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What is an ecosystem?
An ecosystem is a natural unit consisting of all plants, animals and micro-organisms in an area functioning together with all of the nonliving physical factors of the environment. An ecosystem is a completely independent unit of interdependent organisms which share the same habitat. Ecosystems usually form a number of food webs which show the interdependence of the organisms within the ecosystem
What is an ecosystem?
The study of ecosystems mainly consists of the study of certain processes that link of living, or biotic, components to the non nonliving, or abiotic, components.
It is defined as the interactions of organisms with one another and with the environment in which they occur.
Processes of Ecosystem
A-biotic & Biotic Components
Energy Flows in Ecosystem
Energy Flow through Food Chains
Solar Energy received by Vegetation
cycle is a circuit or pathway by which a Chemical element or molecule moves through both biotic ("bio-") and a-biotic ("geo-") compartments of an ecosystem
Cycle Oxygen Cycle Carbon Cycle Phosphorus Cycle Sulphur Cycle Water Cycle Hydrogen Cycle
The nitrogen cycle is the biogeochemical cycle that describes the transformations of nitrogen and nitrogen-containing compounds in nature. It is a gaseous cycle. Earth's atmosphere = 78% nitrogen, Essential for many biological processes Crucial for any life on Earth Present in all amino acids and proteins Present in DNA and RNA. In plants nitrogen is used in chlorophyll molecules which are essential for photosynthesis
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The oxygen cycle is the biogeochemical cycle that describes the movement of oxygen within and between its three main reservoirs: Atmosphere, Biosphere Lithosphere.
The main driving factor of the oxygen cycle is photosynthesis, which is responsible for the modern Earth's atmosphere and life as we know it.
The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged between the biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth. Carbon in Oceans = 36,000 gigatonnes Present in the form of bicarbonate ion. Inorganic carbon, that is carbon compounds with no carbon-carbon or carbon-hydrogen bonds, is important in its reactions within water. This carbon exchange becomes important in controlling pH in the ocean and can also vary as a source or sink for carbon.
Phosphorus normally occurs in nature as part of a phosphate ion, consisting of a phosphorus atom and some number of oxygen atoms, the most abundant form (called orthophosphate) having four oxygens: PO4-. Most phosphates are found as salts in ocean sediments or in rocks Phosphates move quickly through plants and animals; however, the processes that move them through the soil or ocean are very slow, making the phosphorus cycle overall one of the slowest biogeochemical cycles. However, recent findings suggest that phosphorus is cycled through the ocean on the timescale of 10,000yr, suggesting that the phosphorus cycle may play a role in global warming.
Sulfur is one of the constituents of many proteins, vitamins and hormones
The essential steps of the sulfur cycle are:
Mineralization of organic sulfur to the inorganic form, hydrogen sulfide: (H2S). Oxidation of sulfide and elemental sulfur (S) and related compounds to sulfate (SO42–). Reduction of sulfate to sulfide. Microbial immobilization of the sulfur compounds and subsequent incorporation into the organic form of sulfur
annual evapotranspiration amounts to approximately 505,000 km³ of water, 434,000 km³ of which evaporates from the oceans
Volume of water stored in the water cycle's reservoirs
Reservoir Volume of water ³ (106 km ) 1370 29 9.5 0.125 0.065 0.013 0.0017 0.0006 Percent of total 97.25 2.05 0.68 0.01 0.005 0.001 0.0001 0.00004
Oceans Ice caps & glaciers Groundwater Lakes Soil moisture Atmosphere Streams & rivers Biosphere
Anaerobic fermentation of organic substances to carbon dioxide and methane is a collaborative effort involving many different biochemical reactions, processes and species of microorganisms. One of these many processes that occur is termed "interspecies hydrogen transfer". This process has been described as integral to the symbiosis between certain methane-producing bacteria (methanogens) and nonmethanogenic anaerobes. In this symbiosis, the nonmethanogenic anaerobes degrade the organic substance and produce -among other things- molecular hydrogen (H2). This hydrogen is then taken up by methanogens and converted to methane via methanogenesis. One important characteristic of interspecies hydrogen transfer is that the H2 concentration in the microbial environment is very low. Maintaining a low hydrogen concentration is important because the anaerobic fermentative process become increasingly thermodynamically unfavorable as the partial pressure of hydrogen increases.