHSAS
18001 defines the critical management elements, which could be
included in a health and safety management system but not how
they could be achieved[ii]. The core approach that OHSAS 18000,
BS 8800 and ISO 14001 adopt, basically follow these steps:
1. Establishing a policy
2. Planning:
(a) Determine legal requirements
(b) Set objectives and targets
(c) Arrange management program

3. Implementation and operation:


(a) Organize structure
(b) Delegate responsibility
(c) Conduct training and Promote awareness
(d) Ensure competence
(e) Establish communication and documentation
systems
(f) Implement Operational Control
(g) Data and document control
(h) Prepare emergency response plan
4. Checking and Corrective Action:
(a) Monitoring and measurement
(b) Corrective action
(c) Records
(d) Audits

ISO 14001

Clause

BS 8800: 1996
(Based on ISO
14001)

Clause

Clause

Clause

OHSAS 18001: 1999

ISO 9001: 2000

Scope

Scope

Scope

Scope

Reference Publications

Informative
References

Normative
References

Normative References

Terms and Definitions

Definitions

Definitions

Definitions

OH & S Management
System Elements

OH & S
Management
System Elements

Quality Management
System

4.1

General Requirements

4.0.
1

General

Environmental
Management
System
Requirements
General

4.1

General Requirements

4.1

OH&S Policy

5.3

Quality policy

4.0
2

Initial Status
Review

5.4

Planning

4.2

Requirements

4.3

Planning

4.2

Planning

4.3

Environmental
Policy
A.4.2.1 (Not
mandatory but good
practice)
Initial Env. Review
Planning

4.3.1

Planning for Hazard


Identification, Risk
Assessment & Risk
Control
Legal and other
requirements

4.2.
2

Risk Assessment

4.3.
1

Environmental
Aspects

5.2

Customer Focus

4.2.
3

Legal and other


requirements

4.3.
2

4.3.2 Legal and


other requirements

5.2

Customer Focus

4.3.2

OH & S Policy

4.1
4.2

Table 8.1: Table Showing the Correspondence between OHSAS 18001, BS 8800, ISO 14001, & ISO 9001 (page 1 of 3)

ISO 14001

Clause

BS 8800: 1996 (Based on


ISO 14001)

Clause

Clause

Clause

OHSAS
18001: 1999

ISO 9001: 2000

4.3.
3

Objectives

4.2
.4(
a)

Including personnel and


resources for the
organization to achieve its
policy.

4.3.3

Objectives

5.4
.1

Quality Objectives

4.3.
4

OH&S
Management
Program(s)

4.2
.4

OH & S Management
Arrangements

4.3.4

Environmental
Management
Program(s)

5.4
.2

Quality Management
System Planning

4.4

Implementation
and Operation

4.3

Implementation and
Operation

4.4

Implementation
and Operation

Product Realization

4.4.
1

Structure and
Responsibility

4.3
.1

Structure and
Responsibility

4.4.1

Structure and
Responsibility

5.5.
1
5.5.
2

Responsibilities & Authority

4.4.
2

Training,
Awareness &
Competence

4.3
.2

Training, Awareness &


Competence

4.4.2

Training,
Awareness &
Competence

6.2
.2

Competence, Awareness
and Training

4.4.
3

Consultation
and
Communicatio
n
Documentation

4.3
.3

Communication

4.4.3

Communication

5.5
.3

Internal communication

4.3
.4

OH & S Management
System Documentation

4.4.4

Environmental
Management
System
Documentation
Document Control

4.2.
1
4.2.
2

General

4.2
.3

Control of Document

4.4.
4
4.4.
5

Document and
Data Control

4.3
.5

Document Control

4.4.5

Management Representative

Quality Manual

Table 8.1: Table Showing the Correspondence between OHSAS 18001, BS 8800, ISO 14001, & ISO 9001 (page 2 of 3)

OHSAS 18001:
1999

Cl
aus
e

BS 8800: 1996
(Based on ISO
14001)

Cl
aus
e

4.4.6

Operational
Control

4.3
.6

Operational Control

4.4
.6

Operational Control

Product Realization

4.4.7

Emergency
Preparedness
and Response

4.3
.7

Emergency
Preparedness and
Response

4.4
.7

Emergency
Preparedness and
Response

8.
3

Control of
nonconforming product

Checking and
Corrective
Action
Performance
Measurement
and Monitoring

4.4

Checking and
Corrective Action

4.5

Checking and
Corrective Action

Measurement, analysis
and improvement

4.4
.1

Monitoring and
Measurement

4.5
.1

Monitoring and
Measurement

7.6

Control of monitoring &


measurement devices
Analysis of Data

Accidents,
Incidents, NonConformances,
and Corrective
and Preventive
Action
Records and
Records
Management

4.4
.2

4.4
.3

Records

4.5
.3

Records

4.2
.4

Control of Records

Audit

4.4
.4

Audit

4.5
.4

Environmental
Management System
Audit

8.2
.2

Internal Audits

Management
Review

4.5

Management
Review

4.6

Management Review

5.6

Management Review

Clau
se

4.5
4.5.1

4.5.2

4.5.3

4.5.4

4.6

ISO 14001

Cl
aus
e

8.4
Corrective Action

4.5
.2

Non- Conformance
and Corrective and
Preventive Action

8.3
8.5.2
8.5.3

ISO 9001: 1994

Control of
nonconforming product
Corrective Actions
Preventive Actions

Table 8.1: Table Showing the Correspondence between OHSAS 18001, BS 8800, ISO 14001, & ISO 9001 (page 3 of 3)

8.3

Advantages of Integrating OHSAS 18001 & ISO 14001

For organizations that already have the ISO 14001 environmental


management system implemented, there is no need for a complete
set of new procedures to be prepared for the OH&S system.
If existing management procedures exist, they could be modified or
cross-referenced.

This approach could make it quicker and cheaper for an


organization to develop and implement an OH&S system.

CHAPTER 9 LEGAL ASPECTS &


LOCAL LEGISLATION
9.1 Employment Law
In the context of Occupational Health and Safety Legislation, we are
concerned with the following:
Workplace Safety Law
Workers Compensation
Damages
Tort Law

9.2

Workers Compensation
The following sections will look into details of workers compensation laws.

9.2.1

Objective of Workers Compensation Laws

The six basic objectives that underlie workers compensation laws are:
1. To provide sure, prompt, and reasonable income and medical benefits to
work related accident victims, or income benefits to their dependents,
regardless of fault.

2.

To provide a single remedy, and reduce court delays, cost and workloads
arising out of personal injury litigation.
To relieve public and private charities of financial drain incident to
uncompensated industrial accidents.
To eliminate payment of fees to lawyers and witnesses, as well as time
consuming trials and appeals.
To encourage maximum employer interest in safety and rehabilitation through
an appropriate experience-rating mechanism.
To promote frank study of causes of accidents (rather than concealment of
fault), thus reducing preventable accidents and human suffering.

3.
4.
5.
6.

9.2.2

Requirements for Benefits under Workers

Compensation

1.

Four conditions or criteria must be established in order for the injured worker
or surviving dependents to establish a claim for compensation.
There has to be an injury.

2.
3.
4.

The injury must have resulted from an accident.


The injury must have arisen out of the workers employment.
The injury must have occurred during the course of employment.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

However, there are exceptions disallowing workers to claim


compensation as a result of actions or inactions on the part of the
employee.
Intoxication or the use of a controlled substance
An intentional self-inflicted injury
The commission of a felony or a misdemeanor
The willful failure, or refusal, to obey a reasonably written or printed
safety rule of the employer
Horseplay or altercation with a fellow employee
Falsification of application of employment

9.2.3

Benefits Provided under Workers Compensation

Cash benefits will depend on the level of disability that the worker
suffers as a result of an injury caused in the workplace.
Medical benefits give the worker coverage over hospitalization,
consultation and other medical bills incurred as a result of the work
related injury.

9.3 Federal Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)


9.3.1OSHAs Objectives
OSHAs objectives are as follows:
1. Encourage employers and employees to reduce workplace hazards and
to implement new or improved existing safety and health programs.
2. Provide for research in occupational safety and health and develop
innovative ways of dealing with occupational safety and health problems.
3. Establish separate but dependent responsibilities and rights for
employers and employees for the achievement of better safety and
health conditions.
4. Maintain a reporting and record-keeping system to monitor job-related
injuries and illness.
5. Establish training programs to increase the number of competent
occupational safety and health personnel.
6. Develop mandatory job safety and health standards, and enforce them
effectively.
7. Provide for the development, analysis, evaluation, and approval of state
occupational safety and health programs.

9.3.2 Employers Responsibilities under OSHA

He must ensure that the workplace complies with OSHA standards.


Records of work-related injuries and illnesses and exposure to toxic
materials are to be kept and maintained.
Effort should be made to minimize or reduce accidents, as well as to
provide medical examinations to employees as required by OSHA
standards.

9.4 Local (Singapore) Movement

1.
2.
3.
4.

In the Ministry of Manpowers quest to attain their objectives, the


services they provide include the following:
Registration of factories.
Inspection of factories to check for compliance with the
Factories Act and related safety laws.
Investigation of accidents to determine the causes and to
recommend measures to prevent recurrence.
Registration and inspection of pressure vessels and lifting
equipment.

5. Setting standards on OH&S.


6. Providing education and training in OH&S.
7. Promotion of OH&S.
In addition, the ministry is committed to ensure that safety requirements
are adequate and relevant.
Moreover, a permanent exhibition on occupational health and safety
occupies an area in the head office of Ministry of Manpower building
located at Havelock Road.
The ministry also publishes various material regarding OH&S. An
example is the OSH newsletter which is published quarterly and
distributed free of charge.
Other pamphlets regarding OH&S information such as Fire Prevention
Awareness for Industrial Workers, How to Report Accidents to the
Ministry of Manpower, and Department of Industrial Safety can be
readily obtained from their office.

9.5
The Factories Act
In this Act the term factory covers all premises where
workers are employed:
(a) To make any article, or part of it,
(b) To alter, repair, clean or break up any article, or
(c) To adapt any article for sale.

This work shall be carried out for trade or for gain, for a more
detailed interpretation of the term factory, reference should
be made to Appendix A Interpretation of Factory.
9.5.1

Registration of Factories

All factories must be registered with the Department of Industrial


Safety of the Ministry of Manpower.
The certificate of registration to the occupier will only be issued when
the premises satisfy the requirements of a factory.

9.5.2

General Health Requirements


Aspects of general health such as cleanliness, overcrowding,
ventilation, noise and vibration, lighting, drainage and toilets are
explained in this section.

9.5.3

Welfare and Equipment Safety

It is the managements responsibility to ensure that all equipment,


structures and the working environment are safe for everyday usage.
Measures and precautions to prevent explosions and fires are stated in
detail in the Act. In addition, the Act also sets safety standards for the
operations, maintenance and inspections for lifting equipment, pressure
vessels and gas plants.
The Act goes on to list the various types of personal protective
equipment that must be provided free to workers who are exposed to
hazards, such as: approved head protection, hand protection, respirators
and goggles, etc.
The minimum requirements of employees welfare, for example,
drinking water, washing facilities and first aid are set out.

9.5.4

Toxic Substances

The proper containment, labeling of toxic substances is described in


the Act.
Furthermore, precautionary measures to prevent the release of harmful
substances are listed.
The MSDS states that the necessary precautions for safe use and must
be available to all persons who may be exposed to the substance.

9.5.5

Medical Examinations and Accident Reporting

The Factories Act requires workers who are exposed to a list of


substances and environment to undergo regular medical examinations
specific to the type of hazards involved. These examinations must be
paid for by the employer.
Serious accidents, illnesses and injuries as listed in the act must be
reported to the Chief Inspector of Factories.

9.5.6
Keeping

Safety Officers, Committees and Record

In addition, factories employing 50 or more workers are required to


form a safety committee comprising representatives from both
management and workers.
The types of records that the occupier is required to keep for a period
of at least five years are also listed.

Type of Safety Officers Required


Classes of Factories
Full Time

Part-Time

Shipyard

Employs 100 or more persons

Employs less than 100 persons

Woodworking

Employs 100 or more persons

Not applicable

Refining/Processing of petroleum
and petroleum products

Employs any number of persons

Not applicable

Garments manufacturing

Not applicable

Employs 500 or more persons

Building operations or works of


engineering construction

Project of a contract sum of $50


million or more

Project of a contract sum of $10


million or more, but less than $50
million

Others
(except
manufacturing)

Employs 500 or more persons

Employs 100 or more persons, but


less than 500 persons

garments

Table 9.1 Descriptions of Factories for Full-Time or Part-Time Officers[i]

9.6 Code of Practice Safety and Health at Construction


Worksites
It provides a convenient and safe reference for the site
supervisor or manager in ensuring safety is upheld in the
course of work.
As can be seen in Table 9.2, there are many processes that
occur in any construction worksites, such as welding,
demolition, and pile driving, and these processes are often
dangerous if not carried out properly.
In addition to regulating work processes, precautionary
measures such as fire prevention, and safety organization are
described. These measures will certainly reduce the incident
rate of fire and accidents.

Part 1

Part 2

General Provisions

Scaffolds

Workplaces and Equipment

Roofworks

Safety Organization

Excavation

Ladders and Stairs

Handling Materials

Lifting Appliances and Equipment

Structural Steel Erection

Ropes, Chains and Accessories

Erection of Prefabricated Parts

Hand Tools, Portable Power Driven Tools

Welding and Flame Cutting

Pile Driving

Demolition

Concrete Work

10

Prevention of Fire

Table 9.2 Content of Code of Practice on Safety and Health at Construction Worksites Parts 1 & 2 [i] [ii]

9.7 Courses Conducted by The Occupational Safety &


Health (Training & Promotion) Center in Singapore
The courses conducted are divided into four categories, with the
courses in each category meant for the appropriate class of
persons. The four categories are:
9.7.1
OSH Courses for Supervisors
These courses for supervisors are geared to train supervisors on the
practical measures for accident prevention in their respective industries.
The supervisors are also taught their role in accident prevention.
The courses also cover motivation, communication and accident
investigation techniques and fire prevention and control.

9.7.2

OSH Courses for Managers

The courses for managers are designed to help senior personnel in


industry to effectively manage safety in the workplace through the
development and implementation of safety systems and also the
monitoring and measurement of safety performance.

9.7.3

Courses for OSH Personnel

Our courses for OSH personnel are geared to impart the necessary
knowledge and skills to the participants to enable them to effectively
carry out their duties.

9.7.4

Safety Courses for Workers

These courses for workers are intended to inform workers of the nature
and types of hazards that they may be exposed to in the course of their
work, and the measures and precautions that need to be taken by them
to prevent accidents.

Courses for OSH


Personnel

OSH Courses for


Managers

OSH Courses for


Supervisors

Safety Courses for


Workers

Safety Officers
Training Course

Safety Management
Course

Shipyard Safety Instruction


Course for Workers (General
Trade)

Shipyard Safety
Assistants Course

Safety Instruction
Course for Ship Repair
Managers

Basic Industrial
Safety and Health
Course for
Supervisors
Building
Construction Safety
Supervisors Course

Industrial First Aid


Course

Construction Safety
Course for Project
Managers

Shipyard Supervisors
Safety Course

Shipyard Safety Instruction


Course for Workers (Painters
Trade)

Industrial First Aid


Refresher Course

Safety Instruction
Course (Manhole)
for Supervisors

Construction Safety
Orientation Course for
Workers

Industrial Hygiene
Course

Oil/Petrol Chemical
Industry Supervisors
Safety Course

Safety Orientation Course


(Manhole) for Workers

Training Course for


Safety Committee
Members

Lifting Supervisors
Safety Course

Construction Safety
Orientation Course
(Tunneling) for Workers

Shipyard Safety
Assessors (Hot-work)
Certification Course

Power Press Safety


Course for
Supervisors

Table 9.3 Courses Conducted at OH&S Training Center

Shipyard Safety Instruction


Course for Workers (Hotwork Trade)

Chapter 10
IRCA Auditor Certification Scheme
10.1

Introduction (Ref: IRCA/503)

The OH&S Scheme is based on the key standards:


OHSAS 18001:1999, Occupational Health & Safety Management
Systems - Specification
HSG 65, Successful Health & Safety
BS 8800, Guide to Occupational Health & Safety Management Systems
And the auditing guidance standard:
ISO 19011:2002, Guidelines on Quality and/or Environmental
Management Systems Auditing

10.2

The OH&S Scheme

The IRCA Auditor Certification Scheme recognized that you understand and are
competent (depending on the grade awarded) to:
Uphold the principles of proper ethical conduct, fair presentation and due professional care
Communicate clearly orally and in writing with personnel at all levels of an organization
Plan and organize an audit of an OH&S management system
Identify and understand relevant business processes
Evaluate objective evidence and determine the effectiveness of an OH&S management
system
Report accurately audit findings and conclusions
Lead the audit team and manage the audit process
Audit a management process

10.3

Certification Grades

The OH&S Scheme has five grades of certification:

OH&S Internal Auditor


OH&S Provisional Auditor
OH&S Auditor
OH&S Lead Auditor
OH&S Principal Auditor

For more information, please refer to the IRCA official website at


www.irca.org

CHAPTER 11
CASE STUDY OF A CONSTRUCTION COMPANY
11.1

Introduction

This example is given in the context of the construction sector to


illustrate some aspects on how to develop the Occupational
Health and Safety Management System following the OHSAS
18001: 1999 standard.
11.2 Company Profile
XYZ Pte Ltd is a construction company in Singapore.

The employees of the company are very often exposed to


occupational health and safety risks and hazards.
Some of these risks and dangers that they experienced can be
eliminated from their tasks.
Thus, the companys management has decided to implement an
OH&S system following the OHSAS 18001: 1999 specification
standards.

11.3

XYZ Pte Ltd OH& S POLICY

The OH&S Policy of XYZ Pte Ltd is presented in Figure 11.1.

It is the policy of our company to ensure every employee works under the safest
possible conditions. In recognition of this, we will constantly work towards:
Providing our employees a safe and healthful working environment.
Providing safe working equipment and personal protection.
Increasing risk and consequence awareness.
Ensuring the best first aid and medical service available in the case of injury
Reducing legal liability by showing due diligence.
Improving business performance.
Creating a positive corporate image.
Peter Ho
Peter Ho (President)
Edward Ong
Edward Ong
(Safety Director)

11.4 XYZ Pte Ltd Organization Structure and Responsibility


The organizations structure, responsibilities and accountabilities with
respect to OH&S requirements are presented in Figure 11.2.
Duties and responsibilities of the Safety Director include:

Ensuring the OH&S system is properly implemented.


Ensuring the overall effectiveness of the safety program.
Review and analysis of accident information, safety meeting reports, etc.
Communication of pertinent information to all the jobs and shops.

Duties and responsibilities of the Superintendent include:


Review of all accident investigations and safety inspection reports for the
job or shop.
Passing of safety information along to all foremen.
Maintenance of an accident log to help in identifying accident trends and
problem areas so that additional safety effort can be directed as needed.

When necessary, advise contractors, etc., of physical changes or new


safety regulations.
Conducting regular scheduled foremens meetings at which job or
shop work progress, hazards, accidents, and other work and safety items
are to be discussed. A written record of these meetings should be
maintained.

Duties and Responsibilities of the Foreman include:


Conducting safety inspections daily, supplemented by periodic
checklist and typewritten safety inspections as specified by the
superintendent.
Ensuring all accidents are reported and first aid rendered in case of
injury.
Investigating all work related accidents and near misses and then
submitting a report to the superintendent.
Ensure necessary actions are taken to prevent similar accidents from
happening in future.

Duties and Responsibilities of All Employees include:


Exercising maximum care and good judgment in preventing accidents.
Report to their foreman and seek first aid for all injuries, however minor
they may be.
Report unsafe conditions, equipment or practices as soon as possible.
Use all personal protective equipment provided whenever necessary.

Peter Ho
Peter Ho
(President)
Edward Ong
Edward Ong
(Safety Director)

Figure 11.2: XYZ Pte Ltd Organization Structure, Responsibilities and Accountabilities

11.5

XYZ Pte Ltd Risk Assessment Program

HARMFUL
LEVEL

SEVERITY OF HARM
- Superficial injuries, minor cuts and bruises, eye irritation from dust
- Nuisance and irritation (e.g. headaches), ill-health leading to
temporary discomfort.

Slightly Harmful

- Lacerations, burns, concussion, serious sprains, minor fractures


- Deafness, dermatitis, asthma, work related upper limb disorders
- Ill health leading to permanent minor disability.

Harmful

- Amputation, major fractures, poisonings, multiple injuries, fatal injuries


-Occupational cancer, other severely life shortening diseases, acute fatal
diseases

Extremely
Harmful

Table 11.1: XYZ Pte Ltd Interpretation of Harm Level


Slightly Harmful

Harmful

Extremely Harmful

Highly Unlikely

Trivial Risk

Tolerable Risk

Moderate Risk

Unlikely

Tolerable Risk

Moderate Risk

Substantial Risk

Likely

Moderate Risk

Substantial Risk

Intolerable Risk

Table 11.2: XYZ Pte Ltd Risk Rating

RISK LEVEL

ACTION AND TIMESCALE


No action required, no documentary records to be kept.

Trivial

Tolerable

No additional controls required. Consideration may be given to a more costeffective solution or improvement that imposes no additional cost burden.
Monitoring required to ensure that
controls are maintained.
Effort should be made to reduce risks, but costs of prevention should be
carefully measured and limited.

Moderate
Where moderate risk is associated with extremely harmful consequences,
further assessment may be necessary to establish more precisely the likelihood
of harm as a basis for determining the need for improved control measures.

Substantial
Intolerable

Work should not start until risk has been reduced. Considerable resources may
have to be allocated to reduce risk. Where risk involves work in progress,
urgent action should be taken.
Work should not start or continue until risk has been reduced. If it is not
possible to do so even with unlimited resources, work has to remain prohibited.

Table 11.3: XYZ Pte Ltd Interpretations of Risks

Conducted at Site: Loyang Drive / Construction of ABC Condominium


Conducted on: 12/ 2/ 2000
Conducted by: John Lee (Safety Engineer)
IMPACT (Rating = Severity X Frequency)
Work
Activity

Types of
Hazards

Operating a
compressed
air
Jackhammer

Loud noises &


long exposures

Inspection of
steel girder
alignment &
deflection in
bridges
&
buildings
using lasers

Exposures to
lasers

Heari
ng
Proble
ms

Eye
Injury
(possibi
lity of
loss of
sight)

Lim
bs
Inju
ry

General
Illness (e.g.
Cough, flu,
fever, etc.)

2x2

Physical
Injuries
(possibili
ty of
death)

Tot
al

2x2

Table 11.4: XYZ Pte Ltd Risk Assessment Matrix (Page 1 of 3)

Ra
nk

IMPACT (Rating = Severity X Frequency)


Work
Activity

Types of
Hazards

Working over
or near water
without
wearing life
jackets
or
buoyant
equipment

Drowning

Heari
ng
Proble
ms

Eye
Injury
(possibi
lity of
loss of
sight)

Lim
bs
Inju
ry

General
Illness (e.g.
Cough, flu,
fever, etc.)

Physical
Injuries
(possibili
ty of
death)

Tot
al

2x2

3x2

10

Ra
nk

Handling
flammable
liquids

Fire

2x2

2x2

2x2

12

Handling
Powderactuated
tools

Electrocution
&
Mechanical
injuries

2x2

2x2

2x2

12

Table 11.4: XYZ Pte Ltd Risk Assessment Matrix (Page 2 of 3)

IMPACT (Rating = Severity X Frequency)


Work
Activity

Handling
high-voltage
machinery

Types of
Hazards

Heari
ng
Proble
ms

Eye
Injury
(possibi
lity of
loss of
sight)

Electrocution

Physical
Injuries
(possibili
ty of
death)

Tot
al

2x2

2x2

Lim
bs
Inju
ry

General
Illness (e.g.
Cough, flu,
fever, etc.)

Transportatio
n of explosive
materials used
in blasting

Explosion
& Fire

1x1

1x1

2x2

2x2

10

Heavy
vehicles
&
equipments
in operation

Fatality to
drivers
(caused by
rollovers) or to
co-drivers
(caused by
runovers)

2x2

1x2

2x2

3x2

16

Table 11.4: XYZ Pte Ltd Risk Assessment Matrix (Page 3 of 3)

Ra
nk

11.6
XYZ Pte Ltd Risk Assessment Results & Analysis
The risk assessment matrix (refer to Table 11.1) on the companys
occupational health and safety revealed that the severity of risk due to
heavy vehicles in operation ranked the highest among other form of
risks, leading to many cases of fatality to drivers (rollovers) and to coworkers (runovers).
After a thorough investigation with the foreman and his workers, the
following reasons were believed to be the cause of heavy vehicle
accidents:
i. Heavy construction vehicles have to maneuver in congested areas;
ii. There is no speed limit for vehicles at the worksite;
iii. There is no policy that all drivers have to be certified to operate a specific
vehicles;
iv. Routes where the construction vehicles are to operate are not marked;
v. Construction vehicles have no protection against impacts of any forms;
vi. Lift trucks and other construction vehicles are not inspected and maintained
on a regular basis;

vii. Workers are not informed of the precautions they should


take at worksites.
11.7
XYZ Pte Ltd Action Plan
11.7.1
Key Objectives
The organizations key objective is to plan and implement an action plan to
reduce site transport risks to as low a level as possible within six months.
The plan specified improvements in outcome indicators that would
demonstrate a site transport risk that was as low as possible and that could be
sustained over time.

11.7.2 Outline Indicator


The objectives will be judged if they have been met based on the
following indicators:
i.

Reported near-misses and transport accidents;


ii.
Number of transport related unsafe acts and conditions
observed by foremen and co-workers;
iii. Review from foremen of operator compliance with relevant
regulations;

11.7.3
Objective Plan
The broad content of the action plan to achieve key objectives,
within an agreed budget, is finalized after consultation with
relevant parties and a review of the plans adequacy are:
i.

Install rollover protective structure (ROPS) on vehicles;


ii.
Improve operator visibility and pedestrian awareness on site;
iii.
Introduce on site safety awareness training;
iv.
Introduce biennial inspection of construction vehicles.

11.7.4 Target Plan and Timescale


A detailed Occupational Health and Safety Management Programme has
been drawn up in Table 11.5.
Proper planning is essential to ensure that targets can be met within a
reasonable timescale. Also, the targets will be inspected against a checklist
given in Figure 11.3.

1.
2.
3.
4.

6.

CHECKLIST FOR EVALUATION OF SITE TRANSPORT


ACCIDENTS
Are the routes where these vehicles are to operate marked or
otherwise restricted?
Have speed limits and other precautionary measures been
posted prominently?
Is it a policy that only authorized personnel will operate the
vehicles?
Is it a policy that all drivers will be certified to operate specific
vehicles?
5. Are vehicles, which can be subjected to bumpy roads or
sudden stops or turns, provided with seatbelts or other means
of restraints to prevent injury to the occupant?
Are vehicles, which might upset, equipped with rollover
protection for the driver and other occupants?

7.

In personnel carrying vehicles subject to impacts or


sudden starts or stops, are cushioning materials used
to prevent injury by safeguarding the riders from hitting
hard surfaces?
8. In such vehicles, have sharp points, knobs, and other
hard protuberances against which personnel can injure
themselves by impact been removed or safeguarded?
9. Will the vehicle be able to stop within a reasonable
distance if the surface on which it is moving is wet?
Does the vehicle have any unreasonably unsafe
characteristics on a wet surface?
10. Is the braking surface and capability adequate for the
vehicles weight and unexpected operating speed?
Figure 11.3: Checklist For Site Transport Accidents

11.7.5
4.3.4)

OBJECTIV
E (3.9)

MEANS (CLAUSE 43.4B)

1.1.1
Construct
ROPS at
the back of
constructio
n vehicles

1.Report-ed
near-misses
and
transport
accidents
2. Review
from
foremen of
operators
compliances with the
regulations

Progress
-ion

100%

A
P
R

Progress
-ion

100%

A
P
R

10 / 0

1.1 Install
rollover
protective
structure
(ROPS) on
constructio
n vehicles

TARGET

10 / 0

REDUCE
SITE
TRANSPO
RT RISK

OBJECTIVE

30

FATALITY TO
DRIVERS
AND COWORKER

MONIORIN
G&
MEASURE
MENT
(CLAUSE4.
5.1)

Foremen

PROCEDURE

TIME FRAME IN MONTHS

30

IMPLEMENT

OH&S
OBJECTIVES
(CLAUSE 4.3.3)

PRESPONSIBILITY

SIGNIFICANT
IMPACTS
(3.5)

DUE DATE

NO.

OH&S MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME (CLAUSE

10

11

12

1.2 Improve
operator
visibility and
pedestrian
awareness

1.3
Introduce
on-site
safety
awarenesstr
aining

1.4
Introduce
bi-annually
inspection
of
construction
of vehicle

1.1.2
Ensure
the
securing
of seatbelt
by drivers

3. Number
of tranport
related
unsafe acts

1
0
/
0

M
A
Y

3
0

7
0

M
A
Y

2
5

6
5

1
0
/
0

M
A
Y

2
5

6
5

1
0
/
0

M
A
Y

2
5

7
5

100%

A
P
R

Progressi
on

100%

1.2.1
Segregate
pedestrian
and
vehicles
using road
markings
and
barrier

Progressi
on

100%

1.3.1
Establish
safety
awarenes
s
workshop
1.3.2
Conduct
one day
training
and
competen
cy test

Increase
d Safety
Awarene
ss
Progressi
on

100%

Progressi
on

100%

100%

F
o
r
e
m
e
n

2
5

Progressi
on

S
E
P

1
0
/
0

1
0
/
0

1
0
/
0

OBJECTIV
E (3.9)

MEANS (CLAUSE 4.2.b4)

A
P
R

Progress
-ion

100%

A
P
R

Progress
-ion

100%

A
P
R

10 / 0

2.1.2
Inspect the
tubes,
couplers,
and
boards for
defects
before use

2.Review
from
foremen of
operators
compliance
with the
regulations

100%

10 / 0

2.1.1
Provide
sufficient
and sound
material
for scaffold

1. Reported
near-misses
and
transport
accidents

Progress
-ion

10 / 0

2.1 Ensure
proper
erection of
scaffold

TARGET

30

Reduce
accidents
due to falls

OBJECTIVE

30

INJURIES
AND DEATH
DUE TO
FALLS

MONIORIN
G&
MEASURE
MENT
(CLAUSE4.
5.1)

Superintendent and foremen

PROCEDURE

TIME FRAME IN MONTHS

25

IMPLEMENT

OH&S
OBJECTIVES
(CLAUSE 4.3.3)

PRESPONSIBILITY

SIGNIFICANT
IMPACTS
(3.5)

DUE DATE

NO.

10

11

12

OBJECTIV
E (3.9)

MEANS (CLAUSE 4.3.4B)

Progress
-ion

100%

Progress
-ion

100%

Progress
-ion

100%

Progress
-ion

100%

Progress
-ion

100%

M
A
Y

J
U
N

10 / 0

3. Number
of transport
related
unsafe acts

10 / 0

TARGET

50

2.2.1
Floors and
walls to be
guided by
railings on
open sided
floors
2.2.2 Draw
warning
lines 6ft
from edge
of roof

OBJECTIVE

50

2.2 Install
guidance

2.1.3
Scald fold
to be
erected by
qualified
and
experience
workers
2.1.4
Inspect
and
maintain
scaffold
once a
week after
erection

MONIORIN
G&
MEASURE
MENT
(CLAUSE4.
5.1)

10 / 0

PROCEDURE

TIME FRAME IN MONTHS

50

IMPLEMENT

OH&S
OBJECTIVES
(CLAUSE 4.3.3)

PRESPONSIBILITY

SIGNIFICANT
IMPACTS
(3.5)

DUE DATE

NO.

J
U
N

J
U
N

10

11

12

2.4 Ensure
persons
working at
heights
adhere to
precautiona
ry measures

2.3.1 Ensure
worker wear
safety belts,
lanyard, and
lifeline when
working at a
height of 6 ft
or more

2.4.1 Permit
persons to
work at
heights only
after they
have
indicated or
demonstrated
no adverse
effects
2.4.2 Arrange
an
experienced
worker to
accompany a
new worker
to observe
workers
reaction

Supervisor

2.3 Safety
belts

Progressi
on

100%

J
U
N

Progressi
on

100%

J
U
N

Progressi
on

100%

J
U
N

5
0

Progressi
on

100%

J
U
N

5
0

1
0
/
0

5
0

1
0
/
0

Progressi
on

100%

J
U
N

5
0

1
0
/
0

5
0

1
0
/
0

1
0
/
0

1
0
/
0

OBJECTIV
E (3.9)

MEANS (CLAUSE 43.4B)

IMPLEMENT

2.5
Provide
safeguard
s to avoid
hard
impacts
due to falls
where
possibilitie
s of falls
cannot be
eliminated

PROCEDURE

2.4.3 Persons
who are under
medication
that cause
drowsiness or
recovering
from cold or
flu should not
be allowed to
work at
heights

2.5.1 Place
well packed
earth around
the buildings
2.5.2 Install
safety nets to
break fall

OH&S
OBJECTIVES
(CLAUSE 4.3.3)

MONIOR
ING &
MEASU
REMEN
T
(CLAUS
E4.5.1)

OBJECTIVE

TARGET

Progress
ion

100%

Progress
ion
Progress
ion
Progress
ion

PRESPONSIBILITY

SIGNIFICANT
IMPACTS
(3.5)

DUE DATE

NO.

TIME FRAME IN MONTHS

J
U
N

5
0

1
0
/
0

J
U
L

4
0

7
0

100%

J
U
N

7
0

1
0
/
0

100%

J
U
L

100%

6
0

1
0
/
0

10

11

12

11.8 Monitoring and Measurement Plan


In order to monitor the OH&S management system, a monthly
safety record (Figure 11.4) will have to be kept. Items included in
the record are:
date of incident or occurrence,

indication of whether it involves an accident, near miss, ill


health or discovery of a new hazard,
a description of the incident or occurrence, by whom was it
reported by and the action that was taken.
The superintendent will conduct regular risk assessments every
month to check areas where potential work hazards might occur.
This risk assessment will be supplemented by feedback from
other employees on the work hazards they face in the course of
their work or any new potential work hazards that they might
observe.

DATE

03/01/
2000

AC
CI
DE
NT

NEAR
MISSES

ILL
HE
ALT
H

WORK
HAZAR
D
DISCOV
ERED

Yes

DESCRIPTION

It was discovered that an accident


and three near- misses were caused
by one of our workers, Salleh. He
did not have the Class 4 driving
license needed to drive the
transport truck. He drove the truck
into a partially completed building
boulder and almost hit three other
fellow workers working on the
boulder. They suffered minor
injuries and cuts. Salleh fractured
his collarbone and needed to be
hospitalized for observation.

Figure 11.4: XYZ Pte Ltd Safety Record Sheet

REPOR
TED BY

ACTIO
N
TAKEN

Headman
Tony
Ang

Pending

11.9
Investigation Procedures
An investigation committee has been set up to look into all
accidents and near- misses.
The safety engineer of our company will head the committee.
Corrective action plans have to be approved by the safety
engineer before they can be carried out.
Investigation personnel should begin their preliminary analysis
of facts while further information is collected.
In the process of investigation, corrective action has to be
taken to prevent further or reduce similar cases of accidents
from occurring.
It should not be carried out only after a thorough investigation
has been conducted as by then, more similar accidents would
have occurred.

LIST OF INVESTIGATIVE QUESTIONS TO ASK THE


WITNESS
1. Where did the accident occur?
2. When did it occur?
3. What did the witness see with his/her own eyes?
4. What was the driver doing when the accident occurred?
5. What was the victim doing when the accident occurred?
6. Did the driver have his seatbelt on?
7. Were both the driver and the victim following the rules and
regulations?
8. In the witnesss view, what had caused the accident?
Figure 11.5: XYZ Pte Ltd List of Investigative Questions for Witness

LIST OF INVESTIGATIVE QUESTIONS TO ASK THE


VICTIM
1. What was he doing when the accident occurred?
2. Was he supposed to be present at the place of accident?
3. Was he under any medication at that time?
4. Is he experienced in that particular job?
5. Did he check the vehicle before using it?
6. Did he comply with the rules and regulations?
7. In his opinion, what had caused the accident to happen?
Figure 11.6: XYZ Pte Ltd List of Investigative Questions for Victim

11.10 Emergency Response Plan for Heavy Vehicle Accidents


The following steps shall be followed should there be any major heavy vehicle
accident at the worksite:
1. Remove victim if possible.
2. All workers in danger or at potential harm are to evacuate the worksite to a
safe control station.
3. The foreman shall be informed as soon as possible.
4. The foreman is to inform all relevant authorities.
5. No one should be allowed to leave the control station until further instructions.
6. Put out all fires immediately.
7. Apply first aid to victim.
8. Do not panic and wait for help to arrive.

11.11
Audit Program
Internal audits are to be carried out every three months.
There will also be an external certification audit scheduled
once a year.
The main purpose of the audits is to check if the OH&S
system has been properly implemented within the company.
It is also a review of our companys performance in the area
of OH&S performance.
An audit checklist developed based on the OHSAS 18001:
1999 specification requirements will be used during the
internal audits to aid assessment.

4.1
4.2
4.2a
4.2b
4.2c
4.2d
4.2e
4.2f
4.2g
4.3.1

GENERAL REQUIREMENT
Does the organization maintain an established OH&S Management System?
Are there objectives set up for the policy? What are they?
Is the companys OH&S policy appropriate to the nature and scale of the
organizations OH&S risks?
Are employees committed to continual improvement?
Are employees committed to comply with current applicable OH&S
legislation and other requirements?
Is the OH&S policy being documented, implemented and maintained in the
organization?
Are all employees aware of their individual OH & S obligations?
Is the OH&S policy available to interested parties?
Is the OH&S policy reviewed periodically to ensure its relevance and
appropriateness to the organization?
Are there established procedures to identify the OH&S hazards in the
organization?
Are risk assessment & control measures implemented?
Is the organizations methodology for hazard identification and risk assessment
-Defined with respect to its scope, nature, and timing?

4.3.2
4.3.3
4.3.4

4.4.1

4.4.2

-Able to classify and identify risks to be eliminated or controlled?


-Consistent with operating experience and capabilities of risk control measures?
-Able to provide input into the determination of facility requirements,
identification of training needs and development of operational controls?
-Able to provide for the monitoring of required actions to ensure both the
effectiveness and timeliness of their implementation?
Are legal & other relevant requirements identified & made readily accessible?
Are the OH & S objectives established and maintained?
Are documented objectives and targets consistent with the OH&S policy
including commitment to continual improvement?
Are programs for achieving overall plans & objectives established &
maintained, including designation of responsibilities, and methods and timescale by which they are achieved?
Is everyone in the organization aware of their roles & responsibility for the
health & safety of those they manage, themselves & others whom they work
with?
Are resources essential to the implementation, control and improvement of the
OH&S management system provided?
Does the workers at the site possess appropriate education, training and/or
experience on OH&S aspects?

4.4.3

4.4.4

4.4.5

Are employees competent and trained in performing their tasks?


Are the employees aware of
-The importance of conformance to the OH&S policy and procedures, and the
requirements of the OH&S system?
-The actual and potential OH&S consequences of their work activities and
benefits of improved personal performance?
-Their roles and responsibilities in achieving conformance to the OH&S
policy and requirements?
- Potential consequences of departure from specified operating procedures?
Are there procedures to ensure that pertinent OH&S information is
communicated to and from the employees and other interested parties?
Are employees involved in the development and review of policies and
procedures to manage risks and consulted when there are changes that affect
workplace health and policy, and represented on health and safety matters,
informed of their representative?
Are information that provide direction to related documentation and describe core
elements of the management system and their interaction established and
maintained in a suitable medium?
Are documented procedures efficiently located and suitably identified?
Are documented procedures reviewed periodically, and approved for adequacy by
authorized personnel?

4.4.6

4.4.7
4.5.1
4.5.2
4.5.3
4.5.4
4.6

Are the documented procedures kept up to date & available to all at essential
locations?
Do the documented procedures contain obsolete documents?
Are control measures applied to those operations and activities associated with
identified risks?
Are there established and maintained procedures to cover situations where their
absence could lead to deviation from OH & S policy and objectives?
Are the procedures stipulating operating criteria?
Are arrangements made to establish contingency plans for foreseeable
emergencies & to mitigate their effects?
Is the performance measurement established for monitoring the policy & its
objectives?
Are corrective actions taken & root causes identified whenever deficiencies arise?
What are they?
Are there any records maintained?
Is there an audit program to assess the OH&S management system?
Does the management carry out reviews of the OH&S system periodically?
Is frequency & scope of periodic reviews of the OH&S management system defined
according to its needs?

11.12 Management Review


Management review is to be conducted on the first Friday of
every six months to review the OH&S system implemented.
Evaluation will be planned based on the current flow of
events, including any latest changes to legislation, policy, or
objectives.