General Chemistry

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General Chemistry

© All Rights Reserved

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CHEMICAL FORMULAS

& EQUATIONS

Chapter 3

1

Learning objectives

To calculate the percentage composition of the elements

To determine the empirical formula

To determine the molecular formula

To determine the limiting reactant

To determine the percentage yield of chemical reactions

mass level.

To learn Avogadro number

Learning outcomes

students will be able to

number of molecules from a given chemical equation and

percentage yield

formula, molecular formula and limiting reactant

Molecular Mass

The sum of the atomic masses of all the atoms in a

molecule of the substance.

Formula Mass

The sum of the atomic masses of all atoms in a formula

unit of the compound, whether molecular or not.

[1]Find the formula masses of the following

substances

a. methanol, CH3OH

b. nitrogen trioxide, NO3

c. potassium carbonate, K2CO3

d. nickel phosphate, Ni3(PO4)2

Mole, mol

The quantity of a given amount of substance that contains as many

molecules or formula units as the number of atoms in exactly 12 g of

carbon-12.

Avogadros Number, NA

Avogadro is a Italian chemist

The number of atoms in exactly 12 g of carbon-12

NA = 6.022 1023

6

Molar Mass

The mass of one mole of substance.

For example:

Carbon-12 has a molar mass of 12 g or 12 g/mol

[1] What is the molar mass of H3PO4?

[2] What is the molar mass of NH4NO3?

a. 0.15 mol Na

b. 0.594 mol S

c. 2.78 mol CH2Cl2

d. 38 mol (NH4)2S

Percentage Composition: The mass percentage of each

element in the compound.

10

Calculate the mass percentage of C in the coal.

contains 4.01 g of isopropyl alcohol. What is the

mass percentage of isopropyl alcohol in the

solution?

11

Percentage Composition: The mass percentage of

each element in the compound.

Elemental analysis: sample is analyzed for its

elemental (C,H,N)

Instrument: Mass spectrometric, atomic

spectroscopy

12

Beginning with percent composition:

Assume exactly 100 g so percentages convert

directly to grams.

Convert grams to moles for each element.

Manipulate the resulting mole ratios to obtain

whole numbers.

13

[1] Hydroquinone is 65.4% C, 5.5% H, and 29.1% O, by

mass. What is the empirical formula of hydroquinone?

44.4% O. What is its empirical formula?

and 61.5% O. What is malonic acids empirical formula?

14

Compute the empirical formula weight.

Find the ratio of the molecular weight to the

empirical formula weight.

molecular weight

n

empirical formula weight

by n.

15

Exercise

Benzene has the empirical formula CH. Its molecular

weight is 78.1 amu. What is its molecular formula?

16

You may interpret a chemical equation either in

terms of numbers of molecules or in terms of

number of moles

N2 + 3H2

1 molecule N 2

3 molecules

H2

1 mol N 2

1X28g N 2

2NH3

2 molecules

NH 3

Molecular

interpretation

3 mol H 2

2 mol NH 3

Molar

interpretation

3X 2.02g H 2

2 X 17g NH 3

Mass

interpretation

17

Stoichiometry

The calculation of the quantities of reactants

and products involved in a chemical reaction.

The coefficients in the equation, can be used

to calculate the moles of products obtained

from any given moles of reactant

18

amount of A (another reactant or product):

1.

Using the molar mass of A

2.

Using the coefficients of the

balanced chemical equation

3.

Using the molar mass of B

19

Stoichiometry- Exercise

[1] 2C4H10(g) + 13O2(g) 8CO2(g) +10H2O(g)

What is the amount (in moles) of carbon dioxide produced from

0.30 mol C4H10?

What is the amount (in moles) of water produced from 0.69 mol

C2H5OH?

[3] 4Fe(s) + 3O2(g) 2Fe2O3(s)

How many moles of O2 are needed to produce 3.91 mol Fe2O3?

20

theoretical & percentage yields

Limiting Reactant

The reactant that is entirely consumed when a reaction goes

to completion.

Once one reactant has been completely consumed, the

reaction stops.

How can we determine the limiting reactant?

1.Use each given amount to calculate the amount of product produced.

2.The limiting reactant will produce the lesser amount of product.

21

[1] ZrCl4(g) + 2Mg(s) 2MgCl2(s) + Zr(s)

How many moles of zirconium metal can be produced from a

reaction mixture containing 0.20 mol ZrCl4 and 0.50 mol Mg?

If a reaction vessel contains 0.25 mol KO2 and 0.15 mol H2O,

what is the limiting reactant? How many moles of oxygen can be

produced?

22

Checking outcomes

To calculate the percentage composition of the elements

To determine the empirical formula

To determine the molecular formula

To determine the limiting reactant

To determine the percentage yield of chemical reactions

To learn Avogadro number

Thank you

23

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