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# CALCULATIONS WITH

CHEMICAL FORMULAS
& EQUATIONS

Chapter 3
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Learning objectives
To calculate the percentage composition of the elements
To determine the empirical formula
To determine the molecular formula
To determine the limiting reactant
To determine the percentage yield of chemical reactions

## To interpret a chemical equation at the molecular, molar and

mass level.
To learn Avogadro number

Learning outcomes
students will be able to

## Solve quantitative problems involving moles, mass,

number of molecules from a given chemical equation and
percentage yield

## Solve the qualitative problems related to define empirical

formula, molecular formula and limiting reactant

## 3.1 Molecular mass & formula mass

Molecular Mass
The sum of the atomic masses of all the atoms in a
molecule of the substance.

Formula Mass
The sum of the atomic masses of all atoms in a formula
unit of the compound, whether molecular or not.

## Molecular mass & formula mass-Exercise

[1]Find the formula masses of the following
substances

a. methanol, CH3OH
b. nitrogen trioxide, NO3
c. potassium carbonate, K2CO3
d. nickel phosphate, Ni3(PO4)2

## 3.2 The mole concept

Mole, mol
The quantity of a given amount of substance that contains as many
molecules or formula units as the number of atoms in exactly 12 g of
carbon-12.

Avogadro is a Italian chemist
The number of atoms in exactly 12 g of carbon-12
NA = 6.022 1023
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Molar Mass
The mass of one mole of substance.
For example:
Carbon-12 has a molar mass of 12 g or 12 g/mol

## molar mass- exercise

[1] What is the molar mass of H3PO4?
[2] What is the molar mass of NH4NO3?

## [3]Calculate the mass in grams of the following.

a. 0.15 mol Na
b. 0.594 mol S
c. 2.78 mol CH2Cl2
d. 38 mol (NH4)2S

## 3.3 Mass percentages from the formula

Percentage Composition: The mass percentage of each
element in the compound.

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## [1] A 1.836-g sample of coal contains 1.584 g C.

Calculate the mass percentage of C in the coal.

## [2] A 6.01-g aqueous solution of isopropyl alcohol

contains 4.01 g of isopropyl alcohol. What is the
mass percentage of isopropyl alcohol in the
solution?

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## 3.4 Elemental analysis

Percentage Composition: The mass percentage of
each element in the compound.
Elemental analysis: sample is analyzed for its
elemental (C,H,N)
Instrument: Mass spectrometric, atomic
spectroscopy

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## Determining the Empirical Formula

Beginning with percent composition:
Assume exactly 100 g so percentages convert
directly to grams.
Convert grams to moles for each element.
Manipulate the resulting mole ratios to obtain
whole numbers.

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## Empirical formula- Exercise

[1] Hydroquinone is 65.4% C, 5.5% H, and 29.1% O, by
mass. What is the empirical formula of hydroquinone?

## [2] Acrylic acid has the composition 50.0% C, 5.6% H, and

44.4% O. What is its empirical formula?

## [3] The composition of the malonic acid is 34.6% C, 3.9% H,

and 61.5% O. What is malonic acids empirical formula?

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## To determine the molecular formula:

Compute the empirical formula weight.
Find the ratio of the molecular weight to the
empirical formula weight.

molecular weight
n
empirical formula weight

## Multiply each subscript of the empirical formula

by n.

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Exercise
Benzene has the empirical formula CH. Its molecular
weight is 78.1 amu. What is its molecular formula?

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## 3.6 Molar interpretation of a chemical equation

You may interpret a chemical equation either in
terms of numbers of molecules or in terms of
number of moles
N2 + 3H2

1 molecule N 2

3 molecules
H2

1 mol N 2
1X28g N 2

2NH3

2 molecules
NH 3

Molecular
interpretation

3 mol H 2

2 mol NH 3

Molar
interpretation

3X 2.02g H 2

2 X 17g NH 3

Mass
interpretation

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## 3.7 Amounts of substances in a chemical reaction

Stoichiometry
The calculation of the quantities of reactants
and products involved in a chemical reaction.
The coefficients in the equation, can be used
to calculate the moles of products obtained
from any given moles of reactant

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## To find the amount of B (one reactant or product) given the

amount of A (another reactant or product):
1.

## Convert grams of A to moles of A

Using the molar mass of A

2.

## Convert moles of A to moles of B

Using the coefficients of the
balanced chemical equation

3.

## Convert moles of B to grams of B

Using the molar mass of B

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Stoichiometry- Exercise
[1] 2C4H10(g) + 13O2(g) 8CO2(g) +10H2O(g)
What is the amount (in moles) of carbon dioxide produced from
0.30 mol C4H10?

## [2] C2H5OH(l) + 3O2(g) 2CO2(g) + 3H2O(l)

What is the amount (in moles) of water produced from 0.69 mol
C2H5OH?
[3] 4Fe(s) + 3O2(g) 2Fe2O3(s)
How many moles of O2 are needed to produce 3.91 mol Fe2O3?

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## 3.8 Limiting reactant;

theoretical & percentage yields
Limiting Reactant
The reactant that is entirely consumed when a reaction goes
to completion.
Once one reactant has been completely consumed, the
reaction stops.
How can we determine the limiting reactant?
1.Use each given amount to calculate the amount of product produced.
2.The limiting reactant will produce the lesser amount of product.
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## Limiting reactant - Exercise

[1] ZrCl4(g) + 2Mg(s) 2MgCl2(s) + Zr(s)
How many moles of zirconium metal can be produced from a
reaction mixture containing 0.20 mol ZrCl4 and 0.50 mol Mg?

## [2] 4KO2(s) + 2H2O(l ) 4KOH(s) + 3O2(g)

If a reaction vessel contains 0.25 mol KO2 and 0.15 mol H2O,
what is the limiting reactant? How many moles of oxygen can be
produced?

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Checking outcomes
To calculate the percentage composition of the elements
To determine the empirical formula
To determine the molecular formula
To determine the limiting reactant
To determine the percentage yield of chemical reactions

## To interpret a chemical equation at the molecular, molar and mass level.

To learn Avogadro number

Thank you

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