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Chemistry: C4, C5, C6

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An element is only made up of one

atom. All the atoms of an element
have the same number of protons.
Different elements have different
proton numbers. Relative atomic
mass- the total number of protons and
neutrons in a atom. Atomic numberthe number of protons/ electrons in an
atom. Column = group, row = period

The group number

corresponds with the number
of electrons on the outer shell
of the atom. i.e. group 1
elements have one electron
on the outer shell. The period
number corresponds with the
number of shell on an atom.
i.e. elements with 3 shells are
found in the third period.

An atom has a nucleus,

made up of protons and
neutrons. The nucleus is
surrounded by electrons
which are arranged in
shells. Relative massproton (1) , Neutron (1),
Electron (negligible).
Relative charge proton
(+1), Neutron (0),
Electron (-1)

Group 1 metals are called alkali metals.

Group one metals all have one electron
on their outer shell. The further an
element is down the group: the higher the
reactivity, the lower the melting point
and boiling point, the higher the
density. The alkali metals become more
reactive as you go down the group
because the outer shell get further away
from the influence of the nucleus
meaning it can be lost more easily.

Alkali metals can react to form

compounds. Alkali metals
appear to be shiny but when cut
they quickly become dull. Alkali
metal react vigorously with
chlorine to form white
crystalline salts. Alkali metals
react with water to form a metal
hydroxide and hydrogen gas.

In group 7 all of them are non

metals they are called halogens.
All halogens consist of diatomic
molecules meaning the only exist
in pairs of atoms. The further an
element is down the group: the
lower the reactivity, the higher
the melting and boiling points,
the higher the density.

A more reactive halogen will displace

(replace) a less reactive halogen i.e.
Potassium iodide + Chlorine =
potassium chloride + iodine. Halogens
react with other elements to form
compounds, their reactions with alkali
metals are highly exothermic (give off
heat). This results in an ionic compound
being formed.

Ionic compounds can

conduct electricity when
their molten or dissolve
in water. Ions are atoms
that have gained or lost
an electron. Since the
protons and electrons are After lithium
no longer equal ions have has shed an
an overall charge.

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Atomic structure

The first shell around an atom can

hold up to two electrons. The shell
after can hold up to eight electrons.
An electron configuration is written
as a series on numbers i.e. 2,8,1. The
last number is the group, the first
number is the period.
Chemical symbol equations must
always be balanced because no atoms
are made or lost.
Halogens all have seven electrons
on their outer shell. The halogens
become less reactive as you go
down the group because the outer
shell gets further away from the
influence of the nucleus and so an
electron is less easily gained.

Ionic bonding occurs between a metal and

non-metal. (electron transfer). Atoms tha
lose an electron become positively
charged ions whereas atoms that gain
electrons become negatively charged ions.
Compounds of group 1 and 7 elements are
ionic compounds (salts) Ionic compounds
form crystals because of their
arrangement. They conduct electricity
cause when they're molten or dissolve
they're free to move.

The atmosphere is the layer of gas

surrounding the earth its made up of the
elements: nitrogen (78%), oxygen
(21%) and argon(1%) (carbon
dioxide (0.04%) and water vapour)
The hydrosphere is made up of water
vapour and some dissolved
compounds. The lithosphere is the
rigid outer layer of the Earth.

The chemicals that make up the

atmosphere consist of: non-metals
elements, molecular compounds.
Gases have small molecules with weak
forces of attraction between them, only
small amounts of energy are needed
to break these forces. Pure molecular
compounds dont conduct electricity
because their molecules aren't
Seawater in the hydrosphere is salty
Many positive metal ions can be
because it contains ionic compounds
identified in solutions by adding
(salts). Ionic compound properties: high
melting/boiling points because the ions sodium hydroxide solution. Many nometal ions can be identified in solution
are held together by strong forces of
because they react with other aqueous
attraction, they dont conduct
ions to produce precipitate. ( a solid
electricity when they're solid because
the ions are fixed in place, they conduct formed in a reaction between two
electricity when molten, they dissolve
in water because water molecules are
When ions get to the oppositely
Electrolysis is used to extract
charged electrode they're discharged aluminium from its ore. Properties of
i.e. lose their charge.
metal: are strong because the ions are
closely packed (lattice structure), high
melting point because a lot of energy
is need to break the strong metallic
bonds, malleable because the layers of
metal ions can slide over each other,
conduct electricity.

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of the

The lithosphere is made from the crust

and the part of the mantle just below it.
The three most abundant elements in the
earths crust are: oxygen, silicon and
aluminium. Diamond and graphite are
both minerals formed from pure carbon
and are found in the lithosphere. In both
they have covalent bonds which are
strong and because of their structure they
have high melting points and are

Ores are rocks that contain varying

amounts of minerals, from which
metals can be extracted. Metals that
are less reactive than carbon can be
extracted from their oxides by heating
with carbon (carbon gains oxygen)
The relative formula mass (RFM) is
the total mass of atoms in a compound.
Uses of metals:
Titanium is used for hip joints and
submarines, aluminum is
malleable and used for drink cans,
iron has a high melting point and
is used for saucepans, copper is a
good conductor and is used for
cables/ electrical switches.

In covalent bonds an electron

is shared between two atoms
because of this a strong,
electrostatic attraction is
created between each positive
nucleus and the pair of shared
negative atoms. Silicon
dioxide has the following
properties; hard, high melting
point, electrical insulator,
insoluble in water.

Electrolysis is breaking down of an

electrolyte using an electric current.
This is used because some metals are
too reactive to be extracted from
their ores with carbon. When an
ionic compound melts electrostatic
forces between the charged ions are
broken down. When a direct current
is passed positive ions are attracted
to the negative electrode vice versa.

Chemical Synthesis is the

process by which raw
materials are made into useful
products: food additives,
fertilisers, dyestuffs, pigments,
pharmaceuticals, paints. The
industry make bulk chemicals
on a large scale and fine
chemicals on a small scale.
Percentage yield = actual yield
theoretical yield
Way of purifying a product: filtration,
evaporation, drying the product in a
desiccator. Impurities of a product is
important because impurities can be
dangerous. The relative atomic mass
(RAM) of an element shows the mass of
one atom in comparison to another.

Collision theory states that for two

reactant particles to react they must
collide but when they do they need to
have enough energy so they dont just
bounce off each other (activation
energy) . If the reactants collide
frequently or they collide with more
energy the reaction will speed up. The
higher the concentration the quicker the
reaction cause the particles will collide.

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Safety procedures: gloves, eye protection,

safety screens, no drinking/eating whilst
using chemicals, not using flammable
chemicals near naked flames. The PH
scale is a measure of the acidity or
alkalinity of an aqueous solution. Acids are
substances less the PH7 alkalis are higher
than PH7. the PH can be measured using an
indicator (universal indicator/solution or
PH meter)
Question:Find the relative formula mass of
sulfuric acid H2SO4.
Answer:Sulfuric acid has the formula H2SO4.
The relative atomic masses of the elements in
sulfuric acid are H = 1, O = 16 and S = 32.
Adding together the relative atomic masses
of each atom in the formula of sulfuric acid
gives the relative formula mass of sulfuric
H2SO4 relative formula mass = (2 x 1) + 32 +
(4 x 16) = 98

Acidic compounds produce aqueous

hydrogen ions, whereas alkali
compounds produce aqueous hydroxide
ions when dissolved in water. If you mix
an alkali and acid together with the
correct amounts they can cancel out
each other. Acids react with metals to
form salts/ hydrogen. Hydrochloric acid
produces-chlroide salts, sulfuric acidsulfate salts, nitric acid-nitrate salts.

Titration can be
used to calculate
the concentration
of an acid by
finding out how
much alkali is
needed to
neutralise it.
When performing a
titration you need
Large particles have small surface area Different reactions need different
in relation to their volume this means
catalysts and catalyst can increase
fewer particles are exposed and available the rate of chemical reactions without
for collision. Small particles have a
being used up. If the rate of reaction
large surface area in relation to their
is shown on a graph the steeper the
volume meaning more particle are
line the quicker the reaction.
exposed and available for collision.
Catalyst lower the amount of energy
needed for a successful collision, make
more collisions and speed up reactions.

Exothermic changes release energy

usually as heat because the products
have less energy than the reactants
did. Endothermic changes take in
energy this means the products have
more energy than the reactants did.
Percentage yield: the greater the
material used at the start the greater
the substances at the end.

The rate of reaction is the amount of

products made in a given unit of time.
Ways it can be found: weighing the
reaction mixture in time intervals,
measuring the volume of gas produced
in time intervals, observing the
formation of a precipitate (appearance).
Things that speed up reactions:
increasing temperature, concentration,
surface area and a catalyst.